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Cerezo M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Achilli A.,University of Perugia | Olivieri A.,University of Pavia | Perego U.A.,University of Pavia | And 10 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2012

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of macro-haplogroup L (excluding the derived L3 branches M and N) represent the majority of the typical sub-Saharan mtDNA variability. In Europe, these mtDNAs account for <1% of the total but, when analyzed at the level of control region, they show no signals of having evolved within the European continent, an observation that is compatible with a recent arrival from the African continent. To further evaluate this issue, we analyzed 69 mitochondrial genomes belonging to various L sublineages from a wide range of European populations. Phylogeographic analyses showed that ∼65% of the European L lineages most likely arrived in rather recent historical times, including the Romanization period, the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, and during the period of the Atlantic slave trade. However, the remaining 35% of L mtDNAs form European-specific subclades, revealing that there was gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa toward Europe as early as 11,000 yr ago. © 2012, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation | Date: 2011-04-20

A genealogical research and record keeping system and method for identifying commonalities in haplotypes and other genetic characteristics of a biological sample of two or more individual members. Chromosomal fragments identical by descent identify family ties between siblings, parents and children and ancestors and progeny across many generations. It is particularly useful in corroborating and improving the accuracy of genealogical data and identifying previously unknown genetic relationships.

Scozzari R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Massaia A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | D'Atanasio E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Myres N.M.,Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

One hundred and forty-six previously detected mutations were more precisely positioned in the human Y chromosome phylogeny by the analysis of 51 representative Y chromosome haplogroups and the use of 59 mutations from literature. Twenty-two new mutations were also described and incorporated in the revised phylogeny. This analysis made it possible to identify new haplogroups and to resolve a deep trifurcation within haplogroup B2. Our data provide a highly resolved branching in the African-specific portion of the Y tree and support the hypothesis of an origin in the north-western quadrant of the African continent for the human MSY diversity. © 2012 Scozzari et al. Source

According to a new market research report "Flight Navigation System Market by Product (Avionics systems, Communication systems), Flight Instrument (Altimeter, Gyroscope, Autopilot, Sensors), Application (Commercial, Military) & by Geography - Forecast & Analysis to 2014 - 2020", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global Flight Navigation Systems Market is estimated to be around $10392.87 Million in 2014 and is projected to reach $15687.22 Million in 2020, growing at a CAGR of 7.10% from 2014 to 2020. Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The global flight navigation systems market can be segmented on the basis of flight instruments, product type, and navigation system for unmanned aircraft systems, application, and geography. The various products covered in this report consist of radar, Hyperbolic navigation systems, GNSS, ILS, INS, VOR/DME, Automatic Direction Finder, Doppler Navigation system, FMS, and heads up display. The various technological trends considered in this report are performance based navigation, inertial reference systems, and replacing marker beacons by DME. The flight navigation systems market is highly competitive. This report studies the growth strategies adopted by the market players. The strategies adopted by the players to expand their global presence and increase their market share includes partnerships, agreements , collaborations , joint ventures, mergers , acquisitions, and new product launches. The increasing demand for better fuel management system and increased deliveries, as well as high growth in the emerging market has encouraged company to adopt the growth strategies. Market players are focusing on entering new markets by launching new innovative products. Rockwell Collins (U.S.), Raytheon Company (U.S.), and Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.) are some of the leading players that adopted this strategy in order to develop their business. This report provides a deep dive analysis of the global flight navigation systems market and highlights the key drivers, restraints, and challenges which prevail in the market. It also provides an in-depth insight on the key market and technological trends of this market. A porters five forces analysis of this market is incorporated in this report along with the opportunity analysis, based on the upcoming products and prospective growth regions for the global flight navigation systems market. In this report, a complete geography-wise analysis of the global Flight Navigation Systems Market is also projected, which includes product-level segmentations across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle-East, and Latin America & Africa. This report also incorporates the competitive landscape of this market based on various developments, contracts, programs, and new product launches for the past five years. The global key market players engaged in manufacturing flight navigation systems are highlighted in this report along with their product portfolio, recent developments, SWOT analysis, and market revenue analysis for the past three years. The major companies involved in the manufacturing of flight navigation systems are Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.), Rockwell Collins (U.S.), Raytheon Company (U.S.), Northrop Grumman Corporation (U.S.), and The Boeing Company (U.S.), dominates this market and are expected to strengthen their market position across the globe during the forecast period. Moog Inc (U.S.), Sagem (France), Universal Systems Avionics Corporation (U.S.), Garmin Ltd. (Switzerland), and Esterline Technologies Corporation (U.S.), are the other significant key players in the global flight navigation systems market. Inertial Navigation System Market by Product (Marine grade, Navigation grade, Tactical grade, and Commercial grade), Technology (Mechanical, Fiber optic gyro (FOG), Ring laser gyro (RLG), Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Hemispherical Resonator gyro (HRG), and Vibrating gyro), Application (Air, Land, and Naval Platforms), Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East, and ROW) - Forecast & Analysis to 2014 - 2019 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/inertial-navigation-system-market-154810661.html MarketsandMarkets is world's No. 2 firm in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. 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Achilli A.,University of Perugia | Perego U.A.,University of Pavia | Lancioni H.,University of Perugia | Olivieri A.,University of Pavia | And 13 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

In this studywe evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo-Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ~11-13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo-Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4-7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non-Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic. Source

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