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Kim Y.,Yonsei University | Kim H.R.,Kyungpook National University | Kim J.,Yonsei University | Shin J.-W.,Soree Ear Clinics | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Introduction: Mutations in PDS (or SLC26A4) cause both Pendred syndrome (PS) and DFNB4, two autosomal recessive disorders that share hearing loss as a common feature. PS and DFNB4 are genetically homogeneous disorders caused by bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations. Here, we report a novel synonymous mutation (c.1803G>A, p.Lys601Lys), that caused aberrant splicing in two Korean family members who were clinically considered to have DFNB4, along with congenital hearing loss and dilated vestibular aqueducts (DVA). Methods: After extracting DNA from whole blood using standard procedures, the 21 exons and flanking introns of SLC26A4 were amplified with PCR. To evaluate the implication of a novel synonymous mutation (c.1803G>A), we used The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) (http://www.fruitfly.org/) as a splice site prediction program and performed exon trapping analysis. Results: In molecular analysis of the 21 exons of SCL26A4, we detected a known splicing mutation (c.919-2A>G, heterozygote) and a novel variant (c.1803G>A, heterozygote) in the patients (II-1 and II-2). According to in silico analysis, the novel variant (c.1803G>A) affects canonical splice donor nucleotide positioning. To define the transcript level effects of this novel 1803G>A variant, we performed exon trapping and confirmed that exon 16 is completely skipped in this variant type. Conclusion: We report a novel synonymous mutation (c.1803G>A) causing complete exon 16 skipping in the SLC26A4 gene in two Korean family members with hearing loss. This is the first case of a synonymous SNP (c.1803G>A) affecting vestibulocochlear organs through altering splicing accuracy by causing a complete skipping of exon 16. An important issue raised by this study is that synonymous mutations that have been previously ignored in clinical diagnoses must now be considered as potential pathogenic mutations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jung J.,BK21 Project for Medical Science | Jung J.,Yonsei University | Lee J.-H.,Yonsei University | Lee K.-A.,Yonsei University | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2014

Mutation of SLC26A4 is the most common cause of prelingual hearing loss in East Asia. Patients with SLC26A4 mutations have variable phenotypes ranging from non-syndromic hearing loss to Pendred syndrome. Here, we analyzed the correlation between genotype and various inner ear phenotypes and found a possible underlying mechanism. This study included 111 patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations who had bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and hearing loss. p.H723R (61%), c.919-2A>G (24%), and p.T410M (4%) were the most common mutations in Korean patients with EVAs. Residual hearing in patients with c.919-2A>G or p.T410M mutations was better than that of patients with p.H723R homozygous mutations. Interestingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed normal pendrin transcript (6-17% of normal levels) was produced from patients with c.919-2A>G homozygous mutations. Surface expression ratio of pendrin and residual anion exchange activity were higher in cells transfected with p.T410M in comparison to cells transfected with p.H723R. These results suggest that there is a correlation between degree of residual hearing and the SLC26A4 genotype commonly found in the East Asian population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Kim M.-A.,Kyungpook National University | Kim Y.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Sagong B.,Kyungpook National University | Cho H.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population. © 2014 Kim et al. Source


Ryu N.,Kyungpook National University | Sagong B.,Kyungpook National University | Park H.-J.,Soree Ear Clinics | Kim M.-A.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2016

Background: One of the causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is degeneration of the inner hair cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea. The SLC17A8 (solute carrier family 17, member 8) gene encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and among its isoforms (VGLUT1-3), only VGLUT3 is expressed selectively in the inner hair cells (IHCs). VGLUT3 transports the neurotransmitter glutamate into the synaptic vesicles of the IHCs. Mutation of the SLC17A8 gene is reported to be associated with DFNA25 (deafness, autosomal dominant 25), an autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) in humans. Methods: In this study, we performed a genetic analysis of 87 unrelated Korean patients with ADNSHL to determine whether the SLC17A8 gene affects hearing ability in the Korean population. Results: We found a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation, 2 non-synonymous variations, and a synonymous variation. The novel frameshift mutation, p.M206Nfs*4, in which methionine is changed to asparagine at amino acid position 206, resulted in a termination codon at amino acid position 209. This alteration is predicted to encode a truncated protein lacking transmembrane domains 5 to 12. This mutation is located in a highly conserved region in VGLUT3 across multiple amino acid alignments in different vertebrate species, but it was not detected in 100 unrelated controls who had normal hearing ability. The results from our study suggest that the p.M206Nfs*4 mutation in the SLC17A8 gene is likely a pathogenic mutation that causes ADNSHL. Conclusion: Our findings can facilitate the prediction of the primary cause of ADNSHL in Korean patients. © 2016 Ryu et al. Source


Ryu N.,Kyungpook National University | Sagong B.,Kyungpook National University | Park H.-J.,Soree Ear Clinics | Kim M.-A.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2016

Background: One of the causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is degeneration of the inner hair cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea. The SLC17A8 (solute carrier family 17, member 8) gene encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and among its isoforms (VGLUT1-3), only VGLUT3 is expressed selectively in the inner hair cells (IHCs). VGLUT3 transports the neurotransmitter glutamate into the synaptic vesicles of the IHCs. Mutation of the SLC17A8 gene is reported to be associated with DFNA25 (deafness, autosomal dominant 25), an autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) in humans. Methods: In this study, we performed a genetic analysis of 87 unrelated Korean patients with ADNSHL to determine whether the SLC17A8 gene affects hearing ability in the Korean population. Results: We found a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation, 2 non-synonymous variations, and a synonymous variation. The novel frameshift mutation, p.M206Nfs*4, in which methionine is changed to asparagine at amino acid position 206, resulted in a termination codon at amino acid position 209. This alteration is predicted to encode a truncated protein lacking transmembrane domains 5 to 12. This mutation is located in a highly conserved region in VGLUT3 across multiple amino acid alignments in different vertebrate species, but it was not detected in 100 unrelated controls who had normal hearing ability. The results from our study suggest that the p.M206Nfs*4 mutation in the SLC17A8 gene is likely a pathogenic mutation that causes ADNSHL. Conclusion: Our findings can facilitate the prediction of the primary cause of ADNSHL in Korean patients. © 2016 Ryu et al. Source

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