Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome

Rome, Italy

Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome

Rome, Italy
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AnzideI A.P.,Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome | Bulgarelli G.M.,Soprintendenza al Museo Nazionale Preistorico ed Etnografico L.Pigorini | Catalano P.,Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome | Cerilli E.,Societa Cooperativa ARX | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The site of La Polledrara di Cecanibbio (Latium, Italy) is related to deposits of the PG6 Sequence (Middle Pleistocene, Aurelia Formation, MIS 10 and 9). The sediments are mainly volcaniclastic in composition, and constitute the filling of incised valleys, mainly characterized by fluvial deposits at the base, passing upward to fluvio-lacustrine and palustrine deposits containing abundant fossil mammal remains and artifacts. The arrangement of the specimens and taphonomic observations suggest that most of the transport of the bones occurred during flooding events, followed by progressive swampy phases, resulting in the formation of areas with stagnant and muddy waters where some elephants became trapped, as indicated by remains in partial anatomical articulation. Recent excavations carried out at the site permit a better definition of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, already partially outlined in previous publications. In particular, an area showing a close correlation between the skeleton of an elephant and human activity, allows documentation and better understanding of some aspects of human-elephant interaction, probably mainly represented by scavenging activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Castorina F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castorina F.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Masi U.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Milli S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Six stratigraphically-related samples of freshwater sediments from the Middle Pleistocene paleontological site of La Polledrara di Cecanibbio to NW of Rome in the Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) have been characterized by their mineralogical, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. These volcaniclastic sediments filled a valley incised by a former watercourse flowing through volcanic rocks. The samples are composed of abundant analcite after leucite, subordinate augite, sanidine, fluorite (except for the stratigraphically-deepest and most SiO2-poor sample), and minor anorthite. Quartz is present only in the stratigraphically-uppermost samples. The mineralogical composition is consistent with the origin of the sediments from different source rocks of the SVD.Major and trace elements allow for distinguishing among the samples. In particular, the four stratigraphically-uppermost samples share close SiO2, intermediate between the contents of the other two samples. Although several chemical characteristics of the Polledrara samples can be explained by impact of supergene processes on the sediments, the overall composition supports an origin from different source rocks of the SVD, in particular the "Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di La Storta" (TFVLS) and older pyroclastic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples (0.710182-0.710433) support the distinction of the sediments based on chemistry and mineralogy, and their Sabatinian origin. The isotopic range overlaps that in the lavas of Phases III-IV of the SVD and is slightly lower than the range in the TFVLS, likely because of advanced analcitization of the sediments. The ammonium acetate extracts from the samples show a narrow isotopic range (0.709613-0.709735), which is lower than the range of the bulk sediments but close to the isotopic composition of fossil elephant remains in the Polledrara sediments. Lastly, except for the most SiO2-rich sample exhibiting a higher value (0.512227), the 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the other samples show a narrow range (0.512147-0.512171) and cannot be distinguished from each other. The isotopic range is similar to that of the TFVLS, but higher than that of Sabatinian lavas, supporting the origin of the sediments from the former rocks. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Raimondi V.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara | Conti C.,Soprintendenza Speciale Per I Beni Archeologici di Rome | Lognoli D.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara | Palombi L.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Fluorescence lidar imaging can be regarded as an effective tool for early diagnostics and documentation of the outdoor cultural heritage, with the aim of a correct planning of conservation and restoration of monuments. In this paper we present the latest advancements on fluorescence hyperspectral lidar imaging recently achieved at IFAC-CNR in terms of instrumentation and novel applications. In particular, the paper focuses on the upgrading of some key technical features, such as: the scan speed of the sensor, spatial resolution at the surface and field of view of the instrument. The upgrading of these technical characteristics has also made it possible to successfully extend the applicability of the technique to the diagnostics on wall paintings, which requires an improved spatial resolution. Finally, we outline the potential of a new concept of fluorescence lidar imaging system, based on the integration of hyperspectral and fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, which enhances the capabilities of the technique for the characterization of the materials to be investigated in cultural heritage assets. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.


Anzidei A.P.,Soprintendenza Speciale Per i Beni Archeologici di Rome | Barbaro B.,Collaborator Esterno Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici | Carboni G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castagna A.,Collaborator Esterno Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici | And 5 more authors.
Special Publications of IAVCEI | Year: 2010

The territory of the suburbs of Rome between Via Prenestina and Via Appia and up to the slopes of the quiescent volcano of the Alban Hills has been the focus of extensive archaeological investigations carried out by the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma, in particular in 1999-2007. This research found evidence of the presence of Final Neolithic and Eneolithic settlements as well as Eneolithic necropolises. At the same time the Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche of the Universita di Roma Tre carried out a territorial survey that, thanks to the stratigraphic sections discovered by the archaeological investigations, led to a revision of the knowledge about the primary volcanic deposits and lahars arising from the crater of the Albano Lake, referable to the Holocene. Several lahars have periodically contributed to modifying the morphology of the territory, but at the same time have created wide spaces, open and fertile, that have contributed to the intensive development of human occupation in this territory. Several settlements, referable to the Final Neolithic and the full Eneolithic and up to the Bronze Age, have been identified, particularly in the district of Torre Spaccata/Osteria del Curato, along Via Tuscolana. At Quadrato di Torre Spaccata, in an area of more than one hectare, habitation structures have been found built on the tuff layer of Villa Senni and on the lahar deposit above it. A rectangular hut was partially removed by the construction of a roman paved road. The settlement of Osteria del Curato-Via Cinquefrondi covers an area of about two hectares. It has been covered by a thick stratification related to the periodic lahars from Albano Lake that allowed its preservation. Numerous postholes excavated in the lahar indicate the presence of habitation structures. In a wide area enclosed by a small trench were three tombs, one of which belonged to an adult missing the cranium, two ritual pits with ovicaprine remains, and the burial of a dog without the cranium. Other burials were present within the area of the settlement. In the same southeastern part of Rome numerous 'a grotticella' necropolises document the diffusion of the Rinaldone fades. At Lucrezia Romana, along the slope of a small hill, a necropolis with 69 tombs has been excavated. At Ponte delle Sette Miglia some tombs with a monumental structure and rich grave goods, which included accurately made vessels and silver objects, were identified. A short distance away in the Romanina locality, on a wide flat area formed by the lahars of the Ciampino plain, another necropolis with 42 'a grotticella' tombs is still under excavation. Numerous tombs are of a monumental type with quadrangular access shafts. The opening of the chamber was closed by large lahar or lava slabs. The ipogea, excavated in the lahar, allowed a better preservation of the skeletal remains. At Quad-raro-Via Lucrezia Romana, near the area of the necropolis, large portions of a settlement whose development started in the Final Eneolithic and carried on up to the Final Bronze age have been brought to light along a strip of several hundred metres. The presence of sands in the earliest stratifications suggests frequent overflows of the water courses, damaging the settlement. Flooding caused the restructuring of the banks of the ancient water courses, with deeper excavations of their beds as well as an attempt to make embankments and to drain the area. Several structures may be identificated, including alignments of stones, postholes, in part also referred to habitations. The importance of this site lies in its abundant evidence regarding the transformation of the territory as a consequence of the recurrent emissions of lahars. Palaeobotanical data, provided by pollen and macrofossil analyses, document a significant change in the vegetational landscape, characterized by a progressive increase in forest cover between 500() and 3000 years BCE. The examined territory is currently being Investigated from a geological and palaeoenvironmental point of view with the aim of identifying the extension of the lahars indicated by the clearing of large areas following the improving of archaeological excavations in the southeastern part of the Roman area. © IAVCEI 2010.


Di Rita F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Anzidei A.P.,Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome | Magri D.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary | Year: 2011

New pollen data from Valle di Castiglione (Rome) highlight the vegetation development of the Roman area between 13,700 and 8000 cal BP. The late-glacial is characterized by a deforested landscape with a scanty presence of woody taxa during the interstadial. The postglacial development of forest vegetation is delayed by the local persistence of chenopods. Evergreen trees are continuously present throughout the pollen record.


Fichera G.V.,University of Catania | Belfiore C.M.,University of Catania | Belfiore C.M.,University of Calabria | La Russa M.F.,University of Calabria | And 5 more authors.
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2015

Roman mortars were collected from the Villa dei Quintili in Rome, an archaeological site consisting of numerous edifices from nine construction phases dating from the 2nd century A.D. to modern times. A multianalytical approach was used on 34 mortar samples to infer the evolution of production techniques over time and to identify the source area of calcareous raw materials used in the preparation of the lime. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive system, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to study the samples. The major and trace element data were compared with the compositions of two types of limestone samples (Calcare Massiccio and Calcare Maiolica) collected from the Cornicolani Mountains. The results suggest that the technological practices and the calcareous raw materials used for lime production remained unchanged over the time period considered (2nd century A.D. to 3rd century A.D.). The compositions of lime-related particles in the mortars match those of Calcare Maiolica, which suggests its use as raw material for lime production. On the whole, the results are in agreement with data from existing literature regarding both the use by Roman builders of specific raw materials for the mortars' production and the relative supply area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Barca D.,University of Calabria | Basso E.,University of Pavia | Bersani D.,University of Parma | Galli G.,Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome | And 5 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2016

The archaeological excavation of the Villa dei Quintili in Rome (2nd century AD) brought to light one of the most impressive residential complexes of the Roman Empire. Among the astonishing number of findings, inside and outside the buildings, a large amount of glass mosaic tesserae were gathered from the thermal bath environments. This work reports the results of a microtextural and microchemical characterization of 29 colored opaque glass tesserae, by using an analytical approach that included the use of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The glass is usually a soda-lime-silicate glass, with the exception of red and orange glass tesserae, which showed the typical composition of lead glasses mixed with plant ashes. Red tesserae were likely produced with a natron-based glass mixed with plant ashes, acting as flux and reducing agent. The opacifiers were all antimony-based with different natures according to the chemical composition: calcium antimonates (white in color) and lead antimonates (yellow in color). In the 29 tesserae studied in this research, the colors of glass were strictly correlated to the concentrations of coloring agents, the two main coloring ions identified were copper, introduced in the majority of samples as bronze scrap, and cobalt. Finally, the levels of trace elements indicate the use of mature sand, rich in quartz and poor in heavy metals and clay minerals, for the production of all samples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


The necropolis of Castel Malnome, chronologically framed between the I and II century AD, is located in the vicinity of Ponte Galeria (Rome), nearby the via Portuense. The excavation of the funerary site has allowed the collection of 292 inhumations, referred to the lower social classes and for the most part adult males. Regarding the funerary ritual, only the 42.8% of the graves had a tiles cover, while about one third provided grave goods. The field analysis shows that almost all the burials are primaries, and is not possible to highlight a main position of the inhumated individuals. The laboratory analysis, till today carried out on 100 individuals, shows a high degree of skeletal robustness and of occupational markers due to heavy work load (inflammation, muscle-skeletal trauma, fractures, osteoarthritis, enthesopathies). The recording of oral pathologies and aspecific stresses, in order to obtain information about the health status of the population, shows a very high frequency of caries mainly related to poor dental hygiene, and of enamel hypoplasia.


PubMed | Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Medicina nei secoli | Year: 2011

The necropolis of Castel Malnome, chronologically framed between the I and II century AD, is located in the vicinity of Ponte Galeria (Rome), nearby the via Portuense. The excavation of the funerary site has allowed the collection of 292 inhumations, referred to the lower social classes and for the most part adult males. Regarding the funerary ritual, only the 42.8% of the graves had a tiles cover, while about one third provided grave goods. The field analysis shows that almost all the burials are primaries, and is not possible to highlight a main position of the inhumated individuals. The laboratory analysis, till today carried out on 100 individuals, shows a high degree of skeletal robustness and of occupational markers due to heavy work load (inflammation, muscle-skeletal trauma, fractures, osteoarthritis, enthesopathies). The recording of oral pathologies and aspecific stresses, in order to obtain information about the health status of the population, shows a very high frequency of caries mainly related to poor dental hygiene, and of enamel hypoplasia.


PubMed | Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Rome
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Medicina nei secoli | Year: 2015

The relations between fractures and living conditions of a population are important to reconstruct the biological status of a population. This work is focused on the description and interpretation of trauma in the skeletal remains: the sample consist of 218 individuals, coming from Roman imperial necropolis of Castel Malnome (I-II century AD). The trauma incidence has been considered by the calculation offrequencies per individual and per bone. The examination of the pattern offractures in the skeleton for this site indicates that the individuals are characterized by high level of trauma and reveals that ulna and ribs were the mostfrequently affected bones. The evidence of trauma in this population may reflect many factors about the lifestyle of individuals,for example their occupation and environmental conditions, moreover the state of healing of the injuries may also indicate the availability of treatments.

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