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Crupi V.,Messina University | Allodi V.,University of Verona | Bottari C.,Messina University | D'Amico F.,Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste | And 11 more authors.
Vibrational Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

In this work, the complementary use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, conventional micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-Raman scattering proved successful for the characterization of bulk minerals and of a variety of pigments from decorated finishing layers of plasters from a Roman archaeological site known as Villa dei Quintili, a monumental residence located in the south-eastern part of Rome (Italy). The used multi-technique approach provided insights on the pictorial technique, giving information that could be useful for proper restoration. It is worth underlining that the present study represents the first attempt of carrying out UV resonance Raman measurements for analysing cultural heritage materials. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Crupi V.,Messina University | Galli G.,Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome | La Russa M.F.,University of Calabria | Longo F.,Messina University | And 9 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2015

In the present study, we investigated by the joint use of portable instrumentations, namely a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser and a portable Raman spectrometer, the painted surface of plasters withdrawn from different areas of an important Roman monumental complex, known as Villa dei Quintili (Rome, Italy), dated back to the first half of the 2nd century a.C. XRF and Raman measurements contributed to the identification of the pigments through the elemental and molecular composition, respectively. In particular, the multi-technique non-invasive approach proved to be crucial for distinguishing two different reddish pigments. In order to confirm and integrate XRF and Raman results, two micro-destructive laboratory methods, namely optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), were also employed on the same samples. All the experimental results shed light on the material characterizing the painted surface layer and the painting methodologies, providing in principle useful information for proper restoration processes. It is worth underlining that this experimental investigation takes part of a recent multidisciplinary study performed on this impressive archaeological site, aimed to characterize for the first time the monumental complex from an archaeometric point of view. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Raimondi V.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara | Conti C.,Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome | Lognoli D.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara | Palombi L.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Fluorescence lidar imaging can be regarded as an effective tool for early diagnostics and documentation of the outdoor cultural heritage, with the aim of a correct planning of conservation and restoration of monuments. In this paper we present the latest advancements on fluorescence hyperspectral lidar imaging recently achieved at IFAC-CNR in terms of instrumentation and novel applications. In particular, the paper focuses on the upgrading of some key technical features, such as: the scan speed of the sensor, spatial resolution at the surface and field of view of the instrument. The upgrading of these technical characteristics has also made it possible to successfully extend the applicability of the technique to the diagnostics on wall paintings, which requires an improved spatial resolution. Finally, we outline the potential of a new concept of fluorescence lidar imaging system, based on the integration of hyperspectral and fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, which enhances the capabilities of the technique for the characterization of the materials to be investigated in cultural heritage assets. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.

Castorina F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castorina F.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Masi U.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Milli S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Six stratigraphically-related samples of freshwater sediments from the Middle Pleistocene paleontological site of La Polledrara di Cecanibbio to NW of Rome in the Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) have been characterized by their mineralogical, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. These volcaniclastic sediments filled a valley incised by a former watercourse flowing through volcanic rocks. The samples are composed of abundant analcite after leucite, subordinate augite, sanidine, fluorite (except for the stratigraphically-deepest and most SiO2-poor sample), and minor anorthite. Quartz is present only in the stratigraphically-uppermost samples. The mineralogical composition is consistent with the origin of the sediments from different source rocks of the SVD.Major and trace elements allow for distinguishing among the samples. In particular, the four stratigraphically-uppermost samples share close SiO2, intermediate between the contents of the other two samples. Although several chemical characteristics of the Polledrara samples can be explained by impact of supergene processes on the sediments, the overall composition supports an origin from different source rocks of the SVD, in particular the "Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di La Storta" (TFVLS) and older pyroclastic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples (0.710182-0.710433) support the distinction of the sediments based on chemistry and mineralogy, and their Sabatinian origin. The isotopic range overlaps that in the lavas of Phases III-IV of the SVD and is slightly lower than the range in the TFVLS, likely because of advanced analcitization of the sediments. The ammonium acetate extracts from the samples show a narrow isotopic range (0.709613-0.709735), which is lower than the range of the bulk sediments but close to the isotopic composition of fossil elephant remains in the Polledrara sediments. Lastly, except for the most SiO2-rich sample exhibiting a higher value (0.512227), the 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the other samples show a narrow range (0.512147-0.512171) and cannot be distinguished from each other. The isotopic range is similar to that of the TFVLS, but higher than that of Sabatinian lavas, supporting the origin of the sediments from the former rocks. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Barca D.,University of Calabria | Basso E.,University of Pavia | Bersani D.,University of Parma | Galli G.,Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome | And 5 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2016

The archaeological excavation of the Villa dei Quintili in Rome (2nd century AD) brought to light one of the most impressive residential complexes of the Roman Empire. Among the astonishing number of findings, inside and outside the buildings, a large amount of glass mosaic tesserae were gathered from the thermal bath environments. This work reports the results of a microtextural and microchemical characterization of 29 colored opaque glass tesserae, by using an analytical approach that included the use of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The glass is usually a soda-lime-silicate glass, with the exception of red and orange glass tesserae, which showed the typical composition of lead glasses mixed with plant ashes. Red tesserae were likely produced with a natron-based glass mixed with plant ashes, acting as flux and reducing agent. The opacifiers were all antimony-based with different natures according to the chemical composition: calcium antimonates (white in color) and lead antimonates (yellow in color). In the 29 tesserae studied in this research, the colors of glass were strictly correlated to the concentrations of coloring agents, the two main coloring ions identified were copper, introduced in the majority of samples as bronze scrap, and cobalt. Finally, the levels of trace elements indicate the use of mature sand, rich in quartz and poor in heavy metals and clay minerals, for the production of all samples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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