Suzhou, China

The original Soochow University was established in 1900 in Suzhou, Jiangsu in Qing dynasty China. The original Soochow University and the university currently in Taiwan are named Dōngwú Dàxué , after the general region in which Suzhou is located. The university in the People's Republic of China is named Sūzhōu Dàxué after the city of Suzhou. Wikipedia.


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Lin J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Q.,Soochow University of China | Wang L.,Soochow University of China | Liu X.,Soochow University of China | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

We report a simple and yet effective method to introduce Mn2+ ions into semiconducting nanoclusters with atomically precise control. Our method utilizes one type of micrometer-sized crystals, composed of well-defined isolated supertetrahedral chalcogenide nanoclusters (â̂2 nm, [Cd 6In28S52(SH)4]) whose core metal site is unoccupied in as-synthesized pristine form. This unique model structure with vacant core site makes it possible to achieve ordered distribution of Mn2+ dopants, and at the same time effectively preclude the formation of Mn2+ clusters in the host matrix. A two-step synthesis strategy is applied to realize an atomically precise doping of Mn2+ ion into the core site of the nanoclusters, and to achieve uniform distribution of Mn2+ dopants in the crystal lattice. The PL, X-ray photoelectron (XPS), as well as the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra reveal the successful incorporation of Mn2+ ion into the core site of the nanocluster. Different from the pristine host material with weak green emission (â̂490 nm), the Mn2+-doped material shows a strong red emission (630 nm at room temperature and 654 nm at 30 K), which is significantly red-shifted relative to the orange emission (â̂585 nm) observed in traditional Mn2+-doped II-VI semiconductors. Various experiments including extensive synthetic variations and PL dynamics have been performed to probe the mechanistic aspects of synthesis process and resultant unusual structural and PL properties. The quaternary semiconductor material reported here extends the emission window of Mn2+-doped II-VI semiconductor from yellow-orange to red, opening up new opportunities in applications involving photonic devices and bioimaging. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Lin B.,Changzhou University | Dong H.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2013

The alkaline stability of imidazolium salts and imidazolium-based alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) was investigated in this work. C2-substituted (with methyl, isopropyl or phenyl groups) imidazolium salts, 3-ethyl-1,2-dimethyl imidazolium bromine ([EDMIm][Br]), 3-ethyl-2-isopropyl-1- methylimidazolium bromine ([EIMIm][Br]), and 3-ethyl-1-methyl-2-phenyl- imidazolium bromine ([EMPhIm][Br]), were synthesized and characterized. The effect of the C2-substitution on the alkaline stability of imidazolium salts was investigated by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Compared with the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium salt, 3-ethyl-1-methylimidazolium bromine ([EMIm][Br]), the alkaline stability of C2-substituted imidazolium salts is significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, probably due to the steric hindrance of the substituents, which protected the imidazolium cations against the hydroxide attack. Moreover, the higher LUMO energies may also improve the alkaline stability of imidazolium salts. The alkaline stability of C2-substituted imidazolium salts was found to be in the order [EDMIm][Br] > [EIMIm][Br] > [EMPhIm][Br]. This work provides a feasible approach for enhancing the chemical stability of C2-substituted imidazolium salts, which has potential applications for alkaline anion-exchange membranes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Zhang L.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Wu G.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Jiang J.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

A hybrid molecular simulation study is reported to examine adsorption and diffusion of CO2 and CH4 in zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). The structure flexibility of ZIF-8 is described using a recently developed force field (Zhang, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 3722). The simulated adsorption isotherms in rigid and flexible ZIF-8 are nearly identical and agree well with experimental data; thus, the effect of structure flexibility on adsorption is indiscernible. In remarkable contrast, the effect on diffusion is significant. No diffusive motion is observed for CO2 and CH4 in rigid ZIF-8; by incorporating structure flexibility, however, the predicted diffusivities are close to experimental and simulated data reported in the literature. From the analysis of free energy, CO 2 has a lower barrier for diffusion than CH4 and hence a higher diffusivity. With increasing loading, CO2 and CH4 exhibit different trends. CO2 diffusivity slightly decreases due to enhanced steric hindrance; however, CH4 diffusivity substantially increases because CH4 is preferentially located near the aperture and thus the free energy barrier for diffusion is reduced. For a CO 2/CH4 mixture, CO2 is more strongly adsorbed than CH4 and blocks the diffusion pathway of CH4; therefore, CH4 diffusivity in the mixture decreases upon comparison with pure CH4. This simulation study provides microscopic insight into adsorption and diffusion in ZIF-8 and highlights the indispensable effect of structure flexibility on diffusion behavior. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Yin Y.D.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Qiu C.W.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

We develop an electromagnetic theory of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from coated nanoparticles with spherical anisotropy in the quasistatic limit. The multipolar polarizability of the spherically coated nanoparticle is derived on the basis of the first-principles approach, and then we employ the Gersten-Nitzan model to investigate SERS from molecules adsorbed on the coated nanoparticles. It is found that the introduction of spherical anisotropy into the core or the shell provides a novel approach to tailor the surface plasmon resonant frequencies and enhanced SERS peaks. In addition, the dependence of the SERS spectra upon the size is addressed. Our investigation can be applied in prospective stimulated Raman scattering schemes in nano-optics and plasmonics when a certain extent of anisotropy is involved. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Dong Y.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Yao M.,China Institute of Technology
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Cylindrical vector partially coherent beam is introduced as a natural extension of cylindrical vector coherent beam based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization. Analytical propagation formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam passing through paraxial ABCD optical system is derived based on the generalized Collins integral formula. As an application example, the statistics properties, such as the average intensity, spreading and the degree of polarization, of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam propagating in free space are studied in detail. It is found that the statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam are much different from a cylindrical vector coherent beam. Our results may find applications in connection with laser beam shaping and optical trapping. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Dong H.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Imidazolium cations with various N3-substituents (including methyl, butyl, heptyl, dodecyl, isopropyl, and diphenylmethyl groups) were synthesized and investigated in terms of their alkaline stability. The effect of the N3-substituent on the alkaline stability was studied by quantitative 1H NMR spectra and density functional theory (GGA-BLYP) calculations. The isopropyl substituted imidazolium cation ([DMIIm]+) with the highest LUMO energy value exhibited the highest alkaline stability in aqueous NaOH. The [DMIIm]+ cation also exhibited higher alkaline stability than that of a quaternary ammonium cation, benzyltrimethyl-ammonium ([BTMA] +), in CD3OD/D2O NaOH solution at elevated temperatures. This observation inspired the preparation of [DMIIm] +-based alkaline anion exchange membranes (AEMs) which showed high alkaline stability in alkaline solution. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Ni Y.X.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Miroshnichenko A.E.,Australian National University | Qiu C.W.,National University of Singapore
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Derived from the light scattering by a radially anisotropic sphere, unusual scattering behavior is exhibited, which breaks the Rayleigh law (scattering efficiency Qsca ̃ q4 as q ? 0, where q is the size parameter). Under certain conditions, we demonstrate an asymptotical relation between Qsca and q, i.e., Qsca + Fq8, which is not realizable for isotropic particles in Rayleigh regime. Moreover, suitable adjustment of the anisotropic parameters can further suppress the coefficient F, resulting in enhanced transparency of the anisotropic particle. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Zhang T.H.,Soochow University of China | Liu X.Y.,Xiamen University | Liu X.Y.,National University of Singapore
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

In the last few decades, the controlled colloidal assembly was adopted as a new modelling technology for the study of the crystallization mechanism. In colloidal systems, the movement of particles is slow enough to follow and the particle dynamics can be monitored at the single-particle level using normal optical microscopes. So far, the studies of colloidal crystallization have produced a number of insights, which have significantly improved our understanding of crystallization. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the mechanism of crystallization, which were achieved using colloidal model systems, i.e., the kinetics of nucleation, growth and defect formation. Such model systems allow us to not only visualize some "atomic" details of nucleation and surface processes of crystallization, but also quantify previous models to such an extent that has never been achieved before by other approaches. In the case of nucleation, the quantitative observation of the kinetic process was made at the single-particle level; the results include the ideal case and the deviations from classical theories. The deviations include multi-step crystallization, supersaturation-driven structural mismatch nucleation, defect creation and migration kinetics, surface roughening, etc. It can be foreseen that this approach will become a powerful tool to study the fundamental process of crystallization and other phase transitions. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Sheng C.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Sheng C.,University of Utah | Zhang C.,University of Utah | Zhai Y.,University of Utah | And 5 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We studied the ultrafast transient response of photoexcitations in two hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite films used for high efficiency photovoltaic cells, namely, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9 using polarized broadband pump-probe spectroscopy in the spectral range of 0.3-2.7 eV with 300 fs time resolution. For CH3NH3PbI3 with above-gap excitation we found both photogenerated carriers and excitons, but only carriers are photogenerated with below-gap excitation. In contrast, mainly excitons are photogenerated in CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9. Surprisingly, we also discovered in CH3NH3PbI3, but not in CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9, transient photoinduced polarization memory for both excitons and photocarriers, which is also reflected in the steady state photoluminescence. From the polarization memory dynamics we obtained the excitons diffusion constant in CH3NH3PbI3, D≈0.01cm2s-1. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Zhao Y.,Peking University | Dong H.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Soochow University of China | Fu X.,Peking University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Living radical polymerization (LRP) of organic and water soluble acrylates and acrylamides was mediated by a versatile cobalt porphyrin complex (TMP-OH)Co. The capability of this cobalt complex to mediate LRP in both polar and non-polar media permits the direct synthesis of useful and previously difficult to prepare functional block copolymers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Liu H.,Soochow University of China | Liu H.,National University of Singapore | How Koh K.,National University of Singapore | Lee C.,National University of Singapore
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

This work proposed a hybrid frequency broadening (HFB) mechanism in micro-scale for vibration energy harvesting with ultra-wide bandwidth. A strong HFB behavior is induced by the Duffing stiffening of the clamped-clamped beam stretching and further stimulated continuously by three distributed resonances including out-of-plane mode I at 62.9Hz, torsion mode II at 82.1Hz, and twist mode III at 150Hz. At the acceleration of 1.0g, the microfabricated device with a small area of 6×6mm2 is able to broaden the operating bandwidth from 62.9Hz to be as wide as 383.7Hz. This design methodology can be implemented for efficient electromagnetic energy harvesting. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Dong J.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.-L.,Soochow University of China | Wang P.-Y.,Peking University | Qin L.-Q.,Soochow University of China
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

High-protein diets are popular for weight management, but the health effects of such diets in diabetic persons are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of high-protein diets on body weight and metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomised trials up to August 2012. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the net changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. Overall, nine trials including a total of 418 diabetic patients met our inclusion criteria. The study duration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. The actual intake of dietary protein ranged from 25 to 32 % of total energy in the intervention groups and from 15 to 20 % in the control groups. Compared with the control diets, high-protein diets resulted in more weight loss (pooled mean difference: - 2·08, 95 % CI - 3·25, - 0·90 kg). High-protein diets significantly decreased glycated Hb A1C (HbA1C) levels by 0·52 (95 % CI - 0·90, - 0·14) %, but did not affect the fasting blood glucose levels. There were no differences in lipid profiles. The pooled net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were - 3·13 (95 % CI - 6·58, 0·32) mmHg and - 1·86 (95 % CI - 4·26, 0·56) mmHg, respectively. However, two studies reported a large influence on weight loss and HbA1C levels, respectively. In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion. © The Authors 2013.


Yang Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao F.P.,Shanghai University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011

In this paper, a single-phase based Cuk converter topology for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters is used, which has a wide voltage range for PV array voltage. An adaptive perturb and observe maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the converter is proposed. The used MPPT algorithm can fast and accurately track the maximum power point (MPP). All control functions are implemented in software with a single-chip microcontroller. Experimental results obtained on a 2.5-kW prototype, which demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective, fast, and perfect tracking. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Wang J.,National University of Singapore | Wang F.,National University of Singapore | Wang C.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Clear sight: The upconversion emission spectra of KMnF 3 nanocrystals co-doped with Yb/Er (18:2 mol %; see picture) and Yb/Ho (18:2 mol %) reveal strong single-band emissions. The application of this pure, single-band emission for deep-tissue imaging is demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chen G.-C.,Soochow University of China | Pang Z.,Suzhou Municipal Hospital North Campus | Liu Q.-F.,Soochow University of China
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Epidemiologic studies have suggested that magnesium intake may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk. Reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Eight prospective studies containing 338 979 participants and 8000 CRC cases met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest vs lowest category of magnesium intake for CRC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.791.00), with little evidence of heterogeneity. Restricting the analysis to six studies that have adjusted for calcium intake yielded a similar result. For colon and rectal cancer, the pooled RR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.700.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.721.24), respectively. In the doseresponse analyses, the summary RRs for an increment of magnesium intake of 50 mg/day for colorectal, colon and rectal cancer were, respectively, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.891.00), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.880.99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.831.04), and there was some evidence of heterogeneity; omitting one study that substantially contributed to the heterogeneity yielded generally similar results, but with low heterogeneity. We detected no indication of publication bias. On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Liu G.-H.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Li W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | You W.-L.,Soochow University of China | Tian G.-S.,Peking University | Su G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

The matrix product state (MPS) is utilized to study the ground-state properties and quantum phase transitions (QPTs) of the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model (EQCM). The MPS wave functions are argued to be very efficient descriptions of the ground states, and are numerically determined by imaginary-time projections. The ground-state energy, correlations, quantum entanglement and its spectrum, local and nonlocal order parameters, etc., are calculated and studied in detail. It is revealed that the von Neumann entanglement entropy, as well as the nearest-neighbor correlation functions, can be used to detect the second-order QPTs, but not the first-order ones, while fidelity detections can recognize both. The entanglement spectrum is extracted from the MPS wave function and found to be doubly degenerate in disordered phases, where nonzero string order parameters exist. Moreover, with the linearized tensor renormalization group method, the specific-heat curves are evaluated and their low-temperature behaviors are investigated. Compared with the exact solutions, our results verify that these MPS-based numerical methods are very accurate and powerful, and can be employed to investigate other EQCMs which do not permit exact solutions at present. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Ni Y.X.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Miroshnichenko A.E.,Australian National University | Qiu C.W.,National University of Singapore
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Based on full-wave electromagnetic theory, we derive the zeroforward and zero-backward scattering conditions for radially anisotropic spheres within the quasi-static limit.We find that the near-field intensity can be tuned dramatically through the adjustment of the radial anisotropy, while the far-field light scattering diagrams are similar under the zero-forward or zero-backward scattering conditions. Generalized Brewster's angle for anisotropic spheres is also derived, at which the scattering light is totally polarized. In addition, the high-quality polarized scattering wave and the tunable polarization conversion can be achieved for the radially anisotropic spheres. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Chen D.,Soochow University of China | Mei X.,Soochow University of China | Ji G.,National University of Singapore | Lu M.,National University of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Easy to hollow: A hollow porous Si nanocomposite with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is prepared (see scheme; PS=polystyrene, HP=hollow porous). The free volume in the HPSi structure effectively cushioned the volume change in Li-Si alloying and de-alloying reactions, giving an impressive performance as a high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Hu L.,Soochow University of China | Ma X.,Soochow University of China | Ye S.,Peking University | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

In this work, a nanoscale reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticle (RGO-IONP) complex is noncovalently functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), obtaining a RGO-IONP-PEG nanocomposite with excellent physiological stability, strong NIR optical absorbance, and superparamagnetic properties. Using this theranostic nanoprobe, in-vivo triple modal fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging are carried out, uncovering high passive tumor targeting, which is further used for effective photothermal ablation of tumors in mice. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang Y.,Soochow University of China | Ruan Y.,Shanghai University
Dianli Zidonghua Shebei/Electric Power Automation Equipment | Year: 2011

According to the dynamic mathematical model of three-phase grid-connected inverters, the influence of voltage vectors on active power change and reactive power change is analyzed. To reduce the ripples of active power and reactive power, the best voltage vector is selected according to the signs of active power change and reactive power change, based on which, a direct power control is proposed. It realizes the decoupling control of active power and reactive power, as well as the adjustable power factor. The three-phase grid-connected inverter with direct power control has better static and dynamic performances. Its feasibility and correctness are verified by simulation and experiment.


Wang X.,Beijing Normal University | Peng K.-Q.,Beijing Normal University | Hu Y.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang F.-Q.,Beijing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

We report the facile fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon/hematite core/shell nanowire arrays decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their potential application for sunlight-driven solar water splitting. The hematite and AuNPs respectively play crucial catalytic and plasmonic photosensitization roles, while silicon absorbs visible light and generates high photocurrent. Under simulated solar light illumination, solar water splitting with remarkable efficiency is achieved with no external bias applied. Such a nanocomposite photoanode design offers great promise for unassisted sunlight-driven water oxidation, and further stability and efficiency improvements to the device will lead to exciting prospects for practical solar water splitting and artificial photosynthesis. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Ju S.,Soochow University of China | Cai T.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Lu H.-S.,Soochow University of China | Gong C.-D.,Zhejiang Normal University | Gong C.-D.,Nanjing University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

High pressure is an important dimension for the emergent phenomena in transition metal oxides, including high-temperature superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, and magnetoelectric coupling. In these multiply correlated systems, the interplay between lattice, charge, orbital, and spin is extremely susceptible to external pressure. Magnetite (Fe 3O 4) is one of the oldest known magnetic materials and magnetic minerals, yet its high pressure behaviors are still not clear. In particular, the crystal structure of the high-pressure phase has remained contentious. Here, we investigate the pressure-induced phase transitions in Fe 3O 4 from first-principles density-functional theory. It is revealed that the net magnetic moment, arising from two ferrimagnetically coupled sublattices in Fe 3O 4, shows an abrupt drop when entering into the high-pressure phase but recovers finite value when the pressure is beyond 65.1 GPa. The origin lies in the redistribution of Fe 3d orbital occupation with the change of crystal field, where successive structural transitions from ambient pressure phase Fd3̄m to high pressure phase Pbcm (at 29.7 GPa) and further to Bbmm (at 65.1 GPa) are established accurately. These findings not only explain the experimental observations on the structural and magnetic properties of the highly compressed Fe 3O 4 but also suggest the existence of highly magnetized magnetite in the Earth's lower mantle. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Ji F.,Soochow University of China | Ji F.,University of California at Davis | Li Z.,University of California at Davis | Nguyen H.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background-Cardiac surgery is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and other complications that translate into increased mortality and healthcare costs. This retrospective study was designed to determine whether the perioperative use of dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of complications and mortality after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results-A total of 1134 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery plus valvular or other procedures were included. Of them, 568 received intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion and 566 did not. Data were adjusted with propensity scores, and multivariate logistic regression was used. The primary outcomes measured included mortality and postoperative major adverse cardiocerebral events (stroke, coma, perioperative myocardial infarction, heart block, or cardiac arrest). Secondary outcomes included renal failure, sepsis, delirium, postoperative ventilation hours, length of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission. Dexmedetomidine use significantly reduced postoperative in-hospital (1.23% versus 4.59%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.192-0.614; P>0.0001), 30-day (1.76% versus 5.12%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.226-0.655; P>0.0001), and 1-year (3.17% versus 7.95%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.312-0.701; P=0.0002) mortality. Perioperative dexmedetomidine therapy also reduced the risk of overall complications (47.18% versus 54.06%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.96; P=0.0136) and delirium (5.46% versus 7.42%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.75; P=0.0030). Conclusion-Perioperative dexmedetomidine use was associated with a decrease in postoperative mortality up to 1 year and decreased incidence of postoperative complications and delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Cao C.,Brown University | Cao C.,Soochow University of China | Rioult-Pedotti M.S.,Brown University | Migani P.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2013

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment and a high rate of autism. AS is caused by disrupted neuronal expression of the maternally inherited Ube3A ubiquitin protein ligase, required for the proteasomal degradation of proteins implicated in synaptic plasticity, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mice deficient in maternal Ube3A express elevated levels of Arc in response to synaptic activity, which coincides with severely impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and deficits in learning behaviors. In this study, we sought to test whether elevated levels of Arc interfere with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) TrkB receptor signaling, which is known to be essential for both the induction and maintenance of LTP. We report that TrkB signaling in the AS mouse is defective, and show that reduction of Arc expression to control levels rescues the signaling deficits. Moreover, the association of the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with TrkB is critical for intact BDNF signaling, and elevated levels of Arc were found to impede PSD-95/TrkB association. In Ube3A deficient mice, the BDNF-induced recruitment of PSD-95, as well as PLCγ and Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) with TrkB receptors was attenuated, resulting in reduced activation of PLCγ-α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PI3K-Akt, but leaving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway intact. A bridged cyclic peptide (CN2097), shown by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies to uniquely bind the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 with high affinity, decreased the interaction of Arc with PSD-95 to restore BDNF-induced TrkB/PSD-95 complex formation, signaling, and facilitate the induction of LTP in AS mice. We propose that the failure of TrkB receptor signaling at synapses in AS is directly linked to elevated levels of Arc associated with PSD-95 and PSD-95 PDZ-ligands may represent a promising approach to reverse cognitive dysfunction. © 2013 Cao et al.


Hao J.,Shanghai University | Zhang S.,Soochow University of China | Zhou Y.,Shanghai University | Hu X.,Shanghai University | Shao C.,Shanghai University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2011

Both deregulation of tumor-suppressor genes and misexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer, but their relationship during this process remains less clear. Here, we report that the expression of miR-483-3p is strongly enhanced in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to side normal tissues using a miRNA-array differential analysis. Furthermore, DPC4/Smad4 is identified as a target of miR-483-3p and their expression levels are inversely correlated in human clinical specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-483-3p significantly represses DPC4/Smad4 protein levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines, and simultaneously promotes cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Our findings identify miR-483-3p as a potent regulator of DPC4/Smad4, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DPC4/Smad4-driven pancreatic cancer. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Su C.,Peking University | Jiang H.,Peking University | Jiang H.,Soochow University of China | Feng J.,Peking University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

Two two-dimensional carbon allotropes comprised of octagons and pentagons are proposed based on the first-principles calculations. The two carbon allotropes, named OPG-L and OPG-Z, are found to have distinct properties. OPG-L is metallic, while OPG-Z is a gapless semimetal. Remarkably, OPG-Z exhibits pronounced electronic anisotropy with highly anisotropic Dirac points at the Fermi level. A tight-binding model is suggested to describe the low-energy quasiparticles, which clarifies the origin of the anisotropic Dirac points. The electronic anisotropy of OPG-Z is expected to have interesting potential applications in electronic devices. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Chen G.-C.,Soochow University of China | Lv D.-B.,Soochow University of China | Pang Z.,Suzhou Municipal Hospital North Campus | Liu Q.-F.,Soochow University of China
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/objectives: Epidemiological evidence is suggestive, but inconclusive, for an association between consumption of red and processed meat and risk of stroke. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Subjects/methods: We performed a literature search on PubMed database through June 2012 to indentify prospective cohort studies of red and processed meat intake in relation to risk of stroke. Reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. Both fixed-effects and random-effects model were assumed to compute the summary risk estimates. Results: Five large independent prospective cohort studies were identified. These studies contained a total of 2 39 251 subjects and 9593 stroke events. Comparing the highest category of consumption with lowest category, the pooled relative risks (RRs) of total stroke were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.25) for total meat (red and processed meat combined) (n=4), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01-1.18) for red meat (n=5) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.25) for processed meat (n=5); the corresponding RRs of ischemic stroke (highest vs lowest quintile) were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.28), 1.13(95% CI, 1.01-1.25) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08-1.31). Consumption of red and/or processed meat was not associated with hemorrhagic stroke. In the dose-response analysis, the risk of stroke increased significantly by 10% and 13% for each 100 g per day increment in total and red meat consumption, respectively, and by 11% for each 50 g per day increment in processed meat consumption. Conclusion: Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat increase risk of stroke, in particular, ischemic stroke. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Qi N.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

In this research, the PLGA/PLA-blended nanofibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning. The macro-micro structure, thermal stability, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, and in vitro degradation of the electrospun PLGA/PLA nanofibrous scaffolds are characterized by means of SEM, FTIR, DSC, TG, contact angle, instron tensile tester, and degradation testing. The results showed that electrospun PLGA/PLA-blended nanofibrous scaffolds possessed nanofibrous and porous structures. The structural stability, crystallinity, wettability, and mechanical properties, especially the in vitro degradation rate, of the electrospun PLGA/PLA-blended nanofibrous scaffolds could be controlled by regulating the blended ratio of the poly(lactide-co- glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(lactide) (PLA). The results indicated that the electrospun PLGA/PLA-blended nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


He J.,Guangdong University of Technology | He J.,City University of Hong Kong | Zha M.,City University of Hong Kong | Cui J.,City University of Hong Kong | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A highly specific, distinct color change in the crystals of a metal-organic framework with pendant allyl thioether units in response to Pd species was discovered. The color change (from light yellow to orange/brick red) can be triggered by Pd species at concentrations of a few parts per million and points to the potential use of these crystals in colorimetric detection and quantification of Pd(II) ions. The swift color change is likely due to the combined effects of the multiple functions built into the porous framework: the carboxyl groups for bonding with Zn(II) ions to assemble the host network and the thioether and alkene functions for effective uptake of the Pd(II) analytes (e.g., via the alkene-Pd interaction). The resultant loading of Pd (and other noble metal) species into the porous solid also offers rich potential for catalysis applications, and the alkene side chains are amenable to wide-ranging chemical transformations (e.g., bromination and polymerization), enabling further functionalization of the porous networks. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Dong J.-Y.,Soochow University of China | He K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Wang P.,Peking University | Qin L.-Q.,Soochow University of China
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Observational and preclinical studies suggest that dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Design: Relevant studies were identified by a PubMed database search through January 2011. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included prospective cohort studies that reported RRs with 95% CIs for the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Results: We identified 10 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer involving 16,848 cases and 712,195 participants. The combined RR of breast cancer for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.96), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer did not significantly differ by geographic region, length of follow-up, or menopausal status of the participants. Omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant 7% reduction in breast cancer risk. Little evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence of a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Peng K.-Q.,Beijing Normal University | Wang X.,Beijing Normal University | Li L.,Beijing Normal University | Hu Y.,Beijing Normal University | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China
Nano Today | Year: 2013

Due to their unique structural, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attracting immense interest as a promising material for advanced energy conversion and storage applications. In this feature article, we review the recent achievements on SiNWs for advanced energy conversion and storage applications including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. We also offer our prospective on the outstanding challenges in this emerging field. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ni Y.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Qiu C.-W.,National University of Singapore
Plasmonics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we establish the full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory to study the electromagnetic scattering from infinitely long cylinders with cylindrically anisotropic coatings. We show that the total effective scattering width can be dramatically reduced by the suitable adjustment of the dielectric anisotropy of the shell, while it is not the case for tuning the dielectric anisotropy of the core. Furthermore, we could make the cylindrical objects invisible when both dielectric and magnetic anisotropies are adjusted. In the long wavelength limit, we develop effective medium theory to derive the effective isotropic permittivity and permeability for the anisotropic coated cylinders, and the invisibility radius ratio derived from the full-wave theory for small coated cylinders can be well described within the effective medium theory. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Cheng P.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Cheng P.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ye L.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Ye L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Binary additives synergistically boost the power conversion efficiency of all-polymer solar cells up to 3.45%. The nonvolatile additive PDI-2DTT suppresses aggregation of the acceptor PPDIDTT and enhances donor/acceptor mixing, while the additive DIO facilitates aggregation and crystallization of the donor PBDTTT-C-T as well as improves phase separation. Combination of DIO and PDI-2DTT leads to suitable phase separation and improved and balanced charge transport, which is beneficial to efficiency enhancement. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Liu L.,Beijing Normal University | Peng K.-Q.,Beijing Normal University | Hu Y.,Beijing Normal University | Wu X.-L.,Beijing Normal University | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution is devised to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with dissolved oxygen acting as the one and only oxidizing agent. The key aspect of this strategy is the use of a graphite or other noble metal electrode that is electrically coupled with silicon substrate. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Shen L.,National University of Singapore | Shen L.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Zeng M.,National University of Singapore | Yang S.-W.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Long, stable, and free-standing linear atomic carbon wires (carbon chains) have been carved out from graphene recently [Meyer et al. Nature (London) 2008, 454, 319; Jin et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 205501]. They can be considered as extremely narrow graphene nanoribbons or extremely thin carbon nanotubes. It might even be possible to make use of high-strength and identical (without chirality) carbon wires as a transport channel or on-chip interconnects for field-effect transistors. Here we investigate electron transport properties of linear atomic carbon wire-graphene junctions by combining nonequilibrium Greens function with density functional theory. For short wires, linear ballistic transport is observed in wires consisting of odd numbers of carbon atoms but not in those consisting of even numbers of carbon atoms. For wires longer than 2.1 nm as fabricated above, however, the ballistic conductance of carbon wire-graphene junctions is independent of the structural distortion, structural imperfections, and hydrogen impurity adsorbed on the linear carbon wires, except for oxygen impurity adsorption under a low bias. As such, the epoxy groups might be the origin of experimentally observed low conductance in the carbon chain. Moreover, double-atomic carbon chains exhibit a negative differential resistance effect. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Lu L.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

Three techniques, i.e., pyrolysis of sucrose, spray of acetylene black, and propane vapor deposition, are adopted to coat carbon onto the surface of LiCoPO 4 particles, and their effects are compared. The LiCoPO 4/C composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the coating techniques determine the property of carbon films formed on the surface of LiCoPO 4 particles, which further affect the performance of LiCoPO 4. A complete and homogeneous carbon layer is the key to a high electrochemical activity and stable cycle performance. Among these LiCoPO 4/C composites, the material processed via the deposition technique shows a more uniform carbon layer than that of the others, thus it exhibits a large reversible capacity of 130 mA h g -1 with favorable cyclability and rate capability in the voltage range of 3.0-5.0 V. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang K.,National University of Singapore | Zhang L.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Jiang J.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

A molecular simulation study is reported for the adsorption of normal alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol) in zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). The effects of force fields, atomic charges, and framework flexibility are systematically examined and compared with experimental data. Among three force fields (UFF, AMBER, and DREIDING), DREIDING has the best agreement with experiment. The atomic charges and framework flexibility are found to have negligible effects. The four alcohols exhibit S-shaped isotherms without hysteresis loop, as attributed to adsorption at different preferential sites. At a low pressure, cluster formation is observed near the organic linker (2-methylimidazolate) in ZIF-8; with increasing pressure, cage-filling occurs in the large sodalite cage. The interaction between alcohol and ZIF-8 framework is enhanced as the chain length of alcohol increases; thus, the isosteric heat of adsorption rises with chain length. The simulation study provides microscopic insight into alcohol adsorption in ZIF-8, which is useful for quantitative understanding of adsorption mechanism in other ZIFs and nanoporous materials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Wang X.,University of California at Riverside | Feng J.,University of California at Riverside | Bai Y.,University of California at Riverside | Zhang Q.,University of California at Riverside | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2016

In this Review, we aim to provide an updated summary of the research related to hollow micro- and nanostructures, covering both their synthesis and their applications. After a brief introduction to the definition and classification of the hollow micro-/nanostructures, we discuss various synthetic strategies that can be grouped into three major categories, including hard templating, soft templating, and self-templating synthesis. For both hard and soft templating strategies, we focus on how different types of templates are generated and then used for creating hollow structures. At the end of each section, the structural and morphological control over the product is discussed. For the self-templating strategy, we survey a number of unconventional synthetic methods, such as surface-protected etching, Ostwald ripening, the Kirkendall effect, and galvanic replacement. We then discuss the unique properties and niche applications of the hollow structures in diverse fields, including micro-/nanocontainers and reactors, optical properties and applications, magnetic properties, energy storage, catalysis, biomedical applications, environmental remediation, and sensors. Finally, we provide a perspective on future development in the research relevant to hollow micro-/nanostructures. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Zhang Z.,Soochow University of China | Yan S.,National University of Singapore | Zhao M.,City University of Hong Kong
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

Two novel unsupervised dimensionality reduction techniques, termed sparse distance preserving embedding (SDPE) and sparse proximity preserving embedding (SPPE), are proposed for feature extraction and classification. SDPE and SPPE perform in the clean data space recovered by sparse representation and enhanced Euclidean distances over noise removed data are employed to measure pairwise similarities of points. In extracting informative features, SDPE and SPPE aim at preserving pairwise similarities between data points in addition to preserving the sparse characteristics. This paper calculates the sparsest representation of all vectors jointly by a convex optimization. The sparsest codes enable certain local information of data to be preserved, and can endow SDPE and SPPE a natural discriminating power, adaptive neighborhood and robust characteristic against noise and errors in delivering low-dimensional embeddings. We also mathematically show SDPE and SPPE can be effectively extended for discriminant learning in a supervised manner. The validity of SDPE and SPPE is examined by extensive simulations. Comparison with other related state-of-the-art unsupervised algorithms show that promising results are delivered by our techniques. © 2013 IEEE.


Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Zhang L.,National University of Singapore | Hu Z.,National University of Singapore | Jiang J.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

A fully atomistic simulation study is reported to investigate H 2/CO 2 separation in mixed-matrix membranes composed of polybenzimidazole (PBI) and zeolitic imidazolateframework-7 (ZIF-7). PBI is mimicked by the polymer-consistent force field and ZIF-7 by a new force field developed here. The predicted density and glass transition temperature of PBI are in fairly good agreement with experimental results. The simulated lattice constants, bond lengths and angles of ZIF-7 match well with measured data. PBI/ZIF-7 membranes have stronger mechanical strength than PBI as evidenced by the enhanced bulk modulus upon adding ZIF-7. With increased ZIF-7 loading, the fractional free volume and percentage of large voids (>3 Å) become larger; the solubilities of H 2 and CO 2 increase because of stronger affinity with ZIF-7. H 2 diffusion in PBI membrane is not discernably retarded by adding ZIF-7, in contrast to CO 2 diffusion. The simulation results reveal that H 2 and CO 2 have higher permeabilities in PBI/ZIF-7 membranes than in PBI, and H 2/CO 2 permselectivity is enhanced slightly with increased ZIF-7 loading. For the first time, this simulation study provides atomistic insight into the sorption, diffusion, and permeation of gas molecules in MOF/polymer mixed-matrix membranes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Zhang L.,National University of Singapore | Hu Z.,National University of Singapore | Jiang J.,National University of Singapore
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A new force field and a hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulation method are developed to investigate the structural transition of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)induced by N2 sorption. At a high loading (approximately 50 N2molecules per unit cell), ZIF-8 shifts from low-loading (LL) to high-loading (HL) structure. A stepped sorption isotherm is predicted with three distinct regions, which agrees well with experimental data. The orientation of imidazolate rings and the motion of framework atoms exhibit sharp changes upon structural transition. Furthermore, pronounced changes are observed in various contributions to potential energies (including stretching, bending, torsional, van der Waals, and Coulombic). The analysis of radial distribution functions between N2 and framework atoms suggests N2 interacts strongly with the imidazolate rings in ZIF-8. The simulation reveals that the structural transition of ZIF-8 is largely related to the reorientation of imidazolate rings, as attributed to the enhanced van der Waals interaction between N2 and imidazolate rings as well as the reduced torsional interaction of framework in the HL structure. This is the first molecular simulation study to describe the continuous structural transition of ZIF-8 and, it provides microscopic insight into the underlying mechanism. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Han Y.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Lu L.,National University of Singapore
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotube (CNT) wired LiCo0.5Mn0.5PO 4 nanocomposites were readily prepared using a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach. The prepared LiCo0.5Mn0.5PO 4-CNT is composed of uniform nanoparticles of LiCo 0.5Mn0.5PO4 intimately interconnected by CNT networks. The electrochemical test results show that the CNT networks play a critical role in maintaining electrical conduction and in ensuring electrode stability of LiCo0.5Mn0.5PO4-CNT upon cycling, thus leading to much enhanced electrochemical properties compared with neat LiCo0.5Mn0.5PO4. It is found that the LiCo 0.5Mn0.5PO4-CNT composite exhibits a high capacity up to 151 mAh g- 1 and an energy density of 620 mWh g - 1, and maintain 92% of the initial capacity after 30 charge/discharge cycles, thereby indicating its potential for energy storage and conversion application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Wang H.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Lu L.,National University of Singapore
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012

In this work, we report a LiCoPO 4/C core/shell structure to address two key challenges facing the application of lithium cobalt phosphate (LiCoPO 4), i.e. sluggish kinetics and poor cycle stability. By carefully controlling the synthetic procedure, we obtain a LiCoPO 4 material coated with a homogeneous carbon shell via an in situ approach. The carbon shell not only increases the reversible capacity, but also enhances the capacity retention upon repeated cycles. Electrochemical charge and discharge tests show that the LiCoPO 4/C core/shell structure can deliver a high specific capacity of 131 mAh g -1 in the voltage range of 3.0-5.2 V vs. Li +/Li and maintain 78% of initial capacity after 40 cycles at a low specific current of 17 mA g -1. When discharged at 1 C, the material still delivers a capacity of 95 mAh g -1. The results indicate that the LiCoPO 4/C composite is promising for energy storage application. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry, and AC impedance are applied to understand its good electrochemical performance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen D.,Soochow University of China | Luo Z.,National University of Singapore | Li N.,Soochow University of China | Lee J.Y.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

Multifunctional theranostic systems with good biocompatibility, strong clinical imaging capability, and target specificity are the desired features of future medicine. Here, the design of a theranostic nanocomposite capable of simultaneous targeting and imaging of the cancer cells is presented. It releases its drug payload by a controlled release mechanism. The nanocomposite contains luminescent gold nanocluster (L-AuNC) photostable and biocompatible diagnostic probes conjugated to a folic acid (FA)-modified pH-responsive amphiphilic polymeric system for controlled drug release. The nanocomposite uses a core-satellite structure to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs and releases the drug payload in mildly acidic endosomal/lysosomal compartments by the action of the pH-labile linkages in the polymer. In vivo studies show the selective accumulation of the FA-conjugated nanocomposite in tumor tissues by folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis. These findings demonstrate the potential of the nanocomposite as a nontoxic, folate-targeting, pH-responsive drug carrier that is useful for the early detection and therapy of folate-overexpressing cancerous cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chen D.,National University of Singapore | Chen D.,Soochow University of China | Ji G.,National University of Singapore | Ma Y.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2011

Graphene-encapsulated ordered aggregates of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with nearly spherical geometry and hollow interior were synthesized by a simple self-assembly process. The open interior structure adapts well to the volume change in repetitive Li+ insertion and extraction reactions; and the encapsulating graphene connects the Fe 3O4 nanoparticles electrically. The structure and morphology of the graphene-Fe3O4 composite were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the composite for reversible Li+ storage was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and constant current charging and discharging. The results showed a high and nearly unvarying specific capacity for 50 cycles. Furthermore, even after 90 cycles of charge and discharge at different current densities, about 92% of the initial capacity at 100 mA g-1 was still recoverable, indicating excellent cycle stability. The graphene-Fe3O4 composite is therefore a capable Li+ host with high capacity that can be cycled at high rates with good cycle life. The unique combination of graphene encapsulation and a hollow porous structure definitely contributed to this versatile electrochemical performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Qiu C.,National University of Singapore | Qiu C.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Joannopoulos J.D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Soljacic M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2010

Plasmon resonances and extraordinary light scatterings of a nanoparticle with radial anisotropy are studied and summarized. The coupling between localized surface plasmons and far-field quantities is discussed. It is found that the presence of radial anisotropy redistributes the localization of plasmons and also results in certain novel phenomena in the far zone, which provide the possibility of scattering control such as electromagnetic transparency, enhanced scattering cross section, etc. The nonlinear optical response is explored in order to yield deeper physical insight into the interaction between plasmons and incident light. © 2010 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xu C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu D.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu D.-M.,Soochow University of China | Zhu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2013

eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis that is overexpressed in various cancers, with important functions in tumor genesis and progression. We have previously showed that the ectopic expression of eEF1A2 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the functional role of eEF1A2 in the regulation of cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms involved. By evaluating the invasive ability of a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, eEF1A2 expression in cells was positively associated with their invasive ability. The knockdown of eEF1A2 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cells. By contrast, the ectopic expression of exogenous eEF1A2 significantly promoted the migration and invasion of SW1990 cells. Stable eEF1A2 overexpression in a nude mouse model of peritoneal metastasis likewise dramatically enhanced the intraperitoneal metastatic ability of SW1990 cells. In addition, eEF1A2 overexpression could upregulate MMP-9 expression and activity. A significant positive correlation between the overexpression of both eEF1A2 and MMP-9 was observed in pancreatic cancer tissues. The inhibition of MMP-9 activity reduced the promoting effect of eEF1A2 on cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, eEF1A2-mediated cell migration and invasion, as well as MMP-9 expression and upregulation, were largely dependent on the eEF1A2-induced Akt activation. The findings suggested the potentially important role of eEF1A2 in pancreatic cancer migration, invasion, and metastasis. Thus, the results provide evidence of eEF1A2 as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of aggressive pancreatic cancer. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Li H.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.,Soochow University of China | Li M.-Q.,Fudan University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2013

Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers.


Zhang H.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Aytun Ozturk U.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Wang Q.,Soochow University of China | Zhao Z.,Soochow University of China
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Waste cooking oil to biodiesel conversion efficiency depends on the recycling mode that is being practiced. The recycling modes in China, the US and Japan can be placed in two categories: third party take-back (TPT) and the biodiesel enterprise take-back (BET). We review the operation mechanisms of theses modes, their advantages and disadvantages in three countries and compare them using recycling costs and profits of biodiesel enterprises, subsidies for manufacturers, recycling rates, degree of administrative control, technical support and incentive mechanisms provided for the restaurants. We find that the TPT mode practiced in Japan and the US is superior to the BET mode due to the subsidies provided for biodiesel enterprises and the implementation of strict regulation policies in place for the restaurants. In China, Suzhou and Ningbo cases may have better resource recovery effect than the TPT mode practiced elsewhere, if further enhanced. Finally, we provide suggestions for improving waste oil to biodiesel conversion in China. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Deng Z.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This paper deals with the singular semilinear elliptic system -Δu=μu|x| 2+2αQ(x)/(α+β)|x| s|u| α-2u|v| β+λ|u| q-2uin Ω,-Δv=μv|x| 2+2βQ(x) (α+β)|x| s|u| α|v| β-2v+δ|v| q-2vinΩ,u=v=0on∂Ω, where Ω⊂ RN(N<3) is a smooth bounded domain, 0∈Ω and Ω is G-symmetric with respect to a subgroup G of O(N), 0≤μ<μ̄ with μ̄=( N-22) 2, λ,δ<0, 0≤s<2 and α,β>1 satisfy α+β=2 *(s)=2(N-s)N-2, 2


Li Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.,Changhai Hospital | Liu F.,Soochow University of China | Vongsangnak W.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, many software tools have emerged for the discovery of novel microRNAs (miRNAs) and for analyzing the miRNAs expression profiles. An overall evaluation of these diverse software tools is lacking. In this study, we evaluated eight software tools based on their common feature and key algorithms. Three deep-sequencing data sets were collected from different species and used to assess the computational time, sensitivity and accuracy of detecting known miRNAs as well as their capacity for predicting novel miRNAs. Our results provide useful information for researchers to facilitate their selection of the optimal software tools for miRNA analysis depending on their specific requirements, i.e. novel miRNAs discovery or miRNA expression profile analysis of sequencing data sets. © 2011 The Author(s).


Deng Z.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the singular elliptic problem -div(|x| β∇u)=Q(x)|x| α|u| p(β,α)-2u+h(x,u)in Ω,u=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω ⊂ ℝ N (N ≥ 3) is a smooth bounded domain, 0 ∈ Ω and Ω is G-symmetric with respect to a subgroup G of O(N), β ≤ 0, N + β - 2 > 0, N + α > 0, α + 2 > β, β ≥ 2α/p(β,α), p(β,α)=2(N+α)/N+β- 2, Q(x) is continuous and G-symmetric on Ω̄ and h : Ω × ℝ → ℝ is a continuous nonlinearity of lower order satisfying some conditions. Based upon the symmetric criticality principle of Palais and variational methods, we obtain several existence and multiplicity results of G-symmetric solutions under some assumptions on Q and h. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu J.,Huaibei Normal University | Liu J.,Soochow University of China | Chen W.,Huaibei Normal University | Ji Y.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huaibei Normal University
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2012

2-Arylbenzofurans(thiophenes) were prepared through an efficient tandem elimination-intramolecular addition-Hiyama cross-coupling reaction. In the presence of tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium fluoride (TBAF), palladium(II) acetate [Pd(OAc) 2] and triphenylphosphine (PPh 3), the reaction of 2-(gem-dibromovinyl)phenols(thiophenols) with phenyl(trialkoxy)silanes proceeded smoothly and generated the corresponding products with good yields in one-pot. It should be noted that TBAF plays an important role in the tandem reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Han Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhu F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang J.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems | Year: 2013

This paper investigates stability and stabilization of positive switched systems with mode-dependent average dwell time, which permits to each subsystem in the underlying systems to have its own average dwell time. First, by using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function, the stability analysis of continuous-time systems in the autonomous form is addressed based on the mode-dependent average dwell time switching strategy. Then, the stabilization of non-autonomous systems is considered. State-feedback controllers are constructed, and all the proposed conditions are solvable in terms of linear programming. The obtained results are also extended to discrete-time systems. Finally, the simulation examples are given to illustrate the correctness of the design. The switching strategy used in the paper seems to be more effective than the average dwell time switching by some comparisons. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shi Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in many tissues and are capable of differentiating into several different cell types. Exogenously administered MSCs migrate to damaged tissue sites, where they participate in tissue repair. Their communication with the inflammatory microenvironment is an essential part of this process. In recent years, much has been learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction between MSCs and various participants in inflammation. Depending on their type and intensity, inflammatory stimuli confer on MSCs the ability to suppress the immune response in some cases or to enhance it in others. Here we review the current findings on the immunoregulatory plasticity of MSCs in disease pathogenesis and therapy. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Deng P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yan Y.,Soochow University of China | Wang S.-D.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

1,8-Naphthoylene(trifluoromethylbenzimidazole)-4,5-dicarboxylic acid imide (NTFBII) derivatives were synthesized. The OFET devices based on these new materials showed typical n-type OFET behavior and achieved an electron mobility as high as 0.10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with good bias stress stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Zhu C.,Soochow University of China | Zhu C.,Gakushuin University | Saito K.,Gakushuin University | Yamanaka M.,Rikkyo University | Akiyama T.,Gakushuin University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

ConspectusThe asymmetric reduction of ketimines is an important method for the preparation of amines in optically pure form. Inspired by the biological system using NAD(P)H, Hantzsch ester has been extensively employed as a hydrogen donor in combination with chiral phosphoric acid for the transfer hydrogenation of ketimines to furnish amines with high to excellent enantioselectivities.We focused on 2-substituted benzothiazoline as a hydrogen donor in the phosphoric acid catalyzed transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketimines for the following reasons: (1) benzothiazoline is readily prepared just by mixing 2-aminobenzenethiol and aldehyde, (2) both reactivity (hydrogen donating ability) and enantioselectivity would be controlled by tuning the 2-substituent of benzothiazoline, and (3) benzothiazoline can be stored in a refrigerator under inert atmosphere without conceivable decomposition. Both the 2-position of benzothiazoline and the 3,3′-position of phosphoric acid are tunable in order to achieve excellent enantioselectivity.Benzothiazoline proved to be useful hydrogen donor in combination with chiral phosphoric acid for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketimine derivatives to afford the corresponding amines with high to excellent enantioselectivities by tuning the 2-substituent of benzothiazoline. Ketimines derived from acetophenone, propiophenone, α-keto ester, trifluoromethyl ketone, and difluoromethyl ketone derivatives proved to be suitable substrates. Benzothiazoline could be generated in situ starting from 2-aminobenzenethiol and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ketimine and chiral phosphoric acid and successfully worked in the sequential transfer hydrogenation reaction. The reductive amination of dialkyl ketones also proceeded with high enantioselectivities. Use of 2-deuterated benzothiazoline led to the formation of α-deuterated amines with excellent enantioselectivities. The kinetic isotope effect (kH/kC = 3.8) was observed in the competitive reaction between H- and D-benzothiazoline, which explicitly implies that the cleavage of the C-H (C-D) bond is the rate-determining step in the transfer hydrogenation reaction.Benzothiazoline yielded products with higher enantioselectivity in the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketimines, particularly ketimines derived from propiophenone derivatives, than Hantzsch ester. DFT study elucidated the mechanism, as well as the difference in selectivity, between benzothiazoline and Hantzsch ester. The chiral phosphoric acid activates ketimines and benzothiazoline by means of the Brønsted acidic site (proton) and the Brønsted basic site (phosphoryl oxygen), respectively, to accelerate the hydride transfer reaction. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Wang D.,Soochow University of China | Wang D.,Montclair State University
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2012

The crossed cube is a prominent variant of the well known, highly regular-structured hypercube. In [24], it is shown that due to the loss of regularity in link topology, generating Hamiltonian cycles, even in a healthy crossed cube, is a more complicated procedure than in the hypercube, and fewer Hamiltonian cycles can be generated in the crossed cube. Because of the importance of fault-tolerance in interconnection networks, in this paper, we treat the problem of embedding Hamiltonian cycles into a crossed cube with failed links. We establish a relationship between the faulty link distribution and the crossed cube's tolerability. A succinct algorithm is proposed to find a Hamiltonian cycle in a CQ n tolerating up to n-2 failed links. © 2012 IEEE.


Peng Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wang F.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wang Z.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Alsayed A.M.,Solvay Group | And 4 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2015

The microscopic kinetics of ubiquitous solid-solid phase transitions remain poorly understood. Here, by using single-particle-resolution video microscopy of colloidal films of diameter-tunable microspheres, we show that transitions between square and triangular lattices occur via a two-step diffusive nucleation pathway involving liquid nuclei. The nucleation pathway is favoured over the direct one-step nucleation because the energy of the solid/liquid interface is lower than that between solid phases. We also observed that nucleation precursors are particle-swapping loops rather than newly generated structural defects, and that coherent and incoherent facets of the evolving nuclei exhibit different energies and growth rates that can markedly alter the nucleation kinetics. Our findings suggest that an intermediate liquid should exist in the nucleation processes of solid-solid transitions of most metals and alloys, and provide guidance for better control of the kinetics of the transition and for future refinements of solid-solid transition theory.


Zhang H.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Wang Q.,Soochow University of China | Mortimer S.R.,University of Reading
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Converting waste cooking oil into biofuel represents a three-win solution, dealing simultaneously with food security, pollution, and energy security. In this paper, we encode the policy documents of waste cooking oil refining biofuel in China based on content analysis, and explore the related policies from the two dimensions as basic policy tools and enterprises supply chain. Research indicates the weak institution coordination of policy issuing entities. Also, the findings show that tools of regulatory control and goal planning are overused. Policies of government procurement, outsourcing and biofuel consumption are relatively scarce. Generally, government focuses more on formulating policies from the strategic, administrative and regulatory aspects, while less on market-oriented initiatives as funding input and financial support. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li X.,Soochow University of China | Wang L.,Soochow University of China | Chen G.,Soochow University of China | Haddleton D.M.,University of Warwick | Chen H.,Soochow University of China
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

Herein visible light is used to induce RAFT polymerization from protein for preparing protein-polymer conjugates at ambient temperature. Polymerization is fast and can be conveniently controlled with irradiation time. By site-specific polymerization of NIPAm to protein, the protein activity is maintained and in certain cases it presents an efficient on-off-switchable property. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Liu T.,Soochow University of China | Xu W.,Soochow University of China | Cheng T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yang H.-L.,Soochow University of China
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011

The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review to compare the clinical outcomes and complications of anterior surgery with posterior surgery for multilevel cervical myelopathy (MCM). MEDLINE, EMBASE databases and other databases were searched for all the relevant original articles published from January 1991 to November 2009 comparing anterior with posterior surgery for MCM. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the follow-up years. The following end points were mainly evaluated: final follow-up JOA (Japanese Orthopaedic Association) scale, recovery rate and complication outcomes. Ten articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. For multilevel CSM patients, the final follow-up JOA score for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 0.83 [0.24, 1.43]) in the 'follow-up time ≤5 years' subgroup, but had no significant differences in the 'follow-up time >5 years' subgroup (p > 0.05). The recovery rate for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 10.08 [1.39, 18.78]) in the 'follow-up time ≤5 years' subgroup. No study reported the recovery rate for the follow-up time >5 years. For multilevel OPLL patients, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate for the anterior group were both significantly higher than the posterior group in the 'follow-up time ≤5 years' subgroup (p < 0.05, WMD 2.50 [0.16, 4.85]; p < 0.05, WMD 29.48 [29.09, 29.87], respectively). One study [31] which mean follow-up time was 6 years was enrolled in the 'follow-up time >5 years' subgroup. The results showed there was no significant difference in final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate between anterior and posterior group for patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60% (p > 0.05), while in patients with occupying ratio ≤60%, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate of anterior surgery were both superior to that of posterior surgery (p < 0.05). For both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients, the complications for the anterior group were significantly more than the posterior group in the 'follow-up time ≤5 years' subgroup (p < 0.05, OR 7.33 [2.96, 18.20] for CSM patients; p < 0.05, OR 4.44 [1.80, 10.98] for OPLL patients), but were similar to the posterior group in the 'follow-up time >5 years' subgroup (p > 0.05). In conclusion, anterior surgery had better clinical outcomes and more complications at the early stage after operation for both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients. At the late stage, posterior surgery had similar clinical outcomes and complications to anterior surgery for CSM patients, and OPLL patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60%. While for OPLL patients with occupying ratio ≥60%, anterior surgery had superior clinical outcome to posterior surgery. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Lu J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang W.,Soochow University of China | Richards S.-J.,University of Warwick | Gibson M.I.,University of Warwick | Chen G.,Soochow University of China
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

Side-chain functionalized glycopolymers have been successfully prepared in a well-controlled manner via a copper(0)-catalyzed one-pot reaction combining living radical polymerisation and 'click chemistry'. The polymerisation was confirmed by the first-order kinetic plots, the linear relationships between molecular weights and the monomer conversions while keeping relatively narrow polydispersity (<1.33). The click conversion and polymerisation conversion versus reaction time plots for a Cu(0)-catalyzed one-pot reaction elucidate that the rates of click reaction are significantly faster than the polymerisation rates. Modified gold nanorods (GNRs) with glycopolymeric coatings were prepared through the interaction of Au-S bonds and the glycopolymer substituted GNRs showed strong, specific molecular recognition abilities with lectin (PNA). © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Qin J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Luo M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Qian H.,Soochow University of China | Chen W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Gene | Year: 2014

Chemotherapy plays a crucial role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment especially for patients with advanced HCC. Cisplatin is one of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of HCC. However, acquisition of cisplatin resistance is common in patients with HCC, and the underlying mechanism of such resistance is not fully understood. In the study, we focused on identifying the role of miRNAs in chemotherapy resistance after cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. We assayed the expression level of miR-182 after cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced HCC, and defined the biological functions by real-time PCR analysis and CCK-8 assay. We found that miR-182 levels were significantly increased in HCC patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. miR-182 levels were also higher in cisplatin-resistant HepG2 (HepG2-R) cells than in HepG2 cells. Upregulated miR-182 significantly increased the cell viability, whereas miR-182 knockdown reduced the cell viability during cisplatin treatment. miR-182 inhibition also partially overcame cisplatin resistance in HepG2-R cell. Furthermore, we found that upregulated miR-182 inhibited the expression of tumor suppressor gene TP53INP1 (tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein1) in vitro. In vivo, miR-182 and TP53INP1 expression was negatively correlated. We finally demonstrated that miR-182 increased cisplatin resistance of HCC cell, partly by targeting TP53INP1. These data suggest that miR-182/TP53INP1 signaling represents a novel pathway regulating chemoresistance, thus offering a new target for chemotherapy of HCC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Shen G.,Soochow University of China | Shen Y.,Ciena | Sardesai H.P.,Ciena
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2011

We develop a framework that supports impairment-aware lightpath routing and wavelength assignments in optical transport networks. Different from most existing studies, we consider a more generic optical transport network with physical-layer heterogeneity, including different fiber types, variable amplification span distances and attenuation coefficients. In addition, rather than a single amplifier type as in most of the existing studies, we consider multiple amplifier types for different amplification situations. Owing to the high cost of OEO regeneration, the total number of required regenerators is considered as the major objective for optimization. A signal-quality-aware routing algorithm is developed to find routes that are expected to require the fewest regenerators. The first-fit wavelength assignment algorithm is extended to assign wavelength(s) for lightpaths after placement of some regenerators which can freely function as wavelength converters. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of regenerators compared to the simple shortest-path routing algorithm. Moreover, it is found that the signal-quality-aware algorithm shows stronger benefits when a network demonstrates higher physical-layer heterogeneity such as different fiber types and non-uniform span losses. The signal-quality-aware algorithm also demonstrates better performance when a network has a higher average nodal degree. Finally, the results indicate that multiple amplifier options are important for cost-effective optical transport network design. For a network with high physical-layer heterogeneity, multiple amplifier options can significantly reduce the required number of regenerators (up to 50%) over a single amplifier option. © 2006 IEEE.


Yang Y.,Nanjing Audit University | Yang Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China
Extremes | Year: 2013

Let the random vector (X,Y) follow a bivariate Sarmanov distribution, where X is real-valued and Y is nonnegative. In this paper we investigate the impact of such a dependence structure between X and Y on the tail behavior of their product Z = XY. When X has a regularly varying tail, we establish an asymptotic formula, which extends Breiman's theorem. Based on the obtained result, we consider a discrete-time insurance risk model with dependent insurance and financial risks, and derive the asymptotic and uniformly asymptotic behavior for the (in)finite-time ruin probabilities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Li C.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Meng X.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Liu X.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Li F.,CAS Institute of Electronics | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We experimentally demonstrate the first metamaterial "illusion optics" device-an "invisible gateway" by using a transmission-line medium. The device contains an open channel that can block waves at a particular frequency range. We also demonstrate that such a device can work in a broad frequency range. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Ji Y.,Soochow University of China | Idrissi K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2012

Facial expression's machine analysis is one of the most challenging problems in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Naturally, facial expressions depend on subtle movements of facial muscles to show emotional states. After having studied the relations between basic expressions and corresponding facial deformation models, we propose two new textons, VTB and moments on spatiotemporal plane, to describe the transformation of human face during facial expressions. These descriptors aim at catching both general shape changes and motion texture details. Therefore, modeling the temporal behavior of facial expression captures the dynamic deformation of facial components. Finally, SVM based system is used to efficiently recognize the expression for a single image in sequence. Then, the probabilities of all the frames are used to predict the class of the current sequence. The experimental results are evaluated on both Cohan-Kanade and MMI databases. By comparison to other methods, the effectiveness of our method is clearly demonstrated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wan L.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Xu S.,Soochow University of China | Xu S.,Pennsylvania State University | Liao M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB) equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the "charge regulation" behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ξ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surfacenonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO) effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied electric field, a pulse of fluid flow is followed by relaxation to a new ion distribution, owing to the diffusive counter current. We have numerically evaluated the Onsager coefficients associated with the EO effect, L21, and its reverse streaming potential effect, L12, and show that L12 = L21 in accordance with the Onsager relation. We conclude by noting some of the challenges ahead.


Liu F.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Huang X.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Chan C.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We show that two-dimensional phononic crystals exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at k - =0 by exploiting dipole and quadrupole accidental degeneracy. While the equifrequency surface of Dirac cone modes is almost isotropic, such systems exhibit super-anisotropy, meaning that only transverse waves are allowed along certain directions, while only longitudinal waves are allowed along some other directions. Only one mode, not two, is allowed near the Dirac point, and only two effective parameters, not four, are needed to describe the dispersion. Effective medium theory finds that the phononic crystals have effectively zero mass density and zero 1/C44eff at the Dirac point. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the unusual elastic wave properties near the Dirac point frequency. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Texter J.,Eastern Michigan University | Texter J.,Soochow University of China
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is key to obtaining high-performance properties. We present a simple kinetic model for exfoliation that is readily solved analytically. Random and irreversible sheet separation is postulated in the presence of highly effective stabilizers. This model appears to quantitatively fit graphene exfoliation data, and it illuminates mechanistic aspects of exfoliation. Thicker sheets exfoliate much faster than trilayer and bilayer sheets. Exfoliation follows highly activated diffusion-controlled intercalation of stabilizer into inter-sheet galleries. Application to the most concentrated graphene exfoliation data available supports these assumptions and provides insight for practical treatment regimens. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Jia J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Q.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

In cognitive radio networks, secondary users need to first discover neighbours and form communication links, referred to as the rendezvous process. Rendezvous between any two secondary users can only be achieved on the same channel. However, spectrum heterogeneity in cognitive radio networks complicates the rendezvous process. While most of the existing works study pair-wise rendezvous and design channel hopping sequence, in this paper we focus on the general rendezvous problem for multiple users where each user needs to discover all of its neighbours. We propose to maintain and exchange rendezvous information among encountered users, and leverage rendezvous information spread within the network to accelerate the rendezvous process. With such an idea, we propose a general message passing based framework for rendezvous protocol design, which is flexible to incorporate the existing sequence generation algorithms. For the framework, we formulate rendezvous problems from the perspective of individual user, prove the NP-completeness, and propose an efficient greedy channel switching algorithm. Based on the framework, we design several rendezvous protocols for single-hop and multi-hop networks. When channel hopping sequence generation algorithms with guaranteed rendezvous between any two users are used, the rendezvous with the proposed protocols can still be guaranteed. Simulations demonstrate that the rendezvous performance is greatly improved. © 2013 IEEE.


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Elagan S.K.,Taif University | Elagan S.K.,Menoufia University | Li Z.B.,Qujing Normal University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann-Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wu Z.,Monash University | Wu W.D.,Soochow University of China | Liu W.,Monash University | Selomulya C.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Drying to meet you: Using microfluidic jet spray drying technology in conjunction with the evaporation-induced self-assembly strategy gives fast assembly (2 s) of mesoporous carbon microspheres. The key feature of the drying is the formation of a rigid silica crust which locks the particle size and shape. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhou J.,Soochow University of China | Wang M.,Soochow University of China | Wong M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2011

Degradation of p-channel poly-Si thin-film transistors under dynamic negative bias temperature (NBT) stress has been studied. A two-stage degradation behavior is observed under the dynamic NBT stress. Device threshold voltage (Vth) shifts toward positive values in the first stage to more negative values in the second stage. The capacitance-voltage characteristic indicates a negative-charge generation in the gate oxide during the dynamic NBT stress, which is responsible for the positive Vth shift, while the well-known dc NBT instability effect causes the negative Vth shift. The dynamic effect is more significant under dynamic NBT stress with shorter pulse falling time and/or higher pulse amplitude. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the negative-charge generation under the dynamic NBT stress. © 2006 IEEE.


Peng L.,Soochow University of China | Youn C.-H.,KAIST | Tang W.,South-Central University for Nationalities | Qiao C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose to apply a novel paradigm called labeled optical burst switching with home circuit (LOBS-HC) for intradatacenter networking to provide a high bisection bandwidth and significantly reduce the cost and energy consumption associated with electronic packet switching. The unique features of LOBS-HC that make it more suitable than either optical circuit switching (OCS) or optical packet/burst switching are exploited to enable all-to-all communications with a guaranteed lossless transmission bandwidth between any given pair of pods, while also supporting bursty transmissions through wavelength-sharing among home circuits (HCs) and statistical multiplexing. As a case study, hypercube-like topologies are considered for the interconnection among the pods within a datacenter. In particular, we first propose a simple but efficient HC assignment scheme called complementary HC for 2-D cube or ring, and then extend our works to n-cube and generalized hypercube by applying the concept of spanning balanced tree (SBT) for their HC assignment. Our analysis results show that with such datacenters, the minimum number of wavelengths needed in each case is significantly reduced from that needed with OCS and also, the network cost in terms of wires and transceivers needed is considerably reduced from that incurs with datacenters using electronic packet switching. We then evaluate the traffic performance of such hypercube-based datacenters using LOBS-HC through simulation experiments via the OPNET simulator. The performance results obtained for a variety of communication patterns and traffic models within a datacenter demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhang Y.-N.,Soochow University of China | Sun Z.-Z.,Nanjing Southeast University | Liao H.-L.,PLA University of Science and Technology
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014

Since fractional derivatives are integrals with weakly singular kernel, the discretization on the uniform mesh may lead to poor accuracy. The finite difference approximation of Caputo derivative on non-uniform meshes is investigated in this paper. The method is applied to solve the fractional diffusion equation and a semi-discrete scheme is obtained. The unconditional stability and H1 norm convergence are proved. A fully discrete difference scheme is constructed with space discretization by compact difference method. The error estimates are established for two kinds of nonuniform meshes. Numerical tests are carried out to support the theoretical results and comparing with the method on uniform grid shows the efficiency of our methods. Moreover, a moving local refinement technique is introduced to improve the temporal accuracy of numerical solution. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Li H.,Soochow University of China | Wu H.,Minjiang University | Shi J.-L.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

A hierarchical meso-/microporous aluminosilicate has been synthesized through kinetic control over the competition balance between mesoporous self-assembly and microporous zeolite crystallization by using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as meso- and micro-porogens, respectively. A very small pH value range of 11.10-11.30, which can be well tuned by added ethanol volume fraction and/or NaOH addition, was found to be suitable for the formation of mesoporous zeolite without phase separation. Balanced inorganic species adsorptions onto the meso- and microtemplates, and the subsequent electrostatic interaction between such adsorption-formed meso- and micro-colloids are discussed and proposed to be the two key underlined mechanisms in the successful synthesis. The material shows perfect crystallization of zeolite frameworks and relatively high surface area and meso-/micropore volumes. The prepared mesoporous zeolite showed much higher catalytic activity in the reaction between lauric acid and ethanol than those when using both amorphous mesoporous materials and conventional ZSM-5 zeolite as catalysts. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Chan C.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Sheng P.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Zou G.F.,Soochow University of China | Zhao J.,Soochow University of China | Luo H.M.,New Mexico State University | McCleskey T.M.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

In this tutorial article, the recent development of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) for the growth of a wide range of materials, in particular in thin films, is reviewed. Specifically, we describe the unique chemistry and processes of PAD for the deposition of metals, metal-oxides, metal-nitrides, metal-carbides, and their derived composites. Many examples are given not only to illustrate the powerfulness of PAD for high quality coatings, but also to give readers an opportunity to evaluate this technique for specific applications. The challenging issues related to PAD, based on the authors' experience, are also discussed in this review article. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Wu Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.-Q.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Yunker P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Chen K.,University of Pennsylvania | Zhang Z.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.,Rhodia | Yodh A.G.,University of Pennsylvania
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We investigate the influence of morphology and size on the vibrational properties of disordered clusters of colloidal particles with attractive interactions. Spectral features of the vibrational modes are found to depend strongly on the average number of nearest neighbors, NN̄, but only weakly on the number of particles in each glassy cluster. In particular, the median phonon frequency, ωmed, is constant for NN̄<2 and then grows linearly with NN̄ for NN̄>2. This behavior parallels concurrent observations about local isostatic structures, which are absent in clusters with NN̄<2 and then grow linearly in number for NN̄>2. Thus, cluster vibrational properties appear to be strongly connected to cluster mechanical stability, and the scaling of ωmed with NN̄ is reminiscent of the jamming transition. Simulations of random networks of springs corroborate observations. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Zhang Z.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.,Rhodia | Yunker P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Habdas P.,Saint Joseph's University | Yodh A.G.,University of Pennsylvania
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Water-lutidine mixtures permit the interparticle potentials of colloidal particles suspended therein to be tuned, in situ, from repulsive to attractive. We employ these systems to directly elucidate the effects of interparticle potential on glass dynamics in experimental samples composed of the same particles at the same packing fractions. Cooperative rearrangement regions (CRRs) and heterogeneous dynamics are observed in both types of glasses. Compared to repulsive glasses, the attractive glass dynamics are found to be heterogeneous over a wider range of time and length scales, and its CRRs involve more particles. Additionally, the CRRs are observed to be stringlike structures in repulsive glasses and compact structures in attractive glasses. Thus, the experiments demonstrate explicitly that glassy dynamics can depend on the sign of the interparticle interaction. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Li H.,Soochow University of China | Wu H.-z.,Minjiang University | Xiao G.-x.,Soochow University of China
Powder Technology | Year: 2010

Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The effects of synthetic conditions on particle sizes and magnetic properties were investigated by TEM, XRD, and VSM. The results show that the concentrations of metal ions were the key factors not only on the particle size of NiFe2O4 but also on their magnetic properties. The pH value influenced greatly the magnetic properties through the reacted impurities. Once the reactions were given high enough temperature and long enough time, the particles would reach their 'mature' size and relative stable magnetic properties due to more perfect structure and more relaxed structural stress, therefore they showed much lower Hc and higher Ms than that of "immatured" particles. During the growing period of the particles, however, the temperature and the time play predominant roles on the particle size and on the diminishment of impurity. In the growing period of these nanoparticles, the magnetic properties have been demonstrated to follow some size-dependent law. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang X.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.,Soochow University of China | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China | Yang S.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Kang Z.,Soochow University of China
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The slow photon effect of a photonic crystal (PC) is a promising characteristic for tuning light-matter interactions through material structure designing. A TiO2 bi-layer structure photoanode was constructed by fabricating a TiO2 PC layer through a template-assisted sol-gel process on a TiO2 nanorod array (NR) layer. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with an average size of about 10 nm were deposited in situ into the TiO2 bi-layer structure. The extended photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting activity in visible light was ascribed to the energetic hot electrons and holes that were generated in the Au NPs through the excitation and decay of surface plasmons. By alternating the characteristic pore size of the TiO2 PC layer, the slow photon region at the red edge of the photonic band gap could be purposely tuned to overlap with the strong localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) region of Au NPs. The matching slow photon effect of TiO2 PC (with a characteristic pore size of 250 nm) intensified the SPR responses (central at 536 nm) of Au NPs. Consequently, more hot electrons were generated in the Au NPs and injected into the conduction band of TiO 2, resulting in improved PEC water splitting efficiency in the visible light region. Under simulated sunlight illumination, the photoconversion efficiency of the well matching Au/TiO2 photoanode approached 0.71%, which is one of the highest values ever reported in Au/TiO2 PEC systems. The work reported here provides support for designing coupling plasmonic nanostructures with PC-based materials to synergistically enhance PEC water splitting efficiency. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Huang X.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Hang Z.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

A zero-refractive-index metamaterial is one in which waves do not experience any spatial phase change, and such a peculiar material has many interesting wave-manipulating properties. These materials can in principle be realized using man-made composites comprising metallic resonators or chiral inclusions, but metallic components have losses that compromise functionality at high frequencies. It would be highly desirable if we could achieve a zero refractive index using dielectrics alone. Here, we show that by employing accidental degeneracy, dielectric photonic crystals can be designed and fabricated that exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at the centre of the Brillouin zone at a finite frequency. In addition to many interesting properties intrinsic to a Dirac cone dispersion, we can use effective medium theory to relate the photonic crystal to a material with effectively zero permittivity and permeability. We then numerically and experimentally demonstrate in the microwave regime that such dielectric photonic crystals with reasonable dielectric constants manipulate waves as if they had near-zero refractive indices at and near the Dirac point frequency. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Wu Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


England D.,Eastern Michigan University | Yan F.,Eastern Michigan University | Yan F.,Soochow University of China | Texter J.,Eastern Michigan University
Langmuir | Year: 2013

A polymerizable ionic liquid surfactant, 1-(11-acryloyloxyundecyl)-3- methylimidiazolium bromide (ILBr), was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in aqueous microemulsions at 30% (ILBr w/w) and various water to MMA ratios. The ternary phase diagram of the ILBr/MMA/water system was constructed at 25 and 60 C. Homopolymers and copolymers of ILBr and MMA were produced by thermally initiated chain radical microemulsion polymerization at various compositions in bicontinuous and reverse microemulsion subdomains. Microemulsion polymerization reaction products varied from being gel-like to solid, and these materials were analyzed by thermal and scanning electron microscopy methods. Microemulsion polymerized materials were insoluble in all solvents tested, consistent with light cross-linking. Ion exchange between Br- and PF6 - in these copolymeric materials resulted in the formation of open-cell porous structures in some of these materials, as was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several compositions illustrate the capture of prepolymerization nanoscale structure by thermally initiated polymerization, expanding the domain of compositions exhibiting this feat and yet to be demonstrated in any other system. Regular cylindrical pores in interpenetrating ILBr-co-MMA and PMMA networks are produced by anion exchange in the absence of templates. A percolating cluster/bicontinuous transition is "captured" by SEM after using anion exchange to visualize the mixed cluster/pore morphology. Some design principles for achieving this capture and for obtaining stimuli responsive solvogels are articulated, and the importance of producing solvogels in capturing the nanoscale is highlighted. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Luo J.,Soochow University of China | Lu W.,Soochow University of China | Hang Z.,Soochow University of China | Chen H.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We propose a method to control electromagnetic flux in an almost arbitrary way in wavelength and subwavelength scales. The capability of subwavelength flux control is enabled by the evanescent waves induced in a class of inhomogeneous anisotropic media with a near-zero permittivity component. By designing the spatial profile of the other permittivity component in such inhomogeneous media, the flow and distribution of energy flux can be conveniently manipulated. This method provides another approach to efficiently control electromagnetic flux in nonmagnetic media. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Jiang C.,Soochow University of China | Wang X.-F.,Soochow University of China | Wang X.-F.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology | Zhai M.-X.,Soochow University of China
Carbon | Year: 2014

The nonlinear spin-dependent transport properties in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) edge doped by an atom of group III and V elements are studied systematically using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's functions. The dopant type, acceptor or donor, and the geometrical symmetry, odd or even, are found critical in determining the spin polarization of the current and the current-voltage characteristics. For ZGNRs substitutionally doped on the lower-side edge, the down (up) spin current dominates in odd-(even-) width ZGNRs under a bias voltage around 1 V. Remarkably, in even-width ZGNRs, doped by group III elements (B and Al), negative differential resistance (NDR) occurs only for down spins. The bias range of the spin NDR increases with the width of ZGNRs. The clear spin NDR is not observed in any odd-width ZGNRs nor in even-width ZGNRs doped by group V elements (N and P). This peculiar spin NDR of edge doped ZGNRs suggests potential applications in spintronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Gu H.,Soochow University of China | Lin W.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Yuen M.M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

A scalable preparation method for high-quality silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which can be used as the electrical circuits for a broad spectrum of ultralow-cost, recyclable, foldable electronics, is presented. Paper-based radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, light-emitting diode (LED) chip arrays, and 3D origami electrical devices are synthesized. The signal transmittance and biodecomposition of the RFID tags are investigated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xu Y.,Soochow University of China | Du S.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Gao L.,Soochow University of China | Chen H.,Soochow University of China
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we show that a perfect lens can be employed to make multiple objects appear like only one object in the far field, leading to a new concept in illusion optics. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the functionalities for both passive and active objects. The conceptual device can be utilized to enhance the illumination brightness for both incoherent and coherent systems. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Ning H.,Beihang University | Wang Z.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2011

Internet of things (IoT) is fascinating; its future architecture is still under construction. Based on the analysis on the basic and essential characters of IoT, this paper deals with Future IoT architecture in two aspects: Unit IoT and Ubiquitous IoT. Focusing on a special application, the architecture of the Unit IoT is built from man like neural network (MLN) model and its modified model. Ubiquitous IoT refers to the global IoT or the integration of multiple Unit IoTs with "ubiquitous" characters, and its architecture employs social organization framework (SOF) model. The models for Future IoT are not only helpful to interpret the relationship between IoT and reality world, but also beneficial to the implementation of IoT in its current development milieu. © 2011 IEEE.


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Chen H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Chan C.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2010

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Neukirch A.J.,University of Rochester | Guo Z.,Soochow University of China | Prezhdo O.V.,University of Rochester
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Relaxation of plasmon excitations through the phonon channel is investigated in a silver nanocrystal with a surface-hopping Kohn-Sham density functional theory in the time domain. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Plasmons delocalize away from the nanocrystal core and couple to a narrow range of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Higher energy plasmon excitations tend to be more delocalized, exhibit weaker coupling to phonons, and relax more slowly than lower energy plasmons. The phonon-induced plasmon relaxation occurs on a picosecond time scale. This is two orders of magnitude longer than the time scale of elastic plasmon-phonon scattering, which contributes to the line-width of plasmon resonances via the pure-dephasing mechanism. The phonon-induced energy relaxation of plasmons in metallic particles is somewhat slower than that of charge carriers in semiconducting nanoscale materials. The difference can be attributed to the extended nature of plasmon excitations, resulting in a weaker interaction with phonons and coupling only to low-frequency vibrations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Yu Y.M.,Pukyong National University | Tsuboi T.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Optics Express | Year: 2012

The self-activated yellow-emitting phosphors of vanadates Ca 5M4(VO4)6 (M = Mg, Zn) were synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. The formation of single phase compound with garnet structure was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The excitation and emission spectra and the thermal quenching of luminescence intensities were measured. The different luminescence properties of Ca5Mg4(VO4)6 and Ca 5Zn4(VO4)6 phosphors were presented, e.g., the spectra shift, the luminescence lifetimes, the absolute quantum efficiency, the color coordinates and the Stokes shift. This deference was discussed on the base of the relationship between the micro-structure and the charge transfer transitions in [VO4]3- groups in the lattices. Ca5Mg4(VO4)6 could be suggested to be a potential yellow-emitting phosphor for the application on near-UV excited white LEDs. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Tang Y.,Soochow University of China | Xu H.,University of California at Los Angeles
Biometrika | Year: 2014

Fractional factorial designs are widely used in screening experiments. They are often chosen by the minimum aberration criterion, which regards factor levels as symbols. For designs with quantitative factors, however, permuting the levels for one or more factors could alter their geometrical structures and statistical properties. We provide a justification of the minimum β-aberration criterion for quantitative factors and study level permutations for regular fractional factorial designs in order to improve their efficiency for screening quantitative factors. We show how regular designs can be linearly permuted to reduce contamination of nonnegligible interactions on the estimation of linear effects without increasing the run size. We further show that such linear permutations are unique under the minimum β-aberration criterion and the best level permutations can be determined without an exhaustive search. We establish additional theoretical results for three-level designs and obtain the best level permutations for regular designs with 27 and 81 runs. We illustrate the practical benefits of level permutation with an antiviral drug combination experiment. © 2014 Biometrika Trust.


Liu Y.-S.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.-S.,Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials | Wang X.-F.,Soochow University of China | Chi F.,Bohai University
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Based on nonequilibrium Green's functions (NGF) and density-functional theory (DFT), we investigate the magnetotransport properties and magnetothermoelectric effects in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with non-magnetic doping on the double ribbon edges. One of the carbon atoms without hydrogen saturation in each ribbon edge is replaced by one boron (B) or one nitrogen (N) atom. Compared with boron-boron (BB) and nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) double-edge doping, the boron-nitrogen (BN) double-edge doping induces a perfect spin-filter effect with 100% negative spin polarization at the Fermi level. Moreover, we find that the thermoelectric effect can be enhanced by the double-edge doping. Interestingly, the spin Seebeck effect in NN- and BN-doped ZGNRs becomes comparable with the charge Seebeck effect and even larger than it. These results originate from the spin-dependent transmission node near the Fermi level induced by the non-magnetic doping. These findings strongly suggest that the double-edge-doped ZGNRs are promising materials for spintronics and thermo-spintronics. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ye N.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Neumeyer J.L.,Harvard University | Baldessarini R.J.,McLean Hospital | Zhen X.,Soochow University of China | Zhang A.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Dopamine (DA) is a critical neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The cerebral dopaminergic system is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurobehavioral disorders, including Parkinson's disease and other movement and hyperactivity disorders. The mesocortical system is a neural pathway connecting the ventral tegmentum of midbrain to the cerebral cortex, particularly the mesioprefontal lobes. It is essential to the normal cognitive function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and involved in motivation and emotional response. The mesolimbic system is one of the neural pathways in the brain linking the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) in the limbic system. DA receptors belong to a superfamily of large proteins characterized by having seven relatively hydrophobic segments that are assumed to be cell-membrane spanning. They are coupled to G proteins that interact with several membrane or cytoplasmic effector molecules (usually enzymes, transporters, or ion channels) that regulate neuronal functions.


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Nakai Y.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Tsuboi T.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

The novel red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated Ca 2RF4PO4:Eu3+ (R=Gd, Y) prepared by a solid-state reaction have been evaluated as a candidate for white solid state lighting. The detailed luminescence properties, e.g., the excitation spectra, the luminescence spectra and quantum efficiency under the excitation of near-UV, and decay lifetimes were reported. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near UV light and exhibit a dominant emission peaked at 611 nm ( 5D0-7F2) with CIE coordinates of (x=0.661, y=0.333). The thermal stabilities were investigated from the luminescence intensities, color purity and the decay curves by increasing temperature. The luminescence parameters related to white LEDs applications were compared to some red phosphors and discussed in details. The red-emitting Ca2RF4PO4:Eu3+ (R=Gd, Y) may be potentially useful in the fabrication of white LEDs. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Yang C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Lin S.-F.,National Taiwan University | Tseng W.-H.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2014

We demonstrate the nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 powder-based saturable absorber-induced passive mode-locking of the erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with sub-picosecond pulsewidth. Such a nanoscale topological insulator powder is obtained by polishing the bulk p-type Bi2Te3 in a commercial thermoelectric cooler (TE cooler). This is then directly brushed onto the end-face of a single-mode fiber patchcord, to avoid any mis-connecting loss caused by laser beam divergence, which can result in a mode-locked pulsewidth of 436 fs in the self-amplitude modulation mode of a TE cooler. To further shorten the pulse, the soliton compression is operated by well-controlling the group delay dispersion and self-phase modulation, providing the passively mode-locked EDFL with a pulsewidth as short as 403 fs. © 2014 Astro Ltd.


Gu Z.,Luzhi Peoples Hospital | Wang G.,Luzhi Peoples Hospital | Chen W.,Soochow University of China
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Genetic and epigenetic changes in the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) gene, according to multiple lines of evidence, might alter its expression and its downstream signaling thereby increasing the risk of developing prostate cancer. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether polymorphisms in two intronic restriction sites in the ER-α (PvuII and XbaI) gene contribute to prostate cancer. A literature search for eligible studies published before November 5, 2013 was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and CNKI databases. Pooled crude odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Eighteen case-control and cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total 4,884 prostate cancer cases and 10,134 healthy controls. Two common ER-α polymorphisms were examined: IVS1-397 C>T (a.k.a. the PvuII restriction site, rs2234693) and IVS1-351 A>G (a.k.a. the XbaI restriction site, rs9340799). Results from this meta-analysis showed that the PvuII polymorphism was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk in any of the racial subgroups, either by allelic or genotypic frequencies. However, this meta-analysis revealed that the G allele in the XbaI polymorphism was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer. In a stratified analysis based on ethnicity, the XbaI G allele remained significantly correlated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in Africans; this correlation, however, was not found in Caucasians or Asians. In summary, a positive association correlation was observed between frequencies of the XbaI (A>G) polymorphism and prostate cancer, especially in Africans, but not such correlation was found with regard to the frequency of the PvuII (C>T) polymorphism. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Miao R.-X.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Miao R.-X.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Li M.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Optics Express | Year: 2010

We applied the transformation optics to mimic a black hole of Schwarzschild form. Similar properties of photon sphere were also found numerically for the metamaterial black hole. Several reduced versions of the black hole systems were proposed for easier implementations. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Gao Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Gao Y.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Hu G.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhong J.,Soochow University of China | And 6 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Thanks to nitrogen introduced into the layered carbon framework of graphite, the chemical reactivity of the carbon atoms was increased. N-doped graphitic catalysts generate reactive oxygen species and display excellent activity for hydrocarbon activation even at room temperature. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hirao A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Hirao A.,National Taiwan University | Hirao A.,Soochow University of China | Goseki R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ishizone T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

This Perspective presents the development in living anionic polymerization since 1990. The main subjects involve the following concerns of living anionic polymerization: functional styrene derivatives, new monomers and promising additives, the regio- and stereoselective polymerization, special polymers having rigid-rod-like or helical conformations, the synthesis of complex branched polymers composed of comblike segments via living anionic poly(macromonomer)s, and the precise synthesis of macromolecular architectures including multiblock polymers, exact graft polymers, multicomponent μ-star polymers, dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, and hyperbranched polymers by the recently developed methodologies and a new all-around iterative methodology. Throughout the Perspective, attention has focused on recent advances both in the precisely controlled functional polymer syntheses and in various structurally elaborate complex macromolecular architectures. Such advances have significantly expanded the range of available well-defined specialty functional polymers, which have been difficult to synthesize until recently. The future perspectives based on the present situation will also be described. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Zhang S.,Soochow University of China | Nakai Y.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Tsuboi T.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2011

Eu 2+-activated LiBaPO 4 phosphor was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, the temperature dependent luminescence intensities (12-450 K), and decay curves of the phosphor were investigated. With the increasing of temperatures, the emission bands of LiBaPO 4:Eu 2+ show the abnormal blue-shift and the decreasing of emission intensity. The natures of the Eu 2+ emission in LiBaPO 4, for example, the luminescence quenching temperature, and the activation energy for thermal quenching (ΔE), were reported. The afterglow fluorescence was detected in LiBaPO 4:Eu 2+ phosphor. Together with the Eu 2+ luminescence, Eu 3+ ions with the abnormal crystal field were observed. The site-selective excitation in the 5D 0 → 7F 0 region for Eu 3+ ions, emission spectra, and decay curves have been investigated using a pulsed, tunable, and narrowband dye laser to detect the microstructure and crystallographic surrounding of Eu 3+,2+ at Ba 2+ sites in LiBaPO 4. The multiple sites structure of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions in LiBaPO 4 lattices was suggested. The lower quenching temperature, afterglow, and luminescence mechanism were discussed. The photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of LiBaPO 4:Eu 2+ were measured and compared with the reported phosphors. Different from the published data on LiBaPO 4:Eu 2+, this investigation indicates that LiBaPO 4:Eu 2+ is not a good phosphor candidate applied in white light emitting diode.(Figure Presented) © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Liu Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Sun L.,Soochow University of China
AIP Advances | Year: 2014

Making connections is critical in fabrication of MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems). It is also complicated, because the temperature during joining affects both the bond produced and the structure and mechanical properties of the moving parts of the device. Specifications for MEMS packaging require that the temperature not exceed 240 C. However, usually, temperatures can reach up to 300 C during conventional thermosonic wire bonding. Such a temperature will change the distribution of dopants in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) circuits. In this paper we propose a new heating process. A semiconductor laser (wavelength 808 nm) is suggested as the thermal source for wire bonding. The thermal field of this setup was analyzed, and specific mathematical models of the field were built. Experimental results show that the heating can be focused on the bonding pad, and that much lower heat conduction occurs, compared with that during the normal heating method. The bond strength increases with increasing laser power. The bond strengths obtained with laser heating are slightly lower than those obtained with the normal heating method, but can still meet the strength requirements for MEMS. © 2014 Author(s).


Du F.,Soochow University of China | Nakai Y.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Tsuboi T.,Kyoto Sangyo University | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Eu 3+ doped red-emitting phosphors of double phosphates Ca 9R(PO 4) 7 (R = Al, Lu) were synthesized by a general high temperature solid-state reaction. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The detailed luminescence properties, e.g., the emission spectra under the excitation of UV light, the photoluminescence excitation spectra and decay lifetimes were reported. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near UV light to realize an intense red luminescence (613 nm) corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D 0 → 7F 2 of Eu 3+ ions. The luminescence properties and the potential applications were analyzed. These phosphors were investigated by the site-selective emission spectra and the fluorescence decay curves in the 5D 0 → 7F 0 region using a pulsed, tunable, narrowband dye laser. It is suggested that Eu 3+ ions have three different crystallographic sites doped in Ca 9Al(PO 4) 7, and five sites in Ca 9Lu(PO 4) 7 host. The site assignments of Eu 3+ ions in Ca 9R(PO 4) 7 (R = Al, Lu) were discussed on the base of both optical spectroscopy results and structural analysis. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Vijayalaxmi,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Cao Y.,Soochow University of China | Scarfi M.R.,CNR Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment
Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research | Year: 2014

Adaptive response is a phenomenon in which cells which were pre-exposed to extremely low and non-toxic doses of a genotoxic agent became resistant to the damage induced by subsequent exposure to a higher and toxic dose of the same, similar (in action) or another genotoxic agent. Such response has been well documented in scientific literature in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to low doses of physical (especially, ionizing radiation) and chemical mutagens. The existence of similar phenomenon in mammalian cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields has been reported in several research publications. In in vitro studies, human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields and then treated with a genotoxic mutagen or subjected to ionizing radiation showed significantly decreased genetic damage. Similar studies in tumor cells showed significantly increased viability, decreased apoptosis, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased intracellular free Ca2+ and, increased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity. In in vivo studies, exposure of rodents to radiofrequency fields and then to lethal/sub-lethal doses of γ-radiation showed survival advantage, significantly decreased damage in hematopoietic tissues, decreased genetic damage in blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells, increased numbers of colony forming units in bone marrow, increased levels of colony stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in the serum and increased expression of genes related to cell cycle. These observations suggested the ability of radiofrequency fields to induce adaptive response and also indicated some potential mechanisms for the induction of such response. Several gaps in knowledge that need to be investigated were discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.-P.,Soochow University of China | Xiao Y.,Soochow University of China | Deng Y.-H.,Soochow University of China | Duhm S.,Chiba University | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

The charge generation and separation process in transition metal oxide (TMO)-based interconnectors for tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is explored using data on electrical and spectral emission properties, interface energetics, and capacitance characteristics. The TMO-based interconnector is composed of MoO 3 and cesium azide (CsN 3)-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) layers, where CsN 3 is employed to replace the reactive metals as an n-dopant due to its air stability and low deposition temperature. Experimental evidences identify that spontaneous electron transfer occurs in a vacuum-deposited MoO 3 layer from various defect states to the conduction band via thermal diffusion. The external electric-field induces the charge separation through tunneling of generated electrons and holes from MoO 3 into the neighboring CsN 3-doped BPhen and hole-transporting layers, respectively. Moreover, the impacts of constituent materials on the functional effectiveness of TMO-based interconnectors and their influences on carrier recombination processes for light emission have also been addressed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Bao X.,Soochow University of China | Hrovat D.A.,University of North Texas | Borden W.T.,University of North Texas
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

Cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetraone, (CO)4, was computationally predicted and, subsequently, experimentally confirmed to have a triplet ground state, in which a b2g σMO and an a2u πMO were each singly occupied. In contrast, the (U)CCSD(T) calculations reported herein found that cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetrathione, (CS)4, and cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetraselenone, (CSe)4, both had singlet ground states, in which the b2g σMO was doubly occupied and the a 2u πMO was empty. Our calculations showed that both the longer C=X distances and smaller coefficients on the carbon atoms in the b2g and a2uMOs of (CS)4 and (CSe)4 contributed to the difference between the ground states of these two molecules and the ground state of (CO)4. An experimental test of the prediction of a singlet ground state for (CS)4 is proposed. Triple threat: (CO)4 has a triplet ground state, in which a b2g σMO and an a 2u πMO are singly occupied. (U)CCSD(T) calculations found that (CS)4 and (CSe)4 both have singlet ground states, in which the b2g σMO is doubly occupied and the a2u πMO is empty. Both the longer C=X distances and smaller coefficients on the C atoms in the MOs of (CS)4 and (CSe)4 contribute to the difference between the ground states of these molecules. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yu T.,Shandong Ji Ning No 1 Peoples Hospital | Ji J.,Soochow University of China | Guo Y.-L.,Shandong Ji Ning No 1 Peoples Hospital
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Zhao Y.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Soochow University of China | Mai L.,Wuhan University of Technology
Nano Energy | Year: 2015

Ultrathin MoO2 nanosheets encapsulated in carbon matrix were fabricated through a facile interfacial self-assembly of laminar MoO3 nanosheets, followed by thermal reduction to MoO2 mediated by glucose. The resulting MoO2/C nanosheets exhibited a superior Li-storage capacity, retaining 1051mAhg-1 over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.5Ag-1, and 719mAhg-1 over another 100 cycles at a high rate of 5Ag-1 (based on the total mass of MoO2 and carbon). More importantly, the MoO2/C nanosheets exhibit robust rate capability, affording a stable capacity of 544mAhg-1 at an extremely high rate of 10Ag-1, thereby suggesting their great potential as promising electrode materials for high power battery applications such as electric automobiles and power tools. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Jiang L.,Soochow University of China | Chen X.,Nanyang Technological University | Lu N.,Jilin University | Chi L.,Soochow University of China | Chi L.,University of Munster
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusThe ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue.Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs.In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Li Q.,Fudan University | He Y.,Soochow University of China | Chang J.,Fudan University | Wang L.,Jilin University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

In this Communication, we report fabrication of ultrabright water-dispersible silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) with quantum yields (QYs) up to 75% through a novelly designed chemical surface modification. A simple one-pot surface modification was developed that improves the photoluminescent QYs of SiNPs from 8% to 75% and meanwhile makes SiNPs water-dispersible. Time-correlated single photon counting and femtosecond time-resolved photoluminescence techniques demonstrate the emergence of a single and uncommonly highly emissive recombination channel across the entire NP ensemble induced by surface modification. The extended relatively long fluorescence lifetime (FLT), with a monoexponential decay, makes such surface-modified SiNPs suitable for applications involving lifetime measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that the surface-modified SiNPs can be utilized as an extraordinary nanothermometer through FLT imaging. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Jiang Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Wang P.,University of California at Berkeley | Wang P.,Soochow University of China | Zang X.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotube (CNT) forests were grown directly on a silicon substrate using a Fe/Al/Mo stacking layer which functioned as both the catalyst material and subsequently a conductive current collecting layer in pseudocapacitor applications. A vacuum-assisted, in situ electrodeposition process has been used to achieve the three-dimensional functionalization of CNT forests with inserted nickel nanoparticles as pseudocapacitor electrodes. Experimental results have shown the measured specific capacitance of 1.26 F/cm3, which is 5.7 times higher than pure CNT forest samples, and the oxidized nickel nanoparticle/CNT supercapacitor retained 94.2% of its initial capacitance after 10 000 cyclic voltammetry tests. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Li H.,Soochow University of China | Liu R.,Soochow University of China | Lian S.,Soochow University of China | Lian S.,Dalian Polytechnic University | And 3 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Cao X.-H.,Soochow University of China | Pan X.,Soochow University of China | Zhou P.-J.,Soochow University of China | Zou J.-P.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

Mn(OAc)3-mediated direct Csp2-H radical trifluoromethylation of coumarins with CF3SO2Na (Langlois reagent) to afford selective 3-trifluoromethyl coumarins in moderate to good yields is described. This methodology can also be applied to the trifluoromethylation of quinolinones and pyrimidinones. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Xu Y.,Soochow University of China | Li H.,Soochow University of China | Tyc T.,Masaryk University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

Transformation optics has demonstrated its ability to design various novel devices, for example, to change objects' sizes, positions or even shapes. This time we come to another magical manipulation: to change the numbers of sources. In this paper, we will design a new class of gradient index lenses from multivalued optical conformal mapping. We shall call them the conformal lenses. Such lenses can make one active source appear omnidirectionally as two (or many) in-phase sources, each interfering with others. As a self-interference phenomenon, this has not been discussed before. Meanwhile, they can transform multiple in-phase sources into one. Other intriguing illusion effects are also demonstrated. Based on the Riemann sheet analysis, the physics mechanism of such effects are well explained. Finally, we apply transmutation methods to design lenses without any singular material parameters. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Xia R.,CAS Institute of Automation | Zong C.,CAS Institute of Automation | Li S.,Soochow University of China
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

In this paper, we make a comparative study of the effectiveness of ensemble technique for sentiment classification. The ensemble framework is applied to sentiment classification tasks, with the aim of efficiently integrating different feature sets and classification algorithms to synthesize a more accurate classification procedure. First, two types of feature sets are designed for sentiment classification, namely the part-of-speech based feature sets and the word-relation based feature sets. Second, three well-known text classification algorithms, namely naïve Bayes, maximum entropy and support vector machines, are employed as base-classifiers for each of the feature sets. Third, three types of ensemble methods, namely the fixed combination, weighted combination and meta-classifier combination, are evaluated for three ensemble strategies. A wide range of comparative experiments are conducted on five widely-used datasets in sentiment classification. Finally, some in-depth discussion is presented and conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of ensemble technique for sentiment classification. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Xiao J.J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao L.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2015

Based on a full-wave nonlocal Mie theory, we establish the spaser generation condition for compact plasmonic nanolasers in the longwavelength limit for dielectric-metal core-shell nanoparticles. We found that there exist two lasing states arising from the hybridized antibonding and bonding modes for this coated nanolaser. By varying the surrounding medium and the gain materials, we can achieve low gain threshold for each mode with flexible radii ratios on the purpose of realistic easy fabrication. Numerical results show that nonlocal effects have different influences on the required gain threshold and gain refractive index of these two lasing modes, which may be of great importance in the design of such kind of ultrasmall nanoparticle lasers. © 2015 Optical Society of America.


Li X.,Soochow University of China | Zhan Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) in lying configuration can have external quantum efficiency (EQE) over 100% but always in narrowbands with EQE peaks slightly exceeding unit. We presented a rectangular gallium arsenide (GaAs) SNSC, which provides light absorption efficiency (Qabs) and EQE far beyond 100% for both transverse electric and magnetic illuminations, by optimally engineering the nanowires and introducing an advanced nanoshell design. Electromagnetic and carrier transport calculations show that Q abs and EQE peaks of the designed SNSCs can both be over 200% with averaged EQE ∼ 150% in most of the active spectral band of GaAs. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.


Pan C.-W.,Soochow University of China | Pan C.-W.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | Lin Y.,Ghent University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To examine the longitudinal association of overweight/obesity with age-related cataract. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Embase from their inception until June 2013 for prospective data on body mass index categories identical or similar to the World Health Organization-recommended classifications of body weight and age-related cataract including nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models with results reported as adjusted relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: A total of 163,013 subjects aged 40 to 84 years from six prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Obesity was associated with an increasing risk of nuclear cataract (pooled RR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25), cortical cataract (pooled RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.66), and PSC cataract (pooled RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.77). Overweight was only associated with an increasing risk of PSC cataract (pooled RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: The longitudinal associations of obesity with incident age-related cataract are confirmed by the findings in this six-study meta-analysis. The association of obesity with PSC cataract is stronger than that with nuclear or cortical cataract. Randomized control trials are warranted to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of weight reduction in obese populations to decrease the risk of age-related cataract. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.


Dong B.,Dalian Nationalities University | Cao B.,Dalian Nationalities University | He Y.,Dalian Nationalities University | He Y.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

A novel high excited state energy transfer pathway to overcome the phonon quenching effect in rare-earth (RE) oxide upconversion (UC) materials is reported. In Er(Tm)-Yb oxide systems, an extraordinary enhancement of UC luminescence efficiency with four orders of magnitude is realized by Mo co-doping. The RE oxides with significant UC efficiency are successfully utilized for temperature sensing and in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wen W.,Soochow University of China | Wen W.,Huaihua University | Chu X.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2014

Beam wander of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence is investigated. Using the Wigner distribution function, analytical expressions for the second-order moments and second central moments of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence are derived. A general expression of the beam wander for an Airy beam with a spiral phase is obtained. Based on the derived formula, various factors that impact on the beam wander are illustrated numerically. The results show that increasing the topological charge and the characteristic scale, or decreasing the exponential truncation factor, can be used to decrease the beam wander. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Leonhardt U.,University of St. Andrews | Tyc T.,Masaryk University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

Conformal invisibility devices are only supposed to work within the valid range of geometrical optics. Here, we show by numerical simulations and analytical arguments that for certain quantized frequencies, they are nearly perfect even in a regime that clearly violates geometrical optics. The quantization condition follows from the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the stationary Schrödinger equation. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Li L.,Soochow University of China | Lu H.,Soochow University of China | Yang Z.,Zhejiang University | Tong L.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

CdSxSe1-x nanowires with a graded bandgap along the length direction were utilized for field-effect transistors and Schottky junction solar cells. This novel type of nanowires suggests promising electronic and optoelectronic applications in the future. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhan Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Li X.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

Single nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) are typical nanoscale optoelectronic devices with unique photonic and electronic properties, which require precise designs in terms of a comprehensive simulation technique. We present a coupled model for silicon-based SNSCs which solves both Maxwell and semiconductor equations self-consistently using the finite-element method. The light-trapping behavior (e.g., leaky-mode resonances) and carrier generation/recombination inside the nanowire cavity are simulated and analyzed especially by addressing the effects of semiconductor doping, surface recombination, and device dimension on the performance of the solar cells. The absorption efficiency, external quantum efficiency, and current-voltage characteristics have been obtained for a complete evaluation of SNSCs. © 1995-2012 IEEE.


Chen L.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao Q.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Peng H.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

P-Glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, plays a crucial role in drug pharmacokinetic properties (ADME), and is critical for multidrug resistance (MDR) by mediating the active transport of anticancer drugs from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Here we reported an original database of 1273 molecules that are categorized into P-gp inhibitors and noninhibitors. The impact of various physicochemical properties on P-gp inhibition was examined. We then built the decision trees from a training set of 973 compounds using the recursive partitioning (RP) technique and validated by an external test set of 300 compounds. The best decision tree correctly predicted 83.5% of the inhibitors and 67.0% of the noninhibitors in the test set. Finally, we applied naive Bayesian categorization modeling to establish classifiers for P-gp inhibitors. The Bayesian classifier gave average correct prediction for 81.7% of 973 compounds in the training set with leave-one-out cross-validation procedure and 81.2% of 300 compounds in the test set. By establishing multiple decision trees and Bayesian classifiers, we evaluated the impact of molecular fingerprints on classification by the prediction accuracy for the test set, and we found that the inclusion of molecular fingerprints improves the prediction obviously. As an unsupervised learner without tuning parameters, the Bayesian classifier employing fingerprints highlights the important structural fragments favorable or unfavorable for P-gp transport, which provides critical information for designing new efficient P-gp inhibitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Chen G.-C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Qin L.-Q.,Soochow University of China | Ye J.-K.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the gender-specific differences in the relationship between circulating leptin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. Published prospective studies that reported the association of leptin levels with risk of type 2 diabetes for a certain gender or those that reported gender-specific associations were considered. Dose-response relationships were assessed by the generalized least squares trend estimation and summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed with the random-effects model. Stratified and sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. Overall, 11 prospective studies were identified. The summary RR for an increment in leptin levels of 1-log ngmL-1 was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.13-1.66) for men and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90-1.03) for women. The differences between genders were statistically significant (P for interaction=0.006). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses generally confirmed the robustness of these findings. Furthermore, the increased risk in men appeared non-linear, with a tendency to plateau at high levels (P for non-linearity=0.03). Little evidence of publication bias was found. Collectively, higher leptin levels were found to be associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Dong X.-H.,Soochow University of China | Dong X.-H.,Hebei North University | Zhen X.-C.,Soochow University of China
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Summary: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and severe mental disorder with recurrent episodes of mania and depression. In addition to neuronal alterations, accumulating evidences have revealed the importance of glial system in pathophysiology and phenotype of the illness. Postmortem studies have repeatedly demonstrated the alterations in glial cells and its functions in patients with BD. The activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines are proposed to be the potential biomarkers that may help to predict disease exacerbation in BD. On the other hand, anti-BD drugs have been shown to produce profound effects on glial activity, which not only contributes to the therapeutic efficacy, but may also provide a potential target for the drug development of BD. We will focus on the recent development of glial abnormalities and potential therapeutic benefits targeted to glial modulation in BD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Liu D.,Soochow University of China | Liu D.,Huaibei Normal University | Lang J.-P.,Soochow University of China | Abrahams B.F.,University of Melbourne
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

The SCSC transformation of a 1D polymer [Cd(1,3-bdc)(4-spy) 2]n produced a 2D polymer [Cd(1,3-bdc)(4-spy)(HT-ppcb) 0.5]n through the [2+2] photodimerization reaction. Hydrothermal reactions of HT-ppcb with CdCl2, 1,3-H2bdc and H2O2 afforded another 2D polymer {[Cd(H 2O)(1,3-bdc)(bpbpf)]·H2O}n in which HT-ppcb underwent in situ oxidation to form a unique furan-based ligand bpbpf.© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Zhang W.,Soochow University of China | Zhang W.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Yoshida K.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Fujiki M.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Zhu X.,Soochow University of China
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

A trans-cis photoisomerizable achiral polymer, poly[(9,9-di-n- octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-4,4′-azobenzene] (F8AZO), was designed. The chirality of (S)- and (R)-limonene used as a solvent allowed for the generation of optically active F8AZO aggregates, revealing intense circular dichroism (CD) signals in the visible region. The reversible chiroptical response was achieved upon alternating photoirradiation at 405 nm (trans-form) and 546 nm (cis-form). This ability originated from the switching between the trans-origin aggregation and cis-origin disaggregation of F8AZO in the limonene-2-propanol-chloroform tersolvent. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Liu D.,Soochow University of China | Liu D.,Huaibei Normal University | Wang H.-F.,Soochow University of China | Abrahams B.F.,University of Melbourne | Lang J.-P.,Soochow University of China
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

A 2D network [Zn4(OH)2(5-NO2-1,3-BDC) 2(5-NO2-1,3-HBDC)2(ppene)2] n underwent a highly selective [2+2] photodimerization reaction upon UV irradiation. The coordination polymer retains its single crystallinity after photoreaction. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Xu X.,Soochow University of China | Deng Y.,University of Maryland University College | Yim D.N.,University of Maryland University College | Zavalij P.Y.,University of Maryland University College | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Chemical Science | Year: 2015

β-Lactam derivatives are produced through intermediate donor-acceptor cyclopropene intermediates in high yield, exclusive cis-diastereoselectivity, and high enantiocontrol in a chiral dirhodium carboxylate catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction of enoldiazoacetamides. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lochbihler H.,Louisenthal GmbH | Ye Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

A concept of two-dimensional periodic subwavelength gratings exhibiting different reflectance on the front and back sides is presented. This structure incorporates an arrangement of a metalized hole array and a nanodot array on top. We exemplify the optical properties for an aluminum grating with 243 nm period, and we demonstrate its color filtering properties for unpolarized light in reflectance as well as in transmittance yielding different colors for frontside and backside illumination. These findings have been confirmed by a numerical study. The gratings may be replicated by a simple nanoimprint process on plastic foils predestined for industrial mass production. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Dhaini A.R.,University of Waterloo | Ho P.-H.,University of Waterloo | Ho P.-H.,Soochow University of China | Shen G.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2011

Energy saving in telecom networks in general and in optical IP networks in particular has been a growing field of research. Next-generation passive optical network, which is considered one of the most promising optical access networks, has notably matured in the past few years and is envisioned to massively evolve in the near future. This trend will increase the power requirements of NG-PON and make it no longer coveted. This article first provides a comprehensive survey of the previously reported studies on tackling this problem. A novel solution framework is then introduced, which aims to explore the maximum design dimensions and achieve the best possible power saving while maintaining the QoS requirements for each type of service. Results demonstrate the merits of the proposed framework. © 2011 IEEE.


Hong G.,Soochow University of China | Hong G.,City University of Hong Kong | Wu Q.-H.,Quanzhou Normal University | Ren J.,Soochow University of China | And 4 more authors.
Nano Today | Year: 2013

Graphene holds great promise in wide-ranging applications due to its novel electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties. In many applications, graphene needs to be integrated with other materials, it is thus important to understand the surface physics and chemistry of graphene. Understanding the adsorption behavior of organic molecules on graphene is an important issue to develop the full potential of graphene-based organic electronic devices. This article reviews the interfacial morphologies and electronic structures between organic molecules and graphene, prepared on different substrates. Generally, adsorption of organic molecules on graphene exhibits two important characteristics: (1) formation of well-ordered organic layers based on the graphene template and (2) occurrence of charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and graphene, offering the promise in tuning the electronic properties of graphene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang L.,Soochow University of China | Ye X.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Wei W.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Wang Z.,Soochow University of China
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

FBW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7) or Fbxw7 is a tumor suppressor, which promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of numerous oncoproteins including Mcl-1, Cyclin E, Notch, c- Jun, and c-Myc. In turn, FBW7 is regulated by multiple upstream factors including p53, C/EBP-δ, EBP2, Pin1, Hes-5 and Numb4 as well as by microRNAs such as miR-223, miR-27a, miR-25, and miR-129-5p. Given that the Fbw7 tumor suppressor is frequently inactivated or deleted in various human cancers, targeting FBW7 regulators is a promising anticancer therapeutic strategy.


Jiang K.,Soochow University of China | Ye C.,Soochow University of China | Zhang P.,Soochow University of China | Wang X.,University of Waterloo | Zhao Y.,Soochow University of China
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

An original strategy is presented to synthesize homopolymers and diblock copolymers grafted graphene oxide by simultaneous coupling reaction and RAFT process. Z-functionalized S-methoxycarbonylphenylmethyl S′-3- (trimethoxysilyl)propyltrithiocarbonate (MPTT) and R-functionalized S-4-(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl S′-propyltrithiocarbonate (TBPT) were used as couplable RAFT agents to prepare the target nanocomposites. Under similar conditions, MPTT-mediated grafting reaction was liable to afford grafted chains with shorter chain length, narrower molecular weight distribution and lower grafting density than TBPT-based reaction owing to increased shielding effect and different grafting process. The grafted polymers had nearly controlled molecular weight and polydispersity ranging between 1.11 and 1.38, and the apparent molar grafting ratio was estimated to be 73.6-220 μmol/g as the molecular weights of grafted polymers were in the range of 3980-12500 g/mol. The improved solubility and dispersibility of GO-polymer composites in various solvents comprising hexane and water confirmed their amphiphilicity. The grafting process offers an opportunity to alter GO morphologies, and surface morphologies involving nanosheets, nanoparticles, and nanorods were observed as the composites were dispersed in different solvents with the aid of sonication treatment. This tandem approach is promising for surface modification of solid substrates with hydroxyl surface due to its mild conditions, straightforward synthesis and good controllability. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wang Z.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Wang Z.,Soochow University of China | Liu P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Inuzuka H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Wei W.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

F-box proteins, which are the substrate-recognition subunits of SKP1-cullin 1-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ligase complexes, have pivotal roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of target proteins. Dysregulation of F-box protein-mediated proteolysis leads to human malignancies. Notably, inhibitors that target F-box proteins have shown promising therapeutic potential, urging us to review the current understanding of how F-box proteins contribute to tumorigenesis. As the physiological functions for many of the 69 putative F-box proteins remain elusive, additional genetic and mechanistic studies will help to define the role of each F-box protein in tumorigenesis, thereby paving the road for the rational design of F-box protein-targeted anticancer therapies. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Cui C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Cui C.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Wong W.-Y.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Wong W.-Y.,Shenzhen University | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Low bandgap and two-dimensional (2D)-conjugated copolymers based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene with conjugated thiophene side chains (BDTT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene with electron-withdrawing substituents (TT) are attractive high efficiency polymer donor materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we introduced an alkylthio substituent on the thiophene side chain in the polymer and synthesized a new low bandgap 2D-conjugated polymer PBDTT-S-TT. The alkylthio substituent increased the hole mobility of the polymer to 4.08 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s -1 and down-shifted the HOMO energy level of the polymer by 0.11 eV with absorption of the polymer film red-shifted slightly. The PSCs based on PBDTT-S-TT as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as an acceptor without solvent additive treatment demonstrated a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.84 V, leading to a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.42%, under the illumination of AM 1.5 G 100 mW cm-2. For comparison, the Voc and PCE of the devices based on the corresponding parent polymer PBDTT-TT with the device optimization of 3% DIO additive treatment are 0.77 V and 7.38%, respectively. The enhanced Voc value of 0.84 V for the PSC based on PBDTT-S-TT should be benefited from the down-shifted HOMO energy level of the polymer. The results indicate that the alkylthio substitution is an effective way to further improve the photovoltaic performance of the 2D-conjugated polymer donor materials in PSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Wang H.,University of Waterloo | Pan Q.,University of Waterloo | Pan Q.,Soochow University of China | Rempel G.L.,University of Waterloo
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

The diene-based polymer nanoparticles represented by poly(butadiene-co- acrylonitrile) were prepared in the semibatch emulsion polymerization system using Gemini surfactant (GS) trimethylene-1,3-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) as the emulsifier. The nanoparticles within the range of 17-54 nm were achieved with narrow molecular weight and particle size distributions. A spherical morphology was observed for the produced nanoparticles. The effects of GS concentration on the particle size, molecular weight, polymerization conversion and solid content, and composition of copolymer were investigated. The semibatch process using monomeric and conventional surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was compared. At the second stage of this study, the prepared unsaturated nanoparticles were employed as the substrates for the latex hydrogenation in the presence of Wilkinson's catalyst, that is, RhCl(P(C 6H 5) 3) 3. The effects of the particle size and catalyst concentration on the latex hydrogenation rate were investigated. The particle size is found to have a significant effect on the reaction rate. When the 17-nm nanoparticles were used as the substrates, a high conversion of 95 mol % was obtained within 18 h using only 0.1 wt % RhCl(P(C 6H 5) 3) 3. The latex hydrogenation process was completely free of organic solvents. The present synthesis and following "green" hydrogenation process can be extended to latices made from semibatch emulsion containing other diene-based polymers. This study shows great promise for decreasing the demanded quantity of expensive catalyst and eliminating the organic solvent in the hydrogenation process. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2012 The diene-based polymer nanoparticles of poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) were prepared via a semibatch process using Gemini surfactant trimethylene-1,3- bis(dodecyl dimethylammonium bromnium bromide) as the emulsifier and were then directly hydrogenated in the latex form with a much faster rate in achieving a required conversion of 95% than the same reaction with a commercial latex. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Huang Y.,BTR New Energy Materials Inc. | Gao L.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

A hard carbon (HC) prepared from phenolic resins is investigated as a potential electrode material for power Li-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors. The electrochemical test results indicate that the HC is capable of delivering a capacity of 526 mAh g -1 (about 40% greater than graphite) with an initial coulombic efficiency of 80%. The constructed Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/HC full cells shows superior power capabilities, retaining 90% of reversible capacity at a discharge rate as high as 30 C. That is equivalent to a specific energy of 98 Wh kg -1 at a power of 3000 W kg -1. When combined with an activated carbon (AC), the constructed AC/HC hybrid capacitor exhibits a specific capacitance of 21.5 F g -1 or energy density of 22.6 Wh kg -1 (considering the weight of all components of the full cell) at a current of 100 mA g -1. At a power of 480 W kg -1, it delivers an energy density of 20.8 Wh kg -1, which is twice that of a conventional AC/AC supercapacitor. The feature of high energy and power capabilities makes HC materials promising candidates as electrodes for energy storage and conversion application. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zeng J.,Soochow University of China | Cheung W.K.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Liu J.,Hong Kong Baptist University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2013

Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important hierarchical Bayesian model for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interest and touches on many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper represents the collapsed LDA as a factor graph, which enables the classic loopy belief propagation (BP) algorithm for approximate inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly used approximate inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great success in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy, as validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document datasets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic scheme for learning variants of LDA-based topic models in the collapsed space. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as author-topic models (ATM) and relational topic models (RTM), using BP based on the factor graph representations. © 1979-2012 IEEE.


Liu D.,Soochow University of China | Liu D.,Huaibei Normal University | Lang J.-P.,Soochow University of China | Lang J.-P.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
CrystEngComm | Year: 2013

Two coordination complexes [Cd2(CBA)4(4-spy) 4] (1) and [Cd2(5-NO2-1,3-BDC) 2(5-NO2-1,3-HBDC)2(H2O) 4]·(4-spy-H)2 (2) were prepared by the hydrothermal reactions of Cd(NO3)2·4H2O, 4-styrylpyridine (4-spy) and 4-chlorobenzoic acid (HCBA) or 5-nitrobenzene-1,3- dicarboxylic acid (5-NO2-1,3-H2BDC). Each pair of 4-spy molecules in [Cd2(CBA)4(4-spy)4] and [Cd 2(5-NO2-1,3-BDC)2(5-NO2-1,3-HBDC) 2(H2O)4]·(4-spy-H)2 are arranged in a head-to-head (HH) or head-to-tail (HT) fashion, which, upon UV irradiation, dimerizes into 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-bis(phenyl)cyclobutane (HH-ppcb) or 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)-2,4-bis(phenyl)cyclobutane (HT-ppcb) in 100% yield, respectively. Compared with liquid-phase organic reactions, these solid-state photochemical [2 + 2] cycloadditions of olefin molecules provide good opportunities to synthesize regiospecific cyclobutanes. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Tree D.R.,University of Minnesota | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China | Dorfman K.D.,University of Minnesota
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

DNA confinement in nanochannels is emerging as an important tool for genomics and an excellent platform for testing the theories of confined wormlike polymers. Using cutting-edge, large scale Monte Carlo simulations of asymptotically long wormlike chains, we show that, in analogy to the rod-to-coil transition for free wormlike polymers, there exists a universal, Gauss-de Gennes regime that connects the classic Odijk and de Gennes regimes of channel-confined chains. For DNA in a nanochannel, this Gauss-de Gennes regime spans practically the entire experimentally relevant range of channel sizes, including the nanochannels used in an incipient genome mapping technology. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Xiao Q.,Jiangxi Normal University | Sheng J.,Fudan University | Ding Q.,Jiangxi Normal University | Wub J.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2013

A tandem reaction of N'-(2-alkynylbenzylidene) hydrazone with alcohol in the presence of oxygen co-catalyzed by silver triflate and palladium chloride under mild conditions is reported, providing H-pyrazolo [5,1-α] isoquinolines in good yields. During the transformation, isoquinolinium-2-yl amide was the key intermediate via a silver(I)-catalyzed 6-endo cyclization of N'-(2-alkynylbenzyli- dene)hydrazone. The presence of a palladium catalyst and molecular oxygen promoted the oxidation of the alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone. Subsequent nucleophilic attack of the in situ generated enolate to isoquinolinium-2-yl amide, intramolecular condensation, and aromatization afforded the H-pyrazolo- [5,1-α]isoquinolines. The easily available starting materials, good substrate generality, mild reaction conditions, and experimental ease should make this method attractive for further library construction. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


De L.,University of Minnesota | Brass D.J.,University of Kentucky | Lu Y.,Southwestern University of Finance and Economics | Lu Y.,Pennsylvania State University | Chen D.,Soochow University of China
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2015

This paper investigates how friendship relationships act as pipes, prisms, and herding signals in a large online, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending site. By analyzing decisions of lenders, we find that friends of the borrower, especially close offline friends, act as financial pipes by lending money to the borrower. On the other hand, the prism effect of friends' endorsements via bidding on a loan negatively affects subsequent bids by third parties. However, when offline friends of a potential lender, especially close friends, place a bid, a relational herding effect occurs as potential lenders are likely to follow their offline friends with a bid.


Tree D.R.,University of Minnesota | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China | Dorfman K.D.,University of Minnesota
Biomicrofluidics | Year: 2013

Using a mapping between a Rouse dumbbell model and fine-grained Monte Carlo simulations, we have computed the relaxation time of λ-DNA in a high ionic strength buffer confined in a nanochannel. The relaxation time thus obtained agrees quantitatively with experimental data [Reisner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 196101 (2005)] using only a single O(1) fitting parameter to account for the uncertainty in model parameters. In addition to validating our mapping, this agreement supports our previous estimates of the friction coefficient of DNA confined in a nanochannel [Tree et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 228105 (2012)], which have been difficult to validate due to the lack of direct experimental data. Furthermore, the model calculation shows that as the channel size passes below approximately 100 nm (or roughly the Kuhn length of DNA) there is a dramatic drop in the relaxation time. Inasmuch as the chain friction rises with decreasing channel size, the reduction in the relaxation time can be solely attributed to the sharp decline in the fluctuations of the chain extension. Practically, the low variance in the observed DNA extension in such small channels has important implications for genome mapping. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Yang C.,University of South Carolina | Yang Z.,University of South Carolina | Yang Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | Jin C.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

A novel composite anode material consisting of K 2NiF 4-type structured Pr 0.8Sr 1.2(Co,Fe) 0.8Nb 0.2O 4+δ (K-PSCFN) matrix with homogenously dispersed nano-sized Co-Fe alloy (CFA) has been obtained by annealing perovskite Pr 0.4Sr 0.6Co 0.2Fe 0.7Nb 0.1O 3-δ (P-PSCFN) in H 2 at 900 °C. The K-PSCFN-CFA composite anode is redox-reversible and has demonstrated similar catalytic activity to Ni-based cermet anode, excellent sulfur tolerance, remarkable coking resistance and robust redox cyclability. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Tree D.R.,University of Minnesota | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China | Dorfman K.D.,University of Minnesota
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The classic results of de Gennes and Odijk describe the mobility of a semiflexible chain confined in a nanochannel only in the limits of very weak and very strong confinement, respectively. Using Monte Carlo sampling of the Kirkwood diffusivity with full hydrodynamic interactions, we show that the mobility of a semiflexible chain exhibits a broad plateau as a function of extension before transitioning to an Odijk regime, and that the width of the plateau depends on the anisotropy of the monomers. For the particular case of DNA in a high ionic strength buffer, which has highly anisotropic monomers, we predict that this Rouse-like behavior will be observed over most of the measurable chain extensions seen in experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Li Y.Y.,Soochow University of China | Hou T.J.,Soochow University of China | Goddard III W.A.,California Institute of Technology
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate senses such as odor, taste, vision, and pain in mammals. In addition, important cell recognition and communication processes often involve GPCRs. Many diseases involve malfunction of GPCRs, making them important targets for drug development. Indeed, greater than 50 % of all marketed therapeutics act on those receptors. Unfortunately, the atomic-level structures are only available for rhodopsin, β2AR, β1AR, A2A adenosin and opsin. In silico computational methods, employing receptor-based modeling, offer a rational approach in the design of drugs targeting GPCRs. These approaches can be used to understand receptor selectivity and species specificity of drugs that interact with GPCRs. This review gives an overview of current computational approaches to GPCR model building; ligand-receptor interaction for drug design; and molecular mechanism of GPCR activation from simulation. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Wang Y.,Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Defense
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is an appealing cathode material for lithium ion batteries. However, the degradation of LiFePO4 in air presents an unavoidable challenge, due to the vulnerability of divalent Fe against oxygen attack. In this work, we have carried out comprehensive research on the thermal stability and temperature-driven evolution of nanocarbon modified LiFePO4 in air. The results show that LiFePO4 retains structural stability up to 250°C for short periods of exposure to air. At long exposure times, structural evolution occurs at a much lower temperature, 150°C. The structural evolution proceeds as the temperature increases, and finishes at 400°C. The final products are monoclinic Li3Fe2(PO4)3 and α-Fe2O3. A quantitative evolution map has been developed through electrochemical cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic tests. The results show that the largest changes take place between 200 and 250°C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Liu C.,Soochow University of China | Liu C.,Muroran Institute of Technology | Li Y.,Huaiyin High School
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

The integrability of a class of cubic Lotka-Volterra systems x =x(1- a0x2-a1xy-a2y2),y =y(-λ+b0x2+b1xy+b2 y2), is studied. For odd λ satisfying λ ≥ 3, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrabilities of the above systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.,Tianjin Polytechnic University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

The surface tension of a bubble depends upon its size; a smaller bubble requires a smaller electronic force for fabrication of ultrafine fibers using bubble electrospinning. The electronic field triggers rupture of interacted bubbles to form daughter bubble cascades, so a very low voltage is needed for nanofiber fabrication. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Q.,Soochow University of China | Cui L.-S.,Soochow University of China | Zhong C.,Hubei University | Jiang Z.-Q.,Soochow University of China | Liao L.-S.,Soochow University of China
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

The intrinsic asymmetry of 1,2,4-oxadiazole was utilized to synthesize three isomers, DCzmOXD-1, DCzmOXD-2, and mCzmOXD, and high triplet energies over 2.80 eV made them good candidates for host materials in blue OLEDs. The best efficiencies of 23.0 cd A-1/20.5 lm W1-/11.2% in CE/PE/EQE were achieved by DCzmOXD-1 with derivation at the β-carbon position of 1,2,4-oxadiazole. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Li F.,Soochow University of China | Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Li W.,Soochow University of China | Deng J.,Soochow University of China | And 4 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Circular RNAs with exonic sequences represent a special form of noncoding RNAs, discovered by analyzing a handful of transcribed genes. It has been observed that circular RNAs function as microRNA sponges. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of circular RNAs is altered during the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, the relationship between cir- ITCH and ESCC was analyzed in a total of 684 ESCC and paired adjacent non-tumor tissue samples from eastern and southern China. We found that cir-ITCH expression was usually low in ESCC compared to the peritumoral tissue. The functional relevance of cir-ITCH was further examined by biochemical assays. As sponge of miR-7, miR- 17, and miR-214, cir-ITCH might increase the level of ITCH. ITCH hyper expression promotes ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated Dvl2, thereby inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results indicate that cir-ITCH may have an inhibitory effect on ESCC by regulating the Wnt pathway.


Huynh V.T.,University of New South Wales | Chen G.,Soochow University of China | Souza P.D.,University of New South Wales | Stenzel M.H.,University of New South Wales
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2011

Statistical and block copolymers based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methylether methacrylate] (POEGMEMA) were modified with 4-pentenoic anhydride or 4-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyloxy)butanoic anhydride to generate polymers with pendant vinyl or acetylene, respectively. Subsequent thiol-ene or thiol-yne reaction with thioglycolic acid or 2-mercaptosuccinic acid leads to polymers with carboxylate functionalities, which were conjugated with cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)) to generate a drug carrier for Pt-drugs. Only the polymers modified with 2-mercaptosuccinic acid resulted in the formation of soluble well-defined polymers with gel formation being prevented. Due to the hydrophobicity of the drug, the block copolymers took on amphiphilic character leading to micelle formation. The micelles were in addition crosslinked to further stabilize their structure. Pt-containing statistical copolymer, micelles, and crosslinked micelles were then tested regarding their cellular uptake by the A549 lung cancer cell line to show a superior uptake of crosslinked micelles. However, due to the better Pt release of the statistical copolymer, the highest cytotoxicity was observed with this type of polymer architecture. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Li M.,Soochow University of China | Yang H.,Soochow University of China | Yang Q.,Dalian Medical University
Pain Physician | Year: 2015

Background: Full-endoscopic technique discectomy (FED) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED) are 2 widely used minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. However, there is insufficient literature regarding the differences between these 2 surgical procedures. Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of 2 different minimally invasive methods—fullendoscopic technique discectomy and microendoscopic discectomy—in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Inpatient surgery center. Methods: Data form 65 patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with one of 2 minimally invasive procedures were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to surgical method: the FED group (n = 35) and the MED group (n = 30). Surgery time, time kept in bed after surgery, duration of postoperative hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS; 0 – 10), and Oswestry Disability index (ODI; 0 – 100%) were assessed and compared between the 2 groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the preoperative data between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). VAS and ODI scores improved significantly postoperatively in both groups (P < 0.05). Surgery time was longer in the FED group than in the MED group (P < 0.05). However, the FED group was superior to the MED group, with less time in bed, shorter hospital stay, and lower VAS scores one day postoperatively (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in VAS or ODI scores at one, 3, and 12 months after surgery between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Limitations: This is a retrospective study with a relatively short follow-up period. Conclusions: Although the clinical outcomes of the 2 surgical techniques were similar, the FED had the advantages of quicker postoperative recovery and more immediate effect. © 2015, American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. All rights reserved.


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Jiang F.,University of New South Wales
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

In this Letter, we put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy for joint remote preparation of arbitrary two-qudit states (JRSP) in a deterministic manner from a spatially separated multi-sender to one receiver. The scheme is then extended to the arbitrary multi-qudit case. In our schemes, various partially entangled GHZ-like states with arbitrary complex parameters are used as the quantum channels. It overcomes state preparation failure leading to the loss of valuable quantum channel resource and ensures the prepared data available for the remote terminals under extreme conditions such as limited number of quantum channels and limited quantum information processing technologies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zou Y.,Soochow University of China | Zou Y.,Xuzhou Normal University | Hu Y.,Soochow University of China | Liu H.,Soochow University of China | Shi D.,Soochow University of China
ACS Combinatorial Science | Year: 2012

An efficient one-pot synthesis of spiro[indoline-3,4′-pyrano[2,3-c] pyrazole] derivatives by four-component reaction of hydrazine, β-keto ester, isatin, and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate catalyzed by piperidine under ultrasound irradiation is described. This synthesis was confirmed to follow the group-assistant-purification chemistry (GAP) chemistry process, which can avoid traditional chromatography and recrystallization purifications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zhou X.,Soochow University of China | Li C.,University of Hong Kong | Xu W.,Soochow University of China | Chen J.,Soochow University of China
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Trimetazidine, a piperazine derivative used as an anti-anginal agent, improves myocardial glucose utilization through inhibition of fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate whether trimetazidine has the protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling in rats. In this study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: smoking group (exposed to cigarette smoke), trimetazidine group (exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with trimetazidine), and control group. The echocardiographic and morphometric data indicated that trimetazidine has protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the supernatant of left ventricular tissue. Cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. Gene expression and serum levels of inflammatory markers, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were deteced by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that trimetazidine could significantly reduce smoking-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. © 2012 Zhou et al.


Li W.,Soochow University of China | Zheng J.,Soochow University of China | Deng J.,Soochow University of China | You Y.,Soochow University of China | And 4 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims Thousands of long intergenic non-protein coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals via genome-wide sequencing studies. Many are functional, but are expressed aberrantly by cancer cells. We investigated whether levels of lincRNAs are altered during the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure levels of 26 highly conserved lincRNAs in ESCC and surrounding nontumor tissues. A total of 182 ESCC and paired adjacent nontumor tissue samples were collected from patients undergoing tylectomy at The First Affiliate Hospital of Soochow University from 2001 through 2009; another 178 ESCC tissue pairs were collected from Guangzhou Medical University from 2002 through 2009. LincRNAs were expressed from lentiviral vectors or knocked down with small hairpin RNAs in Eca-109 and TE-1 cells. Results Levels of a lincRNA encoded by a gene located next to POU3F3 (linc-POU3F3) were significantly higher in ESCC than neighboring nontumor tissues. In RNA immunoprecipitation assays, linc-POU3F3 was associated with the EZH2 messenger RNA (mRNA). Overexpression of linc-POU3F3 in cell lines increased their proliferation and ability to form colonies, and reduced the expression of POU3F3 mRNA, whereas knockdown of linc-POU3F3 increased the levels of POU3F3 mRNA. CpG islands in POU3F3 were densely hypermethylated in cell lines that overexpressed linc-POU3F3; methylation at these sites was reduced by knockdown of linc-POU3F3. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 increased the levels of POU3F3 mRNA and significantly reduced binding of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B to POU3F3. ESCC cells with knockdown of linc-POU3F3 formed xenograft tumors more slowly in mice than control ESCC cells. Conclusions Levels of linc-POU3F3 are increased in ESCC samples from patients compared with nontumor tissues. This noncoding RNA contributes to the development of ESCC by interacting with EZH2 to promote methylation of POU3F3, which encodes a transcription factor. © 2014 by the AGA Institute.


Cai A.,Soochow University of China | Shen G.,Soochow University of China | Peng L.,Soochow University of China | Zukerman M.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2013

We consider an elastic optical network and study the static routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problem aiming to minimize the maximum number of frequency slots required to accommodate all lightpath demands. We introduce a novel node-arc integer linear programming (ILP) model, which jointly decides optimal routes and assigned spectra for lightpaths between all source-destination pairs. To reduce the total number of variables, and therefore lower the computational complexity, our new node-arc model extends previous work by representing the spectrum assigned to each lightpath by two variables (i.e., the starting and ending boundary frequency slot indexes). To achieve scalability, we also develop an efficient spectrum-window-based greedy heuristic algorithm, and further propose three multiiteration-based algorithms that consider the effect of demand-serving sequences. Analytical and numerical results show that comparing with an existing approach, our solution to the RSA problem based on the new node-arc ILP model achieves a significant computational complexity improvement. Further numerical results demonstrate that the proposed multiiteration algorithms obtain solutions closer to optima than existing algorithms. © 2013 IEEE.


Li J.,University of Western Ontario | Liu L.,Soochow University of China | Sham T.-K.,University of Western Ontario
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

Hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures with the nanograss at the top and the close-ended nanotube at the bottom were synthesized by an extended electrochemical anodization process. Upon thermal annealing, the hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures exhibit a morphology-dependent phase transformation behavior: the amorphous as-prepared nanotube layer undergoes an amorphous-anatase-rutile phase transformation upon annealing at 550 °C and 850 °C, respectively; the nanograss, on the other hand, remains in the anatase phase with an annealing temperature up to 850 °C and becomes anatase-dominant anatase-rutile-multiphase at 900 °C. In addition, the nanotube and nanograss exhibit intriguing light-emitting properties. A two-dimensional X-ray absorption near-edge structure - X-ray excited optical luminescence (2D XANES-XEOL) spectroscopy technique is used to investigate such phenomenon, which correlates the origin of the luminescence with the local chemical entrainment of the nanostructured TiO2. Implications of these observations are thoroughly discussed. These properties are desirable for the engineering of novel TiO2 nanoheterostructures for photocatalysis as well as optical and photonic devices, especially the fabrication of a stable high temperature anatase phase. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Qian Q.,Renmin University of China | Wang J.,Renmin University of China | Yan F.,Soochow University of China | Wang Y.,Renmin University of China
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

A straightforward photo-annealing approach was developed for building functional polymer layers on paper. Conducting polyaniline with the ability for photothermal conversion can be readily annealed by near-infrared light. The annealed polymers become both insulating and hydrophobic. Selective photo-annealing produces a functional layer with patterned conductive arrays. This material exhibits real-time response to ammonium gas. Complete photo-annealing preserves the porous structure but changes the wettability of the polyaniline-nanofiber film. Red hot: A photo-annealing approach was developed for building functional polymer layers on paper. Conducting polyaniline that can undergo photothermal conversion can be readily annealed by near-infrared light. The porous structure is retained in the annealed polymer but it becomes insulating and hydrophobic. Selective photo-annealing produces a functional layer with patterned conductive arrays, which exhibits real-time response to ammonia gas. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Zhou W.-D.,AI Speech Ltd. | Chang P.-C.,Yuan Ze University | Liu J.,Xidian University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

Sparse representation-based classifier (SRC), a combined result of machine learning and compressed sensing, shows its good classification performance on face image data. However, SRC could not well classify the data with the same direction distribution. The same direction distribution means that the sample vectors belonging to different classes distribute on the same vector direction. This paper presents a new classifier, kernel sparse representation-based classifier (KSRC), based on SRC and the kernel trick which is a usual technique in machine learning. KSRC is a nonlinear extension of SRC and can remedy the drawback of SRC. To make the data in an input space separable, we implicitly map these data into a high-dimensional kernel feature space by using some nonlinear mapping associated with a kernel function. Since this kernel feature space has a very high (or possibly infinite) dimensionality, or is unknown, we have to avoid working in this space explicitly. Fortunately, we can indeed reduce the dimensionality of the kernel feature space by exploiting kernel-based dimensionality reduction methods. In the reduced subspace, we need to find sparse combination coefficients for a test sample and assign a class label to it. Similar to SRC, KSRC is also cast into an ℓ 1-minimization problem or a quadratically constrained ℓ 1 -minimization problem. Extensive experimental results on UCI and face data sets show KSRC improves the performance of SRC. © 2011 IEEE.


Zhao Y.,University of Texas at Austin | Zhao Y.,Soochow University of China | Ding Y.,University of Texas at Austin | Li Y.,University of Texas at Austin | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang J.-C.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang A.-M.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang Y.-Y.,Soochow University of China
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2013

Markup pricing contracts have been widely employed in many industries. Under such contracts, a retailer charges a retail margin over the wholesale price levied by the supplier to guarantee her financial prudence. In a setting where two competitive manufacturers sell substitutable products through a common dominant retailer, we investigate and compare performance of two different markup arrangements, namely, percentage and dollar, under the deterministic and stochastic demand situations, respectively. We find that, no matter what the demand characteristic is, when the retailer switches from dollar to percentage markup, the retailer makes a higher profit while the manufacturers suffer, because the switching forces manufacturers charge lower wholesale prices and thus leads to lower retail prices. Moreover, under the deterministic demand situation, the switching brings about a larger order quantity and a higher channel profit. Under the stochastic demand situation, however, the effect of the switching on order quantity and channel profit depends on manufacturer differentiation and retailer efficiency: order quantity (channel profit) becomes smaller (lower), as manufacturer differentiation becomes weaker or retailer efficiency becomes higher. And, the demand uncertainty intensifies the effect. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ting S.R.S.,University of New South Wales | Chen G.,University of New South Wales | Chen G.,Soochow University of China | Stenzel M.H.,University of New South Wales
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2010

Synthetic carbohydrate ligands - also widely known as glycopolymers - are known to undergo numerous recognition events when interacting with their corresponding lectins. Interactions are greatly enhanced due to the multivalent character displayed by the large number of repeating carbohydrate units along the polymers (pendant glycopolymers); therefore, resulting what is called the "glycocluster effect". Moreover, the strength and the availability of these multivalent recognitions can be tuned via the architecture of the glycopolymers. Hence, understanding the mechanistic interactions between the types of lectins (plant, animal, toxin and bacteria) with their synthetic ligands is crucial. This review focuses on the synthesis of pendant glycopolymers via various synthetic pathways (free radical polymerization, NMP, RAFT, ATRP, cyanoxyl mediated polymerization, ROP, ROMP and post-polymerization modification) and their interactions with their respectively lectins. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Xu Z.Y.,Soochow University of China | Yang W.L.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Feng M.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables on a particle can be precisely predicted when it is maximally entangled with a quantum memory. In this work, we explore the behavior of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under the influence of local unital and nonunital noisy channels. For a class of Bell-diagonal states, we demonstrate that while the unital noises only increase the amount of uncertainty, the amplitude-damping nonunital noises may reduce the amount of uncertainty in the long-time limit. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is also explored by using two dissimilar methods. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yang Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Dong Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.-D.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2014

The spatial correlation singularity of a partially coherent vortex beam was demonstrated recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143905 (2004)], and it was shown that the cross-correlation singularity disappears when the spatial coherence is high. In this paper, we demonstrate that the spatial autocorrelation function of a fully coherent beam in the far-field is equivalent to the Fourier transform of its intensity in the source plane. Our theoretical and experimental results show that, depending on both the radial and azimuthal mode indices (p, ?) of the incident light beam, the distribution of the far-field autocorrelation function displays a series of concentric, alternate bright and dark rings. This phenomenon may be used to determine the topological charge (the azimuthal index) of light beam with a nonzero radial index. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Yang Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Dong Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

A theoretical model is proposed to describe a novel vortex beam named anomalous vortex (AV) beam. Analytical propagation formula for the proposed beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, and the propagation properties of such beam in free space are studied numerically. It is interesting to find that an AV beam will eventually become an elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam in the far field (or in the focal plane) in free space. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of an AV beam and measure its propagation properties. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Zhang S.,Soochow University of China | Zhang G.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Sun X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Although biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes have been intensively studied in recent years, its sister, graphene, has been rarely explored in biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we study the in vivo behaviors of nanographene sheets (NGS) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating by a fluorescent labeling method. In vivo fluorescence imaging reveals surprisingly high tumor uptake of NGS in several xenograft tumor mouse models. Distinctive from PEGylated carbon nanotubes, PEGylated NGS shows several interesting in vivo behaviors including highly efficient tumor passive targeting and relatively low retention in reticuloendothelial systems. We then utilize the strong optical absorbance of NGS in the near-infrared (NIR) region for in vivo photothermal therapy, achieving ultraefficient tumor ablation after intravenous administration of NGS and low-power NIR laser irradiation on the tumor. Furthermore, no obvious side effect of PEGylated NGS is noted for the injected mice by histology, blood chemistry, and complete blood panel analysis in our pilot toxicity study. Although a lot more efforts are required to further understand the in vivo behaviors and the long-term toxicology of this new type of nanomaterials, our work is the first success of using carbon nanomaterials for efficient in vivo photothermal therapy by intravenous administration and suggests the great promise of graphene in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


He Y.,Soochow University of China | Fan C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China | Lee S.-T.,City University of Hong Kong
Nano Today | Year: 2010

There has been rapidly increasing interest in design and synthesis of siliconbased nanostructured materials for bioapplications. In this review, we focus on recent research progress in design, synthesis and bioapplications of two silicon-based nanostructures, zero-dimensional silicon quantum dots and one-dimensional silicon nanowires. These two low-dimensional silicon nanomaterials have found important applications in ultrasensitive biomolecular detection and fluorescent cellular imaging. We further highlight major challenges and promises in this area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Feng X.,Soochow University of China | Wang Q.,Soochow University of China | Lin W.,Soochow University of China | Dou G.-L.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A highly efficient, catalyst-free synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles by means of a novel four-component domino reaction of an arylglyoxal monohydrate, an aniline, a dialkyl but-2-ynedioate, and malononitrile is reported. This transformation proceeded via a 6,6a-dihydrofuro[2,3-b]pyrrole as the key intermediate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Peng F.,Soochow University of China | Su Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhong Y.,Soochow University of China | Fan C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | And 2 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

Silicon nanomaterials are an important class of nanomaterials with great potential for technologies including energy, catalysis, and biotechnology, because of their many unique properties, including biocompatibility, abundance, and unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, among others. Silicon nanomaterials are known to have little or no toxicity due to favorable biocompatibility of silicon, which is an important precondition for biological and biomedical applications. In addition, huge surface-to-volume ratios of silicon nanomaterials are responsible for their unique optical, mechanical, or electronic properties, which offer exciting opportunities for design of high-performance silicon-based functional nanoprobes, nanosensors, and nanoagents for biological analysis and detection and disease treatment. Moreover, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) on earth, providing plentiful and inexpensive resources for large-scale and low-cost preparation of silicon nanomaterials for practical applications. Because of these attractive traits, and in parallel with a growing interest in their design and synthesis, silicon nanomaterials are extensively investigated for wide-ranging applications, including energy, catalysis, optoelectronics, and biology. Among them, bioapplications of silicon nanomaterials are of particular interest.In the past decade, scientists have made an extensive effort to construct a silicon nanomaterials platform for various biological and biomedical applications, such as biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment, as new and powerful tools for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nonetheless, there are few review articles covering these important and promising achievements to promote the awareness of development of silicon nanobiotechnology.In this Account, we summarize recent representative works to highlight the recent developments of silicon functional nanomaterials for a new, powerful platform for biological and biomedical applications, including biosensor, bioimaging, and cancer therapy. First, we show that the interesting photoluminescence properties (e.g., strong fluorescence and robust photostability) and excellent biocompatibility of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are superbly suitable for direct and long-term visualization of biological systems. The strongly fluorescent SiNPs are highly effective for bioimaging applications, especially for long-term cellular labeling, cancer cell detection, and tumor imaging in vitro and in vivo with high sensitivity. Next, we discuss the utilization of silicon nanomaterials to construct high-performance biosensors, such as silicon-based field-effect transistors (FET) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors, which hold great promise for ultrasensitive and selective detection of biological species (e.g., DNA and protein). Then, we introduce recent exciting research findings on the applications of silicon nanomaterials for cancer therapy with encouraging therapeutic outcomes. Lastly, we highlight the major challenges and promises in this field, and the prospect of a new nanobiotechnology platform based on silicon nanomaterials. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Xu H.,Ludong University | Xu H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Nanomaterials with unique optical properties have shown great promise as probes for cellular imaging. Based on these properties, a wide range of plasmonic, fluorescent and Raman probes have been designed and prepared. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes have also been functionalized with various types of biomolecules, such as antibodies, DNA or RNA, which are actively exploited to realize targeted imaging. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in using functional nanomaterials for imaging, primarily cellular imaging. These nanomaterials are categorized based on their conducting properties, i.e. conductors, semiconductors and insulators. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Li Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yue T.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Zhang X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

In this work, an N-varied dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation technique is applied to investigate detailed endocytosis kinetics for ligand-coated nanoparticles with different shapes, including sphere-, rod- and disk-shaped nanoparticles. Our results indicate that the rotation of nanoparticles, which is one of the most important mechanisms for endocytosis of shaped nanoparticle, regulates the competition between ligand-receptor binding and membrane deformation. Shape anisotropy of nanoparticles divides the whole internalization process into two stages: membrane invagination and nanoparticle wrapping. Due to the strong ligand-receptor binding energy, the membrane invagination stage is featured by the rotation of nanoparticles to maximize their contact area with the membrane. While the kinetics of the wrapping stage is mainly dominated by the part of nanoparticles with the largest local mean curvature, at which the membrane is most strongly bent. Therefore, nanoparticles with various shapes display different favorable orientations for the two stages, and one or two orientation rearrangement may be required during the endocytosis process. Our simulation results also demonstrate that the shape anisotropy of nanoparticles generates a heterogeneous membrane curvature distribution and might break the symmetry of the internalization pathway, and hence induce an asymmetric endocytosis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu F.,Soochow University of China | Tong F.,The 5th Peoples Hospital of Suzhou | He Y.,Soochow University of China | Liu H.,Soochow University of China
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3) and the p35 subunit of IL-12 have been reported to form a heterodimeric cytokine, named IL-35, in human and mouse. In mice, IL-35 has been shown to be constitutively expressed by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suggested to contribute to their suppressive activity. However, human CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs do not constitutively express detectable amounts of IL-35 in both mRNA and protein levels. Circulating CD4+CD25+ Treg frequency of chronic Hepatitis B patients significantly correlates with serum viral load. In this study, we investigated whether IL-35 expression could be detected in CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of chronic Hepatitis B patients. Using both RT-PCR and immunoprecipitation plus Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that IL-35 expression could be detected in the CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of Chronic Hepatitis B patients. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Zhao Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Liu X.,Dalian University of Technology | Liu X.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2012

We designed and prepared a novel microporous carbon material (KNC-A-K) for selective CO2 capture. The combination of a high N-doping concentration (>10 wt %) and extra-framework cations, which were introduced into carbonaceous sorbents for the first time, endowed KNC-A-K with exceptional CO2 adsorption capabilities, especially at low pressures. Specifically, KNC-A-K exhibited CO2 uptake of 1.62 mmol g -1 at 25 C and 0.1 bar, far exceeding the CO2 adsorption capability of most reported carbon material to date. Single component adsorption isotherms indicated that its CO2/N2 selectivity was 48, which also significantly surpasses the selectivity of conventional carbon materials. Furthermore, breakthrough experiments were conducted to evaluate the CO2 separation capability of KNC-A-K on CO2/N2 (10:90 v/v) mixtures under kinetic flow conditions, and the obtained CO 2/N2 selectivity was as high as 44, comparable to that predicted from equilibrium adsorption data. Upon facile regeneration, KNC-A-K showed constant CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity during multiple mixed-gas separation cycles. Its outstanding low-pressure CO 2 adsorption ability makes KNC-A-K a promising candidate for selective CO2 capture from flue gas. Theoretical calculations indicated that K+ ions play a key role in promoting CO2 adsorption via electrostatic interactions. In addition, we found that HCl molecules anchored in N-doped carbon have a similar promotion effect on CO 2 adsorption, which contradicts the conventional wisdom that the neutralization of basic sites by acids diminishes the adsorption of acidic CO2 gas. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Xu Z.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Luo S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Yang W.L.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Liu C.,Soochow University of China | Zhu S.,Soochow University of China
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Memory (non-Markovian) effect is found to be able to accelerate quantum evolution [S. Deffner and E. Lutz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010402 (2013).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.010402]. In this work, for an atom in a structured reservoir, we show that the mechanism for the speedup is not only related to non-Markovianity but also to the population of excited states under a given driving time. In other words, it is the competition between non-Markovianity and population of excited states that ultimately determines the acceleration of quantum evolution in memory environments. A potential experimental realization for verifying the above phenomena is discussed by using a nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in a planar photonic crystal cavity under current technologies. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Patent
Soochow University of China and SILK PLUG BEIJING BIOMEDICINE TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Ltd | Date: 2016-03-09

A high-strength biological scaffold and preparation method thereof. The biological scaffold is comprised of a framework of boiled-off silk woven material, the form of the framework is determined by actual needs; the framework surface is coated with a layer of silk protein scaffold material, fibroin protein/gelatin biological scaffold material or fibroin protein/collagen biological scaffold material having a thickness of 100 micrometers to 5 centimeters. The high-strength biological scaffold material has high tear resistance strength and mechanical strength and good biocompatibility, has a porous structure suitable for tissue regeneration, and can be used for preparing anal fistula repair plugs.


Patent
Silk Plug Beijing Biomedicine Technology Company Ltd and Soochow University of China | Date: 2011-10-31

A high-strength biological scaffold and preparation method thereof. The biological scaffold is comprised of a framework of boiled-off silk woven material, the form of the framework is determined by actual needs; the framework surface is coated with a layer of silk protein scaffold material, fibroin protein/gelatin biological scaffold material or fibroin protein/collagen biological scaffold material having a thickness of 100 micrometers to 5 centimeters. The high-strength biological scaffold material has high tear resistance strength and mechanical strength and good biocompatibility, has a porous structure suitable for tissue regeneration, and can be used for preparing anal fistula repair plugs.


Wang H.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Wang H.-Y.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Shi D.-Q.,Soochow University of China
ACS Combinatorial Science | Year: 2013

A facile and efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of functionalized dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-ones by a catalyst-free, three-component reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, arylglyoxal monohydrate and enaminones under mild conditions in excellent yield is reported. This synthesis was confirmed to follow the group-assisted-purification (GAP) chemistry process, which can avoid traditional purifications, chromatography, and recrystallization. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Gao Y.,Fudan University | Gao Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Huang J.P.,Fudan University | Liu Y.M.,University of California at Berkeley | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We numerically demonstrate optical negative refraction in ferrofluids containing isotropic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, each having an isotropic Ag shell, in the presence of an external dc magnetic field H. The all-angle broadband optical negative refraction with magnetocontrollability arises from H-induced chains or columns. They result in hyperbolic equifrequency contour for transverse magnetic waves propagating in the system. The finite element simulations verify the analyses using the effective medium approximation. Experimental demonstration and potential applications are suggested and discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Caen J.,Fondation Franco Chinoise pour la Science et ses Applications FFCSA | Wu Q.,Cleveland Clinic | Wu Q.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2010

Platelet activation and blood coagulation are essential for hemostasis and contribute to a variety of other biological processes such as inflammation, complement activation and tissue repair. Factor (F)XII, originally called Hageman factor, plays an important role in the kallikrein-kinin system by activating prekallikrein. In the 1960s, a platelet activity that promoted FXII activation was identified but its biochemical nature remained unknown. Inorganic polyphosphates (poly P) are polymers that consist of many phosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. These polymers exist in all living organisms. In bacteria, poly P is important for growth and survival. Recently, poly P has been identified in human platelet dense granules. Studied have shown that upon platelet activation and secretion, poly P activates FXII, indicating that it is most likely the elusive platelet FXII activator. Poly P also regulates coagulation and fibrinolysis. In this review, we focus on early studies of FXII and the identification of platelet FXII activation activity, and discuss recent findings of poly P in FXII activation and coagulation. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.


Liu H.-Y.,Zhongyuan University of Technology | He J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Li Z.-B.,Qujing Normal University
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2014

Purpose - Academic and industrial researches on nanoscale flows and heat transfers are an area of increasing global interest, where fascinating phenomena are always observed, e.g. admirable water or air permeation and remarkable thermal conductivity. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the phenomena by the fractional calculus. Design/methodology/approach - This paper begins with the continuum assumption in conventional theories, and then the fractional Gauss' divergence theorems are used to derive fractional differential equations in fractal media. Fractional derivatives are introduced heuristically by the variational iteration method, and fractal derivatives are explained geometrically. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g. the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method and the fractional complex transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given. Findings - Heat conduction in silk cocoon and ground water flow are modeled by the local fractional calculus, the solutions can explain well experimental observations. Originality/value - Particular attention is paid throughout the paper to giving an intuitive grasp for fractional calculus. Most cited references are within last five years, catching the most frontier of the research. Some ideas on this review paper are first appeared. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Wang X.-F.,Soochow University of China | Hu Y.,McGill University | Guo H.,McGill University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Topological insulators (TIs) are materials having an energy band gap in the bulk and conducting helical electronic states on the surface. The helical states are protected by time-reversal symmetry and thus are expected to be robust against static disorder scattering. In this work we report an atomistic first principles analysis of disorder scattering in two-probe transport junctions made of three-dimensional TI material Bi 2Se 3. The robustness of the device against disorder scattering is determined quantitatively. Examining many different scattering configurations, a general trend emerges on how strong is the perturbing potential and how it is spatially distributed so that it can derail the helical states on the Bi 2Se 3 surfaces. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yuan K.,Soochow University of China | Yuan K.,Peoples Hospital of Jiangsu Province | Chen H.-L.,Nantong University
International Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the association between obesity and risk of surgical site infections (SSI) risk in orthopedics. Methods: We searched the electronic database of PubMed and Web of Science for observational studies about risk factors for SSI risk in orthopedics, meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI) between infection group and no infection group, infection rate in obesity expose and no obesity expose were conducted, respectively. Results: A total of 20 studies included in the meta-analysis. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of BMI between infection group and no infection group was 0.329 (95% CI 0.215-0.444), which was statistically significant (. z = 5.65, p = 0.000). The pooled relative risk (RR) of infection rate compare obesity expose with no obesity expose was 1.915 (95% CI 1.530-2.396), which was statistically significant (. z = 5.68, p = 0.000). No publication bias was found (Begg test P = 0.174 and Egger test P = 0.345) in pooled WMD of BMI. But there was significant publication bias in pooled RR of infection rate (Begg test P = 0.001 and Egger test P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicates that obesity had about twofold increased risk of surgical site infections risk in orthopedics. However, this conclusion should be verified by further well designed prospective cohort studies. © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd.


Yang H.,Soochow University of China | Yang H.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Wang Y.Q.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Wang H.,Texas A&M University | Jia Q.X.,Los Alamos National Laboratory
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Epitaxial c -axis oriented BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated on (001) oriented SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Nuclear resonance backscattering spectrometry was used to directly measure the oxygen concentration of as-deposited and annealed BFO films. Compared to the ideal stoichiometry of BFO, the as-deposited BFO film shows more than 10% oxygen deficiency. However, postannealing the as-deposited BFO films reduces the oxygen deficiency almost half. The reduced oxygen vacancies in annealed BFO films are believed to be responsible for the different leakage mechanisms and the two orders of magnitude drop in leakage current density. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Xing R.,Henan University | Wang Y.,Xinxiang Medical University | Liu S.,Henan University | Jin C.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3-δ (LSCM)-YSZ cathode supported solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), with the LSM-YSZYSZLSCM-YSZ configuration, have been prepared and evaluated for high temperature hydrogen generation. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and voltage-current curves were recorded out to characterize the cell performance. EIS results showed that the cell resistance increased as the proportion of steam in the feed supply increased, at open circuit voltage. The hydrogen generation rate calculated from Faraday's law is 561 ml cm -2 h -1 at 850 °C with 80 vol.% absolute humidity (AH) at a 1.6 V electrolysis voltage. Although there is a 8.2% increase of the applied electrolysis voltage, the cell has endured a test lasting more than 103 h with 45 vol.% AH and 0.33 A cm -2 electrolysis current density at 850 °C. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis showed that there is no elemental diffusion between the electrode and electrolyte interface after the durability test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the slight split between the LSCM-YSZ cathode and the YSZ electrolyte is responsible for the increase of ohmic resistance of the cell; this resistance rise led to the degradation of the cell performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.


Guo J.J.,Soochow University of China | Tang N.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yang H.L.,Soochow University of China | Tang T.S.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2010

We compared the outcome of closed intramedullary nailing with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using a percutaneous locked compression plate in patients with a distal metaphyseal fracture in a prospective study. A total of 85 patients were randomised to operative stabilisation either by a closed intramedullary nail (44) or by minimally invasive osteosynthesis with a compression plate (41). Pre-operative variables included the patients' age and the side and pattern of the fracture. Peri-operative variables were the operating time and the radiation time. Postoperative variables were wound problems, the time to union of the fracture, the functional American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery score and removal of hardware. We found no significant difference in the pre-operative variables or in the time to union in the two groups. However, the mean radiation time and operating time were significantly longer in the locked compression plate group (3.0 vs 2.12 minutes, p < 0.001, and 97.9 vs 81.2 minutes, p < 0.001, respectively). After one year, all the fractures had united. Patients who had intramedullary nailing had a higher mean pain score, but better function, alignment and total American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery scores, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.234, p = 0.157, p = 0.897, p = 0.177 respectively). Three (6.8%) patients in the intramedullary nailing group and six (14.6%) in the locked compression plate group showed delayed wound healing, and 37 (84.1%) in the former group and 38 (92.7%) in the latter group expressed a wish to have the implant removed. We conclude that both closed intramedullary nailing and a percutaneous locked compression plate can be used safely to treat Orthopaedic Trauma Association type-43A distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia. However, closed intramedullary nailing has the advantage of a shorter operating and radiation time and easier removal of the implant. We therefore prefer closed intramedullary nailing for patients with these fractures. ©2010 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.


Graser O.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Xu C.,Soochow University of China | Hui P.M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the formulation of mean-field (MF) approaches for co-evolving dynamic model systems, focusing on the accuracy and validity of different schemes in closing MF equations. Within the context of a recently introduced co-evolutionary snowdrift game in which rational adaptive actions are driven by dissatisfaction in the payoff, we introduce a method to test the validity of closure schemes and analyse the shortcomings of previous schemes. A previous scheme suitable for adaptive epidemic models is shown to be invalid for the model studied here. A binomial-style closure scheme that significantly improves upon the previous schemes is introduced. Fixed-point analysis of the MF equations not only explains the numerical observed transition between a connected state with suppressed cooperation and a highly cooperative disconnected state, but also reveals a previously undetected connected state that exhibits the unusual behaviour of decreasing cooperation as the temptation for uncooperative action drops. We proposed a procedure for selecting proper initial conditions to realize the unusual state in numerical simulations. The effects of the mean number of connections that an agent carries are also studied. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Zhou Y.,Soochow University of China | Wu Q.,Soochow University of China | Wu Q.,Cleveland Clinic
Placenta | Year: 2013

In pregnancy, uterine spiral artery remodeling is an adaptive morphological change at the maternal and fetal interface, which is critical for dilating the artery and promoting blood flow to the fetus. Incompletely remodeled spiral arteries have been recognized as a common pathological feature in preeclamptic patients. To date, the molecular mechanism that controls spiral artery remodeling is not well defined. Corin is a transmembrane serine protease discovered in the heart, where it converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to active ANP, a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure. Recent studies show that corin is up-regulated in the decidua of the pregnant uterus, suggesting a potential role of corin in pregnancy. In mice lacking corin or ANP, high blood pressure and proteinuria were found at late gestational stages. Histological analysis indicated delayed trophoblast invasion and impaired spiral artery remodeling in the uterus. In humans, CORIN gene mutations were identified in patients with preeclampsia. In this review, we discuss the function of corin and ANP in regulating blood pressure and their potential role in preeclampsia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang X.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Soochow University of China | Hou Y.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Using a coated Li metal as an anode and LiCoO2 as a cathode, an aqueous rechargeable battery is built up, whose average discharge voltage is 3.70 V. This high voltage stability is due to the "cross-over" effect of Li+ ions, which is different from the traditional ways of increasing overpotentials. The total energy density can be 465 W h kg -1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Jiang J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Jiang J.-H.,University of Toronto | Agarwalla B.K.,University of Toronto | Segal D.,University of Toronto
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

Universal properties of the statistics of stochastic efficiency for mesoscopic time-reversal symmetry broken energy transducers are revealed in the Gaussian approximation. We also discuss how the second law of thermodynamics restricts the statistics of stochastic efficiency. The tight-coupling limit becomes unfavorable, characterized by an infinitely broad distribution of efficiency at all times, when time-reversal symmetry breaking leads to an asymmetric Onsager response matrix. The underlying physics is demonstrated through the quantum Hall effect and further elaborated in a triple-quantum-dot three-terminal thermoelectric engine. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Wu Y.,Soochow University of China | Wu Y.,Temple University | Ahmad S.S.,Temple University | Zhou J.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

A close homologue to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) called ERp57 forms disulfide bonds in glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is expressed on the platelet surface. We generated 2 rabbit Abs to ERp57. One Ab strongly inhibited ERp57 in a functional assay and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation. There was minimal cross-reactivity of this Ab with PDI by Western blot or in the functional assay. This Ab substantially inhibited activation of the αIIbβ3 fibrinogen receptor and P-selectin expression. Furthermore, adding ERp57 to platelets potentiated aggregation. In contrast, adding a catalytically inactive ERp57 inhibited platelet aggregation. When infused into mice the inactive ERp57 prolonged the tail bleeding times. We generated 2 IgG2a mAbs that reacted with ERp57 by immunoblot. One of these Abs inhibited both ERp57 activity and platelet aggregation. The other Ab did not inhibit ERp57 activity or platelet aggregation. The inhibitory Ab inhibited activation of αIIb3β and P-selectin expression, prolonged tail bleeding times, and inhibited FeCl 3-induced thrombosis in mice. Finally, we found that a commonly used mAb to PDI also inhibited ERp57 activity. We conclude that a glycoprotein-specific member of the PDI family, ERp57, is required for platelet aggregation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Li F.,Fudan University
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2012

L 1-norm optimization-based sign algorithms (SAs) are more robust against impulsive interference than L 2-norm optimization-based adaptive filtering algorithms. However, most SAs suffer from slow convergence rate, especially for highly correlated input signals. In order to overcome this problem, recently, an affine projection SA (APSA) has been proposed , which exhibits fast convergence rate. In this letter, we first analyze the computational complexity of the APSA in detail and then apply a recursive approach proposed for the affine projection algorithm (APA) to the APSA to reduce its computational complexity. Analysis results show that the computational complexity of the APSA with the efficient implementation method is even lower than that of the classical fast affine projection (FAP) algorithm. © 2011 IEEE.


Qu Q.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Soochow University of China | Zhu Y.,Fudan University | Gao X.,Fudan University | Wu Y.,Fudan University
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2012

A core-shell structure of polypyrrole grown on V 2O5 nanoribbons as a high performance anode material for supercapacitors is fabricated using anionic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS -) as surfactant. Benefiting from the nanoribbon morphology of V 2O 5, the improved charge-transfer and polymeric coating effect of PPy, PPy@V 2O5 nanocomposites exhibits high energy density, and excellent cycling and rate capability in K 2SO 4 aqueous electrolyte. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang Y.,Fudan University | Nie J.,Soochow University of China | Chang B.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Yang W.,Fudan University
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2013

Poly(vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL)-based biodegradable microgels were prepared for the biomedical application as drug delivery system via precipitation polymerization, where N,N-bis(acryloyl) cystamine (BAC) served as cross-linker, methacrylic acid (MAA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) methyl ether methacrylate acted as comonomers. The microgels with excellent stability had distinct temperature sensitivity as largely observed in the case of PVCL-based particles and their volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) shifted to higher temperature with increasing MAA content and ambient pH. In the presence of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) or dithiothreitol (DTT), the microgels could be degraded into individual linear polymer chains by the cleavage of the disulfide linkages coming from the cross-linker BAC. The microgels could effectively encapsulate Doxorubicin (DOX) inside and presented stimuli-triggered drug release in acidic or reducing environment. The results of the cytotoxicity assays further demonstrated that the blank microgels were nontoxic to normal cells while DOX-loaded microgels presented efficient antitumor activity to HeLa cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Zhang Y.L.,University of Toronto | Zhang Y.,University of Toronto | Ru C.,Soochow University of China | Chen B.K.,University of Toronto | Sun Y.,University of Toronto
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

This paper presents a nanomanipulation system for operation inside scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The system is compact, making it capable of being mounted onto and demounted from an SEM through the specimen-exchange chamber (load-lock) without breaking the high vacuum of the SEM. This advance avoids frequent opening of the high-vacuum chamber, thus, incurs less contamination to the SEM, avoids lengthy pumping, and significantly eases the exchange of end effectors (e.g., nanoprobes and nanogrippers). The system consists of two independent 3-DOF Cartesian nanomanipulators driven by piezomotors and piezoactuators. High-resolution optical encoders are integrated into the nanomanipulators to provide position feedback for closed-loop control. The system is characterized, yielding the encoders resolution of 2 nm and the piezoactuators resolution of 0.7 nm. A look-then-move control system and a contact-detection algorithm are implemented for horizontal and vertical nanopositioning. © 1996-2012 IEEE.


Sun S.,Fudan University | Zhang W.,Soochow University of China | Wu P.,Fudan University | Zhu X.,Soochow University of China
Soft Matter | Year: 2012

IR spectroscopy in combination with the perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) technique and 2D correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) is employed to elucidate the dynamic self-aggregation behavior of a novel miktoarm star PNIPAM-based multihydrophilic block copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) 2-[poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)] 2 ((PNIPAM) 2-(PVP-b-PAA) 2). At pH = 8, (PNIPAM) 2-(PVP-b-PAA) 2 tends to self-assemble into micelles with PNIPAM in the core and ionized PAA segments in the shell during heating. IR investigation shows that the AA segments exhibit a similar "phase transition" behavior to the PNIPAM segments, which can be ascribed to the indirect influence through the drastic content changes of water molecules along with the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transformation of PNIPAM segments. Boltzmann fitting and PCMW easily determine the transition temperature to be ca. 33 °C and the transition temperature range to be 29.5-35 °C. Moreover, 2DCOS discerns a sequential group motion from PNIPAM to PVP and PAA segments. It is concluded that the three polymeric segments have relatively independent phase behavior during the formation of PNIPAM-core micelles, and the chain conformation adjustment induced by hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transformation of PNIPAM segments should be the driving force of the whole self-aggregation process. The dynamic self-aggregation process we proposed can be further confirmed by dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


She C.,Soochow University of China | Zhu L.-Q.,Soochow University of China | Zhen Y.-F.,Soochow University of China | Wang X.-D.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014

Elevated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, serving as an important contributor to the development of osteonecrosis. Here we aimed to understand the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the process. We observed a high level of AMPK activation in surgery isolated patients' osteonecrosis tissues. In cultured osteoblastoma MG63 cells, H2O2 stimulation induced significant AMPK activation, oxidative stress, cell death and apoptosis. Inhibition of AMPK by its inhibitor (compound C) or by shRNA-mediated knockdown dramatically enhanced H2O2-induced MG63 cell apoptosis, while over-expression of AMPK in HEK-293 cells alleviated H2O2-induced cell damage. These results confirmed that H2O2-activated AMPK is pro-cell survival. We observed that H2O2 induced protective autophagy in MG63 cells, and AMPK-dependent Ulk1 activation and mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inactivation might involve autophagy activation. Further, AMPK activation inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative stress, probably through inhibiting NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) depletion, since more NADPH depletion and oxidative stress were induced by H2O2 in AMPK deficient MG63 cells. Finally, we observed a significant AMPK activation in H2O2-treated primary cultured and transformed (MC3T3-E1) osteoblasts, and AMPK inhibitor compound C enhanced death by H2O2 in these cells. Based on these results, we concluded that H2O2-induced AMPK activation is pro-survival and anti-apoptosis in osteoblasts. Autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance are involved in AMPK-mediated pro-survival effects. AMPK might represent a novel molecular target for osteonecrosis treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Wang Y.,Fudan University | Gao B.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Soochow University of China
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2014

Viral myocarditis, which is most prevalently caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, is a serious clinical condition characterized by cardiac inflammation. Inflammasome plays an essential role in the regulation of diverse inflammatory responses by serving as a platform for caspase-1 activation and caspase-1-dependent proteolytic maturation and secretion of IL-1β. Although inflammasome has been reported to be crucial for the development of many inflammatory diseases, its role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis is still elusive. The present study aims to investigate whether CVB3 infection activates inflammasome and whether the activation of inflammasome contributes to CVB3-induced myocarditis. Our results showed that CVB3 infection induced inflammasome activation both in vitro and in vivo. With the inhibition of inflammasome activation, the severity of CVB3-induced myocarditis was significantly alleviated as evidenced by less weight loss, decreased serological indexes of creatine kinase and creatinekinase-MB activities, as well as less severe myocardial injury. Of importance, echocardiography results showed that inhibition of inflammasome activation also efficiently improved cardiac function as revealed by enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening. Despite that CVB3 infection significantly increased the expression of both retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in cardiac myocytes, CVB3-induced inflammasome activation was NLRP3-, but not retinoic acid-inducible gene 1, dependent. Further study showed that reactive oxygen species production and K+ efflux were critical for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome upon CVB3 infection. Collectively, our study demonstrated a crucial role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, and modulation of inflammasome activation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for viral myocarditis. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Ge X.,Soochow University of China | Ge X.,Jiangsu University of Science and Technology | Bai X.,Alliance Data Systems Corporation | Yun Z.,Soochow University of China
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

The relationships among properties of covering approximation operators and their corresponding coverings have attracted intensive research in recent years. In particular, those among topological properties have drawn special attention because of their important applications in rough set theory. In this paper, we give topological characterizations of covering C for covering-based upper approximation operators FH, SH, TH and RH to be closure operators. We also give intuitive characterizations of covering C, and describe covering-based approximation space (U, C) as certain types of information exchange systems when SH or RH is a closure operator. By applying our new characterizations, we give inequalities about the relationship between the number of members in C and the number of elements in U, and discuss relationships among conditions for different covering based upper approximation operators to be closure operators. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that such characterizations, descriptions, inequalities and discussions are systematically considered in the literature of rough set theory. Furthermore, in this paper we also give several characterizations of unary coverings, an important type of coverings in studying relationships among basic concepts in covering-based rough sets, by the relationships among different types of covering-base approximation operators. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Sun S.,Fudan University | Wu P.,Fudan University | Zhang W.,Soochow University of China | Zhu X.,Soochow University of China
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

The effects of structural constraint on the thermosensitivity and dynamic self-assembly behaviors of PNIPAM-based nonlinear multihydrophilic block copolymers (MHBCs) are investigated by a combination of calorimetric, NMR, FTIR, DLS and zeta potential measurements. Two novel miktoarm star MHBCs, (PNIPAM)2-(PVP-b-PAA)2 with PNIPAM segments constrained at one end and (PNIPAM-b-PAA)2-(PVP)2 with PNIPAM segments constrained at two ends, are mainly analyzed to make comparison. As we previously reported (Soft Matter, 2012, 8, 3980), in (PNIPAM) 2-(PVP-b-PAA)2 the three polymeric segments have relatively independent phase behaviors during the formation of PNIPAM-core micelles. However, by introducing more structural constraints to PNIPAM segments, (PNIPAM-b-PAA)2-(PVP)2 exhibits a much smoother and weaker phase transition. Additional analysis by IR spectroscopy, in combination with perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), indicates that PVP segments in (PNIPAM-b-PAA)2-(PVP)2 show phase transition-like behavior by participating in the self-association process of PNIPAM segments, and there are both unimers and small associates existing in the solution below the LCST due to the slight interaction between PVP and PNIPAM segments. Moreover, due to the presence of PVP segments in the core, the micelles formed by (PNIPAM-b-PAA)2-(PVP)2 should have a loosely organized superstructure, which may account for the weak phase transition and low degree of phase separation. Finally, we propose a mechanism of the self-assembly process of (PNIPAM-b-PAA)2-(PVP)2, which is further confirmed by DLS and zeta potential measurements. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Cao Y.,Fudan University | Xu W.,Soochow University of China | Xiong S.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Soochow University of China
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Cardiac fibrogenesis in the late stage of viral myocarditis causing contractile dysfunction and ventricular dilatation, is a major pathogenic factor for the progression of myocarditis to serious cardiovascular diseases including dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and congestive heart failure (HF). Recent studies indicate that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the fibrotic process of liver and lung fibosis. However, the role of Tregs in the development of viral myocarditis-caused cardiac fibrosis and their therapeutic potential remains unclear.Methodology/Principal Findings:Myocardial fibrosis was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) assessed by picrosirius red staining and detection of expression levels of collagen I, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Myocardial Treg frequency was down-regulated during the course of viral myocarditis and a negative correlation with the severity of cardiac fibrosis was found. To explore the role of Tregs in CVB-induced cardiac fibrosis, Treg was in vivo depleted by injecting anti-CD25 mAb which resulted in aggravation of cardiac fibrosis. In consistent with that, after adoptive transfer of isolated Tregs into mice, significant amelioration of CVB3-induced cardiac fibrosis was confirmed. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies were used in vivo and in vitro to explore the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effect of Treg. It was found that administration of anti-IL-10 mAb after Treg transfer abrogated Treg's treating effect and the inhibition of Treg on collagen production by cardiac fibroblasts was mediated mainly through IL-10.Conclusion/Significance:Our data suggested that Tregs have a protective role in the fibrotic process of CVB3-induced cardiac fibrosis via secreting IL-10 and might provide an alternative option for the future treatment of cardiac fibrosis. © 2013 Cao et al.


Xu F.,Fudan University | Gu J.-H.,Nantong University | Qin Z.-H.,Soochow University of China
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2012

Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for the bulk degradation and recycling of cytosolic components, such as long-lived proteins and organelles. In neurons, autophagy is important for homeostasis and protein quality control and is maintained at relatively low levels under normal conditions, while it is upregulated in response to pathophysiological conditions, such as cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of autophagy is more complex. It depends on age or brain maturity, region, severity of insult, and the stage of ischemia. Whether autophagy plays a beneficial or a detrimental role in cerebral ischemia depends on various pathological conditions. In this review, we elucidate the role of neuronal autophagy in cerebral ischemia. © 2012 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Song Y.-H.,Soochow University of China | Song J.L.,Soochow University of China | Delafontaine P.,Tulane University | Godard M.P.,University of Central Missouri
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Skeletal muscle loss due to aging, motor-neuron degeneration, cancer, heart failure, and ischemia is a serious condition for which currently there is no effective treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) plays an important role in muscle maintenance and repair. Preclinical studies have shown that IGF-I is involved in increasing muscle mass and strength, reducing degeneration, inhibiting the prolonged and excessive inflammatory process due to toxin injury, and increasing the proliferation potential of satellite cells. However, clinical trials have not been successful due to ineffective delivery methods. Choosing the appropriate isoforms or peptides and developing targeted delivery techniques can resolve this issue. Here we discuss the latest development in the field with special emphasis on novel therapeutic approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Carbone D.P.,Ohio State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2015

Sustained angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer. Because of the primary role of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors in angiogenesis, VEGF-targeted agents have been developed to inhibit these signaling processes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the clinical benefits are transient and resistance often rapidly develops. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of resistance would help to develop novel strategies to improve the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapies. This review discusses the mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy and the postulated strategies to optimize antiangiogenic therapy. A number of multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently in phase III clinical development for NSCLC are summarized. The emerging combination of antiangiogenic therapy with tumor immunotherapy is also discussed. © 2015.


Zhang W.,Fudan University | Xu W.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are found to be accompanied with innate immunity dysregulation including abnormally macrophage activation. But the functional polarization of the activated macrophages and its underlying molecular mechanism during the pathogenesis of SLE remains unknown. As an important local cellular interaction mechanism responsible for cell fate determination, Notch signaling is reported to exert crucial functions in the development and differentiation of various immunocytes, whereas its role in macrophage polarization is not fully understood. In this study, in the SLE murine model generated by immunization with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA), infiltrated macrophages in the nephritic tissues were found to exhibit activation and M2b functional polarization. Notch1 signaling activity was significantly upregulated in the ALD-DNA-induced M2b macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ALD-DNA-induced M2b polarization was found to be dependent on enhanced Notch1 signaling through accelerating NF-κB p50 translocation into the nucleus mediated by PI3K and MAPK pathways. Moreover, blockade of Notch1 signaling with γ-secretase inhibitor treatment before or after the disease initiation could ameliorate murine lupus through impeding macrophage M2b polarization. Our results implied that Notch1 signaling-dependent macrophage M2b polarization might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SLE, which could provide Notch1 signaling blockade as a potential therapeutic approach for SLE disease. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.


Shao J.,Soochow University of China | Li X.,Soochow University of China | Qu Q.,Soochow University of China | Qu Q.,Fudan University | Wu Y.,Fudan University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

The charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance, cyclic voltammogram, and cycling behaviors of crystalline K xMnO 2·nH 2O as cathode material for supercapacitors in Li 2SO 4, Na 2SO 4, and K 2SO 4 electrolytes were compared. The different power and cycling performance of K xMnO 2·nH 2O during charge/discharge in the three electrolytes were elucidated by analyzing its composition and structure evolution. Compared with the Li 2SO 4 and Na 2SO 4 electrolytes, the highest ionic conductivity of K 2SO 4 electrolyte, the fastest charge-transfer process and slightest structural evolution of K xMnO 2·nH 2O during charge/discharge in the K 2SO 4 electrolyte lead to a superior power and cycling behavior for supercapacitor application. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zheng J.,Soochow University of China | Huang Y.,Suzhou Vocational University | Xiao Y.,University of Alabama
International Journal of Sensor Networks | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the effects of leaders on the consistency of group behaviour. First, a mathematical model is established so that the group attempts to reach a common velocity direction. The action range of leaders is formulated by their communication range. The followers update their states according to the states of both the other followers in the vicinity and the leaders which can communicate with the current follower. After establishing a system model, we then conduct simulations to discover the effects of leaders on the consistency of a group behaviour. Finally, we obtain the following results: (a) the leader is very useful in compelling the group to be consistent, even when the impact factor of the leader is very small; (b) the total consistency of the group is determined not only by the communication range of the leader, but also by the communication range of the followers. © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Jiang J.,Vanderbilt University | Jiang J.,Soochow University of China | Jia P.,Vanderbilt University | Shen B.,Soochow University of China | Zhao Z.,Vanderbilt University
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed thousands of disease risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), their functions remain largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested the regulatory roles of GWAS risk variants in several common diseases; however, the complex regulatory structure in prostate cancer is unclear. We investigated the potential regulatory roles of risk variants in two prostate cancer GWAS datasets by their interactions with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and/or transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in three populations. Our results indicated that the moderately associated GWAS SNPs were significantly enriched with cis-eQTLs and TFBSs in Caucasians (CEU), but not in African Americans (AA) or Japanese (JPT); this was also observed in an independent pancancer related SNPs from the GWAS Catalog. We found that the eQTL enrichment in the CEU population was tissue-specific to eQTLs from CEU lymphoblastoid cell lines. Importantly, we pinpointed two SNPs, rs2861405 and rs4766642, by overlapping results from cis-eQTL and TFBS as applied to the CEU data. These results suggested that prostate cancer associated SNPs and pan-cancer associated SNPs are likely to play regulatory roles in CEU. However, the negative enrichment results in AA or JPT and the potential mechanisms remain to be elucidated in additional samples.


Tian H.,Soochow University of China
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2013

Despite the chemotherapy is successful in inducing remission of hematologic malignancy, this disease also has a high probability of relapse; besides, the toxicity of chemotherapy for these patients can not be avoided. Researchers have been attempting to eliminate tumor cells by immunotherapy. Recently, various leukemia-associated antigens (LAA) that are recognized by cytotoxic T cell (CTL) in the context of HLA class I molecules have been identified. These LAA include WT1, PR-3, RHAMM, BCR-ABL and Aur-A. On the basis of these findings, various clinical trials of immunotherapy for hematologic malignancy including tumor peptide vaccination, adoptive T cell therapy, NK cell therapy and dendritic cells-cytokine induced killer (DC-CIK) cell therapy are on going. In this review, the current status and future feasibility of cellular immunotherapy for leukemia are discussed.


Du J.,Soochow University of China | Yue R.,Soochow University of China | Ren F.,Soochow University of China | Yao Z.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

A novel and sensitive carbon fiber electrode (CFE) modified by graphene flowers was prepared and used to simultaneously determine ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). SEM images showed that beautiful and layer-petal graphene flowers homogeneously bloomed on the surface of CFE. Moreover, sharp and obvious oxidation peaks were found at the obtained electrode when compared with CFE and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the oxidation of AA, DA and UA. Also, the linear calibration plots for AA, DA and UA were observed, respectively, in the ranges of 45.4-1489.23. μM, 0.7-45.21. μM and 3.78-183.87. μM in the individual detection of each component. By simultaneously changing the concentrations of AA, DA and UA, their oxidation peaks appeared at -0.05. V, 0.16. V and 2.6. V, and the good linear responses ranges were 73.52-2305.53. μM, 1.36-125.69. μM and 3.98-371.49. μM, respectively. In addition, the obtained electrode showed satisfactory results when applied to the determination of AA, DA and UA in urine and serum samples.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wu G.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam truncated by a circular phase aperture propagating in free space is derived with the help of a tensor method, which provides a reliable and fast way for studying the propagation and transformation of a truncated EGSM beam. Statistics properties, such as the spectral intensity, the degree of coherence, the degree of polarization and the polarization ellipse of a truncated EGSM beam in free space are studied numerically. The propagation factor of a truncated EGSM beam is also analyzed. Our numerical results show that we can modulate the spectral intensity, the polarization, the coherence and the propagation factor of an EGSM beam by a circular phase aperture. It is found that the phase aperture can be used to shape the beam profile of an EGSM beam and generate electromagnetic partially coherent dark hollow or flat-topped beam, which is useful in some applications, such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space optical communications. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Qiu J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, we establish a general set-valued Ekeland's variational principle in fuzzy metric spaces, where the objective function is a set-valued map defined on a fuzzy metric space and taking values in a pre-ordered locally convex space, and the perturbation involves a quasi-metric family generating the fuzzy topology of the domain space. Moreover, the direction of the perturbation is a convex subset of the positive cone instead of a single positive vector. In our general version, the assumption that the objective function is lower semi-continuous and one that the range of the function is lower bounded are both weakened. From the general Ekeland's variational principle, we obtain several particular set-valued Ekeland's variational principles in fuzzy metric spaces, which generalize and improve some related known results. From these, we deduce the corresponding Caristi's fixed point theorems for set-valued maps and the corresponding Takahashi's non-convex minimization theorems in set-valued optimization. Finally, we extend the obtained results to F-type topological spaces. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang J.-X.,Soochow University of China | Li N.-K.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.-M.,Soochow University of China | Huang X.-F.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2013

The spirocyclic pyrazolones are an important class of molecular structures with significant biological and pharmaceutical activities. Herein, we demonstrate that the combination of a Cinchona-based chiral primary amine and an ortho-fluorobenzoic acid is an efficient catalyst system for the double Michael addition of arylidenepyrazolones with α,β-unsaturated ketones, providing chiral unsymmetrical 6,10-diaryl-substituted spiro[cyclohexanone- pyrazolone] derivatives in high yields (up to 98%) with good diastereoselectivities and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 88:12 dr, 99% ee). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang S.S.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhou D.Q.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhou P.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Wang Q.W.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Wang Q.W.,Soochow University of China
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO2 emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO2 emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

Eu 3-doped red-emitting phosphors of double perovskite Ba 3Y 2WO 9 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The luminescence properties, e.g., the excitation and emission spectra, luminescence decay times and CIE coordinates were investigated. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near UV light to realize an intense red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D 0 → 7F 2 of Eu 3 ions. The double perovskite oxide was investigated by the site-selective emission spectra and the luminescence decay curves in the 5D 0 → 7F 0 region using a pulsed, tunable, narrowband dye laser. It is suggested that Eu 3 ions have three different crystallographic sites in this host. The site assignments of Eu 3 ions were discussed on the base of both optical spectroscopy and structural analysis. This is helpful to understand the occupation of rare earth ions doped in this perovskite structure. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Thermal Science | Year: 2011

A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.


Xu L.,Soochow University of China
Thermal Science | Year: 2011

In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is used to estimate the length constant of a long cooling fin, and an approximate solution formulation is obtained. The obtained results show that this method is a simple but promising method without any requirement for advanced calculus.


Li J.-L.,Deakin University | Tang B.,Deakin University | Yuan B.,Soochow University of China | Sun L.,Deakin University | Wang X.-G.,Deakin University
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Nanosized graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are photoluminescent due to the presence of bandgaps and edges/defects. The excellent photostability of these nanomaterials makes them superior to molecular dyes for biological imaging. They can also produce intensive heat under laser irradiation, enabling them to serve as photothermal agents for cancer treatment. In this work, recent studies on the photoluminescence of these materials, their applications for biological imaging and photothermal cancer therapy are reviewed. Properties of laser, particularly the temporal property (continuous wave or pulsed), affect its interaction with materials. Therefore, the photoluminescence and photothermal effects, as well as their applications under both single (one)-photon (continuous wave laser) and two-photon (pulsed laser) excitation were summarized and analyzed. Synergistic therapy which combines chemotherapy and photothermal therapy using these materials is also reviewed. Finally, critical issues and challenges for further research and in medical applications of these materials are analyzed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang F.,Soochow University of China | Song T.,Soochow University of China | Sun B.,Soochow University of China
Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

The hybrid Schottky diode based on silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been fabricated for high performance solar cells. The length of SiNWs on a silicon substrate, which is prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching, can be tuned by adjusting the length of the etching time. In addition, the average distances between the adjacent silicon nanowires can be controlled by changing the immersing time in a saturated PCl 5 solution. The hybrid devices are made from the SiNWs with different wire lengths and various distances between adjacent wires by spin-casting PEDOT:PSS on the silicon substrates. It is found that the length and density play leading roles in the electric output characteristics. The device made from SiNWs with optimum morphology can achieve a power conversion efficiency of 7.3%, which is much improved in comparison with that of the planar one. The measurement of the transient photovoltage decay and the analysis of the current versus voltage curve indicate that the charge recombination process is a dominant factor on the device performance. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hu J.,Soochow University of China | He J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang M.,Soochow University of China | Ni P.,Soochow University of China
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2015

A series of well-defined three-armed star-block copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blocks linked with acid-cleavable acetal groups, designated as (mPEG-acetal-PCL-acetal-)3 or (mPEG-a-PCL-a-)3, have been prepared via a "coupling-onto" method based on ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "Click" chemistry. The chemical compositions and structures, as well as the molecular weights and molecular weight distributions (PDIs) of these copolymers have been fully characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses demonstrated that the thermal behaviors of the star-block copolymers strongly depended on the relative lengths of PEG and PCL blocks in the arms. The self-assembly behaviors of these amphiphilic star-block copolymers were investigated by a fluorescence probe method, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The results showed that they could self-assemble into spherical micelles at low concentrations and mainly formed short rod-like micelles at high concentrations. Moreover, the acid-cleavable properties of these star-block copolymers were systematically studied by 1H NMR, GPC, and DLS measurements, and the results indicated that they were relatively stable in neutral pH media, but could be degraded under acidic conditions. The in vitro DOX release studies showed that DOX was released from drug-loaded micelles in a pH-sensitive manner. MTT assays demonstrated that these star-block copolymers possess low cytotoxicity against L929 cells and HeLa cells, and the DOX-loaded micelles exhibit a higher inhibition of the proliferation of HeLa cells in comparison with free DOX. Moreover, the results from the live cell imaging system and flow cytometry analysis revealed that these polymeric micelles could efficiently deliver and release DOX into the nuclei of HeLa cells. These pH-triggered shell-sheddable micelles are highly promising for the efficient intracellular delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Zhang W.,Soochow University of China
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

Wireless sensor networks may be destroyed by targets in field surveillance. Self-protection technology focuses on using sensor nodes to protect themselves so as to resist attacks. Selecting protecting nodes has been proved to be a NP-complete problem. In this paper, we propose a new distributed layered negotiation based approximation algorithm to find a protecting set using local topology information. Experimental result manifests the feasibility and efficiency of our algorithms proposed. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015


Wang L.J.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of uric acid on nigrostriatal system injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into four groups. Uric acid of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally (ip) into 5, 10, 5 rats twice daily at a 2-hour interval for five days and saline was injected ip into 10 rats as controls. At Day 6, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into striatum to establish Parkinson's disease (PD) model in rats. Then uric acid was injected ip into three groups and saline into controls for five days. Locomotion test, amphetamine-induced rotation and forepaw adjusting step test were performed at Weeks 3 and 4 respectively after injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. HPLC-MS/MS was performed to detect the contents of dopamine and its metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatum at Week 5. RESULTS: The scores of locomotion in 2 minutes of 200 mg/kg uric acid group (14 +/- 4/2 min) was higher significantly than saline group (4 +/- 5/2 min, P < 0.01). The amphetamine-induced rotation number in the 200 mg/kg uric acid group (10.8 +/- 7.5) was lower significantly that in the saline group (19.3 +/- 5.2, P < 0.01). Forepaw adjusting step test scores of 200 mg/kg uric acid group were higher significantly than those in the saline group (9.89 +/- 3.41 vs 4.36 +/- 3.72, P < 0.01). HPLC-MS/MS showed that the contents of DA (0.29 +/- 0.19) and HVA (1.22 +/- 0.5) in injured striatum of 200 mg/kg uric acid group were higher significantly than those in the saline group (0.05 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01; 0.24 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: An appropriately elevated level of uric acid may protect the dopamine neuron of nigrostriatal system from injury of 6-hydroxydopamine in rats.


Chen H.L.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2013

We establish full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory to study the near-field and far-field spectra of radially anisotropic coated nanowires. For coated nanowires containing radially anisotropic core and plasmonic shell, unconventional Fano resonances are predicted due to the interference between dipole cloaking mode and dipole resonant mode. In contrast to Z-shaped Fano profile with small modulation depth for coated nanospheres in Argyropoulos et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263905 (2012), we predict S-shaped Fano profile with high depth for coated nanowires. An off-resonance field enhancement in the radially anisotropic core is found at the Fano dip, and its' magnitude is approximately the same as that the one at the low-energy resonant wavelength. Furthermore, with our adjustment of the inner size and the permittivity elements of the anisotropic core, tunable Fano-like profiles can be realized. These results may be useful for potential applications in different fields of nanotechnology. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Zhu S.,Soochow University of China | Zhu X.,Soochow University of China | Liu L.,Soochow University of China | Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2013

In a recent publication (Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (2012) 051108), a monochromatic partially coherent radially polarized (RP) beam was generated experimentally. In this paper, we analyze the spectral changes of a polychromatic partially coherent RP beam focused by a thin lens for the first time, and compare with that of a focused scalar polychromatic GSM beam. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a polychromatic partially coherent RP beam and carry out experimental measurement of the spectral changes of such beam focused by a thin lens. Our results show that the behavior of the spectral changes of a focused polychromatic partially coherent RP beam is different from that of a focused scalar polychromatic GSM beam. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Han Z.-P.,Yulin University | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2012

A complex of composition [Cu I 4Cu II(mtpo) 4(H 2O) 2Cl 2] n (1) was synthesized from reaction of Hmtpo (Hmtpo = 5-methyl-[l,2,4]-triazolo-[l,5-a]- pyrimidin-7-o1) with one equivalent of CuCl 2·2H 2O in water at 100 °C under autogenous pressure. Complex 1 was fully characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 is a mixed-valence coordination polymer and displays 1-D chain structure. Compound 1 was able to heterogeneously catalyze the ketalization reaction of 2-butanone and ethylene glycol to afford 2-ethyl-2-methyl-[1,3]-dioxolane in excellent yield under mild conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu X.,Soochow University of China | Shen Y.,Soochow University of China | Liu L.,Soochow University of China | Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

We carry out experimental measurement of the scintillation index of a partially coherent beam-carrying vortex phase (i.e., Gaussian-Schell model vortex beam) propagating through thermally induced turbulence. It is demonstrated that a Gaussian-Schell model vortex beam has appreciably smaller scintillation than a Gaussian-Schell model beam, which will be useful in free-space optical communication. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Cai Z.-J.,Soochow University of China | Wang S.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Ji S.-J.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2013

Compared with the well-known palladium-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation coupling reactions, similar transforms initiated by copper/oxygen have attracted more and more attention. We have investigated a novel construction of heteroaromatic imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines through copper(I) iodide/boron trifluoride etherate/oxygen-mediated dehydrogenative reactions of aryl alkyl or alkyl alkyl ketones with 2-aminopyridines. Four hydrogen atoms are removed and two new C-N bonds are formed in one step via the imine formation and oxidative C(sp3)-H functionalization. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Liu X.,Soochow University of China | Yuan Y.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

We established an experimental setup for generating partially coherent beams with different complex degrees of coherence, and we report experimental generation of an elliptical Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam and a Laguerre-GSM beam for the first time. It has been demonstrated experimentally that an elliptical GSM beam and a Laguerre-GSM beam produce an elliptical beam spot and a dark hollow beam spot in the focal plane (or in the far field), respectively, which agrees with theoretical predictions. Our results are useful for beam shaping and particle trapping. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Nonparaxial propagation theory of coherent beams in a uniaxial crystal is extended to the partially coherent case. An analytical formula for the33?cross-spectral density matrix of a nonparaxial Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam propagating in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis is derived. Statistical properties, such as the spectral intensity and the degree of polarization, of a nonparaxial GSM beam in a uniaxial crystal are studied numerically. It is found that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial GSM beam are closely determined by its initial beam parameters and the parameters of the crystal. Uniaxial crystal can be used to modulate the spectral density and degree of polarization of a nonparaxial partially coherent beam. Our results may be useful in some applications, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with special beam profile and polarization is required. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Luo S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Fu S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Channel-state duality refers to the correspondence between quantum channels and bipartite states, and it is extremely useful and fruitful in quantum information theory. It is often called the Jamiołkowski isomorphism, the Jamiołkowski-Choi isomorphism, or the Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism. We trace the original roots of this duality from a historic perspective, clarify the somewhat misleading term "isomorphism," reveal the underlying subtle nature, and highlight the seemingly similar but actually different features of the original correspondences in the manner of Pillis, Jamiołkowski, and Choi that lead to the duality. We further illustrate some fundamental properties and diverse applications. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Zhang J.,Soochow University of China
Cancer Research and Clinic | Year: 2015

Tumor microenvironment is composed by tumor cells, stromal cells, immune-inflammatory cells, extracellular matrix, soluble cytokine and so on. Previous studies focused on the biological behavior, genetic changes and related phenotypic changes of tumor cells, but tumor microenvironment is closely related with the tumor development and treatment resistance. In recent years, new studies have confirmed that tumor microenvironment is an important member of tumor, which play an important role in proliferation, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells. This article mainly introduces the tumor microenvironment features, tumor-associated macrophage and tumor-associated fibroblasts, which led to the radioresistance of tumor.


Ma T.,Soochow University of China | Yu J.,Soochow University of China | Liang P.,Soochow University of China | Wang C.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2011

A new zoom mechanism was proposed for the realization of a freeform varifocal panoramic annular lens (PAL) with a specified annular center of the field of view (FOV). The zooming effect was achieved through a rotation of the varifoal PAL around an optical axis, which is different from a conventional zooming method by moving lenses back and forth. This method solves the problem of FOV deviation from the target scope during the zooming process, since the optical axis was not taken as the zooming center of the FOV. The conical surface corresponding to a certain acceptance angle was specified as the annular center of the FOV, and it was adopted as the reference surface of zooming for the FOV. As an example, the design principle and optimization process of a freeform varifocal PAL was discussed in detail. The annular center of the FOV was specified at the acceptance angle of 90°. The absolute FOV in the direction of acceptance angles is relative to the specified annular center, with cosine deviation from ± 20° at 0° rotational angle to ± 10° at ± 180° rotational angle on both sides around optical axis. An X-Y polynomial (XYP) was used for the representation of freeform surfaces for its simple form and convergence efficiency. The correction for irregular astigmatism and distortion and the position offset of an entrance pupil caused by an irregular aperture spherical aberration are also discussed. The results from the analysis of the modulus of the optical transfer function (MTF) and f-theta distortion show that the zooming method by a rotation of the varifocal freeform PAL is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Chen Y.,Soochow University of China | Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) vortex beam is introduced as an extension of LGCSM beam which was proposed [Opt. Lett. 38, 91 (2013)] and generated [Opt. Lett. 38, 1814 (2013)] just recently. Explicit formula for a LGCSM vortex beam propagating through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and the propagation properties of such beam in free space and the focusing properties of such beam are studied numerically. Furthermore, we carry out experimental generation of a LGCSM vortex beam, and studied its focusing properties. It is found that the propagation and focusing properties of a LGCSM vortex beam are different from that of a LGCSM beam, and we can shape the beam profile of a LGCSM vortex at the focal plane (or in the far field) by varying its initial spatial coherence. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions, and our results will be useful for particle trapping. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Duan J.-W.,Lanzhou University | Hu G.,Soochow University of China | Qiu W.-Y.,Lanzhou University
Match | Year: 2014

DNA cages are kind of artificial polyhedra that are interlinked and interlocked with DNA double-strands. A simple formula to calculate genus of DNA cages is presented here. The formula connects some topological properties of DNA cages, including component number μ, crossing number c and Seifert circle number s. It shows that no matter the way of DNA strands interlinked, the genus is a constant which only depends on the component number of the underlying polyhedral graph. Our study demonstrates that, the genus is an essential topological aspect of DNA polyhedra, which provides a novel classification and a design principle for DNA cages.


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Luo S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We compare several criteria for quantum Markovianities and illustrate the differences and similarities through explicit examples of random unitary qubit dynamics (Pauli channels). In particular, we demonstrate that the quantum Markovianity based on distinguishability is not equivalent to that based on correlations. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2010

By expanding the hard-aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, analytical formulae for the electric field of a general-type beam propagating through apertured aligned and misaligned ABCD optical systems are derived using the generalized Collins formulae, which provide a convenient way of studying the propagation of a variety of laser beams, such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams, through such optical systems. As numerical examples, the propagation properties of a cos-Gaussian beam through an apertured aligned or misaligned thin lens are studied. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


You W.-L.,Soochow University of China | Wang X.-F.,Soochow University of China
Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

We have theoretically studied the collective response properties of the two-dimensional chiral electron gas in bilayer graphene within the random phase approximation. The cooperation of external controlling factors such as perpendicular electric bias, temperature, doping, and substrate background provides great freedom to manipulate the dynamic dielectric function and the low-energy plasmon dispersion of the system. Intriguing situations with potential application are systematically explored and discussed. Extra undamped plasmon modes might emerge under electric bias. They have almost zero group velocities and are easy to manipulate. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhu S.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2010

Spectral changes of a twisted electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam focused by a thin lens are investigated by using a tensor method. It is shown that the spectral shift is mainly determined by the degree of polarization, twist phase and correlation coefficients of the initial beam. Generically the blue shift occurs at on-axis points, while the red shift can occur at off-axis points. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Li X.,Soochow University of China | Xu J.,Soochow University of China
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence suggests the protective role of dietary lycopene against the risk of ovarian cancer due to its antioxidant activity, but not all relevant studies have deduced positive results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the exact relationship between dietary lycopene intake and ovarian cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. The 10 studies included in our meta-analysis were selected from the PubMed database, and final risk estimates were calculated by using a random-effects model. Our study demonstrated an insignificant reverse association between dietary lycopene and ovarian cancer risk (OR, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.859-1.080), and subgroup analysis stratified by study design, location, histological type of ovarian cancer, and length of dietary recall showed no statistically significant results. No heterogeneity was observed (p = 0.336, I 2 = 11.6%). Our present meta-analysis suggests the potential role of dietary lycopene against the risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, which provides opportunity for developments in the prevention of ovarian cancer.


Liu Z.,Soochow University of China | Robinson J.T.,Stanford University | Tabakman S.M.,Stanford University | Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Dai H.,Stanford University
Materials Today | Year: 2011

Carbon nanotubes and graphene are both low-dimensional sp2 carbon nanomaterials exhibiting many unique physical and chemical properties that are interesting in a wide range of areas including nanomedicine. Since 2004, carbon nanotubes have been extensively explored as drug delivery carriers for the intracellular transport of chemotherapy drugs, proteins, and genes. In vivo cancer treatment with carbon nanotubes has been demonstrated in animal experiments by several different groups. Recently, graphene, another allotrope of carbon, has also shown promise in various biomedical applications. In this article, we will highlight recent research on these two categories of closely related carbon nanomaterials for applications in drug delivery and cancer therapy, and discuss the opportunities and challenges in this rapidly growing field. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ma Z.,Soochow University of China | Ming H.,Soochow University of China | Huang H.,Soochow University of China | Liu Y.,Soochow University of China | Kang Z.,Soochow University of China
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

Water-soluble fluorescent N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were synthesized by a facile one-pot ultrasonic reaction between glucose and ammonium hydroxide. Besides exhibiting strong luminescence in the visible-to-near infrared range, the obtained NCDs displayed clear upconversion photoluminescence properties. Moreover, the NCDs showed excellent photocatalytic property in the photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2012.


Zhang J.,Soochow University of China | Shen S.,Soochow University of China | Dong X.X.,Soochow University of China | Chen L.S.,Soochow University of China
Optics Express | Year: 2014

A soft lithographic approach using a modified polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold for the fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structure on polymer film is reported. By introducing an intermediate transferring PUA mold generated by an anodized aluminum oxide membrane, there is no need either to heat nor to deposit metal as a seed layer. Therefore, the most costly and time-consuming master preparation step in the conventional process chain is not a necessity. The soft PUA mold provides a high resolution of 100 nm with an aspect ratio of 1.7 and a conformal contact with the substrate and reduces the pressure needed during the imprinting steps. It is numerically verified that the antireflective film with nanopores has a similar fascinating broadband antireflective effect compared with that of its complementary nanonipple one. In our experiment, the average transmission efficiency of the PET film with dualside nanopores can be enhanced to 98.7% at normal incidence and 92.5% at an incident angle of 60° over a range of 400-800 nm of the spectrum. The proposed method is simple and cost-effective and the fabricated antireflective polymer film can be mounted on the surfaces of various optical devices for the reduction of Fresnel reflections.©2014 Optical Society of America.


Chen R.,Soochow University of China | Liu L.,Soochow University of China | Zhu S.,Soochow University of China | Wu G.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Laguerre-Gaussian Schell-model (LGSM) beam was proposed in theory [Opt. Lett. 38, 91 (2013)] and generated in experiment [Opt. Lett. 38, 1814 (2013)] just recently. In this paper, we study the propagation of a LGSM beam in turbulent atmosphere. Analytical expressions for the crossspectral density and the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function of a LGSM beam in turbulent atmosphere are derived. The statistical properties, such as the degree of coherence and the propagation factor, of a LGSM beam in turbulent atmosphere are studied in detail. It is found that a LGSM beam with larger mode order n is less affected by turbulence than a LGSM beam with smaller mode order n or a GSM beam under certain condition, which will be useful in free-space optical communications. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Soochow University of China | Tan X.,Soochow University of China | Peng R.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
Small | Year: 2013

Graphene, as a class of 2D carbon nanomaterial, has attracted tremendous interest in different areas in recent years including biomedicine. The toxicity and behavior of graphene in biological systems are thus important fundamental issues that require significant attention. In this article, the toxicity of graphene is reviewed by describing the behavior of graphene and its derivatives in microorganisms, cells, and animals. Despite certain inconsistencies in several detailed experimental results and hypotheses of toxicity mechanisms, results from numerous reports all agree that the physicochemical properties such as surface functional groups, charges, coatings, sizes, and structural defects of graphene may affect its in vitro/in vivo behavior as well as its toxicity in biological systems. It is hoped that this review article will provide an overview understanding of the impacts, behavior, and toxicology of graphene and its derivatives in various biological systems. The toxicity and behavior of graphene in biological systems are systemically reviewed. Despite certain inconsistencies in several detailed experimental results and hypotheses of toxicity mechanisms, numerous reports agree that the physicochemical properties such as surface functional groups, charges, coatings, sizes, and structural defects of graphene materials would affect their in vitro/in vivo behavior as well as toxicity in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cheng L.,Soochow University of China | Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Shao M.,Soochow University of China | Lee S.-T.,City University of Hong Kong | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) based on sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) nanocrystals are synthesized, functionalized with an amphiphilic polymer, and loaded with fluorescent and quenching molecules by physical adsorption. The formed supramolecular UCNP-dye complexes show tuned visible emission spectra owing to the luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from nanoparticles to the organic dyes under near-infrared (NIR) excitation, and can be well separated in multicolor imaging after spectral decovolution. Our work provides a facile and flexible method to modulate the upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectra of UCNPs for in vivo multicolor UCL imaging in animals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Yang K.,Soochow University of China | Feng L.,Soochow University of China | Shi X.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and GO-nanocomposites have attracted tremendous interest in many different fields including biomedicine in recent years. With every atom exposed on its surface, single-layered graphene shows ultra-high surface area available for efficient molecular loading and bioconjugation, and has been widely explored as novel nano-carriers for drug and gene delivery. Utilizing the intrinsic near-infrared (NIR) optical absorbance, in vivo graphene-based photothermal therapy has been realized, achieving excellent anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy in animal experiments. A variety of inorganic nanoparticles can be grown on the surface of nano-graphene, obtaining functional graphene-based nanocomposites with interesting optical and magnetic properties useful for multi-modal imaging and imaging-guided cancer therapy. Moreover, significant efforts have also been devoted to study the behaviors and toxicology of functionalized nano-graphene in animals. It has been uncovered that both surface chemistry and sizes play key roles in controlling the biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity of nano-graphene. Biocompatibly coated nano-graphene with ultra-small sizes can be cleared out from body after systemic administration, without rendering noticeable toxicity to the treated mice. In this review article, we will summarize the latest progress in this rapidly growing field, and discuss future prospects and challenges of using graphene-based materials for theranostic applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Tian W.-D.,Soochow University of China | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

It is a great challenge for nanomedicine to develop novel dendrimers with maximum therapeutic potential and minimum side-effects for drug and gene delivery. As delivery vectors, dendrimers must overcome lots of barriers before delivering the bio-agents to the target in the cell. Extensive experimental investigations have been carried out to elucidate the physical and chemical properties of dendrimers and explore their behaviors when interacting with biomolecules, such as gene materials, proteins, and lipid membranes. As a supplement of the experimental techniques, it has been proved that computer simulations could facilitate the progress in understanding the delivery process of bioactive molecules. The structures of dendrimers in dilute solutions have been intensively investigated by monomer-resolved simulations, coarse-grained simulations, and atom-resolved simulations. Atomistic simulations have manifested that the hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen-bond interactions, and electrostatic attraction play critical roles in the formation of dendrimer-drug complexes. Multiscale simulations and statistical field theories have uncovered some physical mechanisms involved in the dendrimer-based gene delivery systems. This review will focus on the current status and perspective of theoretical and computational contributions in this field in recent years. (275 references) © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Cheng L.,Soochow University of China | Wang C.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), particularly lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which emit high energy photons under excitation by the near-infrared (NIR) light, have found potential applications in many different fields, including biomedicine. Compared with traditional down-conversion fluorescence imaging, the NIR light excited upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging relying on UCNPs exhibits improved tissue penetration depth, higher photochemical stability, and is free of auto-fluorescence background, which promises biomedical imaging with high sensitivity. On the other hand, the unique upconversion process of UCNPs may be utilized to activate photosensitive therapeutic agents for applications in cancer treatment. Moreover, the integration of UCNPs with other functional nanostructures could result in the obtained nanocomposites having highly enriched functionalities, useful in imaging-guided cancer therapies. This review article will focus on the biomedical imaging and cancer therapy applications of UCNPs and their nanocomposites, and discuss recent advances and future prospects in this emerging field. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yang X.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education | Yan F.,Soochow University of China
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

A simple strategy for synthesizing well-defined polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube, which can be used for loading silver nanoparticles without prior PPy nanotube functionalization under mild conditions is demonstrated. It is found that Ag nanoparticles could uniformly decorate onto the PPy nanotube surface in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to form PPy/Ag composite nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images give evidence of the decoration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of PPy nanotubes. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveal the structure of PPy/Ag composite nanotubes and X-ray diffraction (XRD) directly shows the presence of Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared PPy/Ag composite nanotubes are applied to the detection of ammonia vapor. Compared with PPy nanotubes, the introduction of metal onto PPy nanotubes is effective in promoting the chemiresistor response to ammonia. Moreover, the response behaviors of PPy/Ag composite nanotubes depend on the distribution of Ag nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen H.L.,Soochow University of China | Gao L.,Soochow University of China
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We provide a full-wave electromagnetic (EM) scattering theory of discussing the electromagnetic scattering efficiency of radially anisotropic nanocylinders. In the long-wavelength limit, we derive the conditions for observing unusual EM scattering including non-Rayleigh vanishing and diverging ones. To verify our theoretical predictions, both full-wave numerical results and numerical simulations are performed, and good agreement is found. Moreover, physical origins of the anomalous phenomena are given. Therefore, the anisotropic nanowires under certain conditions can be hardly visible or exhibit superscattering. These results may find potential applications in different fields of nanotechnology. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yang X.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process
Synthetic Metals | Year: 2010

The synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers has been achieved via a simple reactive template approach. The reactive template of FeCl3 and methyl orange (MO) leads to the formation of uniform PPy nanofibers. Moreover, the fabrication of PPy nanofibers with high yield is realized, suggesting that this methodology is appropriate for the large-scale production of the corresponding nanomaterials. In contrast to the NH3 gas sensor based on bulk PPy, the gas sensor based on the as-prepared PPy nanofibers exhibits greatly improved performances. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shao M.,Soochow University of China | Ma D.D.D.,City University of Hong Kong | Lee S.-T.,City University of Hong Kong
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this review, we summarize the essential aspects of the synthesis, properties, and applications of silicon nanowires. In particular, important applications such as catalysis, Li ionbatteries, solar cells, biological and chemical sensors are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li X.-L.,Soochow University of China | Xu J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms implicated in the cancer development, but the published studies had yielded inconsistent results. Methods: Pubmed was searched for all published case-control studies about MTHFR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. Results: In all, 13 studies including 5872 cases and 6255 controls described C677T genotypes, among which 9 articles, containing 2847 cases and 3657 controls described A1298C genotypes, were involved in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity were also calculated. Overall, meta-analysis indicated that the 677T allele was more likely to exert protective effect on prostate cancer risk (random-effects pooled OR, 0.78 (0.64-0.96); P = 0.016 (P = 0.033 for heterogeneity studies)) in a recessive genetic model, no associations were found in other genetic models or in comparing a/a versus A/A homozygous. Neither did we find any difference in effects on high or low aggressive prostate cancer. No evidence of an association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with prostate cancer was found. Conclusions: C677T of the MTHFR gene may provide protective effects on susceptibility to prostate cancer risk. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Shi D.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry | Year: 2010

A novel and efficient one-pot synthesis of spiro[indoline-3,4′- pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline]dione, spiro[furo[3,4-e]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4, 3′-indoline]dione, and spiro[indeno[2,1-e]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4, 3′-indoline]dione derivatives via three-component reaction of isatin, 5-amino-3-methylpyrazole, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in aqueous medium is described. The advantages of this method include high efficiency, mild reaction conditions, convenient operation, and environmentally benign conditions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Feng S.R.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2011

To observe the effect of leukemic cells on blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice with central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) by establishing mice CNSL model and an in vitro BBB model and explore the mechanism of leukemic cell infiltrating central nervous system (CNS). After splenectomy, cytoxan intraperitoneal injection, and sublethal irradiation, 10 BALB/c nu/nu mice were transplanted intravenously with 1.2 × 10(7) of SHI-1 human monocytic leukemic cells. Mice were monitored for survival and clinical manifestation of nerve palsy. The leukemic cells engrafted were examined by RT-PCR, histopathology and bone marrow (BM) smears. Immunofluorescence analysis with laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to determine the expression of fibrinogen and tight-junction protein ZO-1. An in vitro BBB model composed of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) was developed on a Matrigel-based insert. Different leukemic cell lines were seeded onto the upper compartment of transwell insert. After incubated for 24 h with BMVECs, cells that had migrated into the lower compartment were counted and analyzed. (1) Paralysis with or without sight loss was developed in half the mice 30-35 d after innoculated with SHI-1 cells. Leukemic cells infiltrates were observed in BM and in different part of brain tissues including brain parenchyma. The transcriptions of human MLL/AF6 fusion gene were also detected in BM and brain tissues in paralysis mice. The fibrinogen expression and ZO-1 disruption were detected in the infiltrated tissue. (2) After 24 h incubation with leukemic cells, the BMVECs sheets were disrupted and grew singly and ZO-1 expression was down-regulated markedly. SHI-1 cells showed more injurious to BMVECs and higher invasive rate \[(40.33 ± 1.53)% vs (11.83 ± 1.44)%, P < 0.05\] than HL-60 cells did. One of the mechanisms of leukemic cells infiltrates CNS in CNSL is injure to the BBB.


Qiu L.,Soochow University of China | Liu B.,Soochow University of China | Peng Y.,Soochow University of China | Yan F.,Soochow University of China
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

Polypyrrole nanotubes (PPyNTs)/Pt nanoparticle hybrids were synthesized by using covalently attached imidazolium-type ionic liquids (ILs) as linkers. The resultant Pt/ILs/PPyNTs hybrids exhibited high electrocatalytic activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Bao J.,Soochow University of China | Ji L.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2016

Frequency hopping sequences (FHSs) with favorable partial Hamming correlation properties have important applications in many synchronization and multiple-access systems. In this paper, we investigate constructions of FHSs and FHS sets with optimal partial Hamming correlation. We first establish a correspondence between FHS sets with optimal partial Hamming correlation and multiple partition-type balanced nested cyclic difference packings with a special property. By virtue of this correspondence, some FHSs and FHS sets with optimal partial Hamming correlation are constructed from various combinatorial structures, such as cyclic difference packings and cyclic relative difference families. As a consequence, our constructions yield new FHSs and FHS sets with optimal partial Hamming correlation. © 2016 IEEE.


Rui X.,Soochow University of China | Hou J.,Soochow University of China | Zhou L.,Soochow University of China
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the full-duplex relaying. Some expressions for outage and average capacity of a two-hop cooperative system with a full-duplex relay are derived under an independent but not identically distributed Rayleigh fading environment. Using these expressions, we provide the performance analysis without Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of interference between the relay output and input is investigated. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China | Chen X.-M.,Soochow University of China | Sun D.-L.,Soochow University of China
World Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: This study was designed to compare clinical outcomes for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) performed at a single institution. Methods: This retrospective study included 43 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy between 2009 and 2013. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical approach: the laparoscopic surgery group (n = 20) and the open surgery group (n = 23). All clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There were no significant differences in operation time, rate of intraoperative transfusions, complications, or mortality between the two groups. The intraoperative blood loss (210 ± 84.4 mL vs. 420 ± 91.1 mL), first flatus time (1.5 ± 1 d vs. 4 ± 2.5 d), diet start time (2 ± 0.7 d vs. 6 ± 1.8 d), and postoperative hospital stay (8 ± 3.5 d vs. 14 ± 5.5 d) were significantly less in the LDP group than in the ODP group. All patients had negative surgical margins at final pathology. There were no significant differences in the number of lymph nodes harvested (10 ± 2.1 vs. 11 ± 3.2) between the two groups. Conclusions: LDP is a feasible and safe surgical approach as well as ODP, but has the advantages of an earlier return to normal bowel movements, normal diet, and shorter hospital stays than ODP.


Xiao F.,Nanyang Technological University | Li Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Gao H.,Nanyang Technological University | Ge S.,Soochow University of China | Duan H.,Nanyang Technological University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

The growing demand for compact point-of-care medical devices and portable instruments for on-site environmental sampling has stimulated intense research on flexible sensors that can be miniaturized and function under considerable physical deformation. We report a new type of flexible electrochemical biosensors based on free-standing graphene paper carrying binary nanocomposites of PtAu alloy and MnO2. The coral-like PtAu-MnO2 nanocomposites are grown on the substrate through one-step template-free electrodeposition, leading to an intimate contact between the PtAu alloy and MnO2 matrix. The flexible electrode exhibits a unique set of structural and electrochemical properties such as better uniformity, larger active surface areas, and faster electron transfer in comparison with the control electrode prepared by tandem growth of MnO2 network and PtAu alloy in two steps. In nonenzymatic amperometric glucose detection, the PtAu-MnO2 binary nanostructure-decorated graphene paper has shown greatly enhanced sensing performance such as wide liner range (0.1mM to 30.0mM), high sensitivity (58.54μAcm-2mM-1), low detection limit (0.02mM, S/N=3), satisfactory selectivity, excellent reproducibility and stability, and tolerability to mechanical stress. The strategy of co-growth of metal and metal oxides on freestanding carbon substrates opens new possibility to develop high-performance flexible electrochemical sensors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Feng Z.,Soochow University of China | Li M.,Soochow University of China
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

An extracellular agarase was purified from Rhodococcus sp. Q5, a novel agar-degrading bacterium isolated from printing and dyeing wastewater. Agarase staining of the purified agarase on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel revealed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 54kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of agarase were 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. The activity of the agarase was stable at low temperatures, and more than 90% activity was retained until 40°C. It was stable in the pH range from pH5.0 to 8.0, and more than 87% of the residual activity was retained. No significant activation or inhibition of the agarase was observed in the presence of Na+, K+ or Ca2+; whereas, Ag+, Ba2+, Pb2+, Sn2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Fe2+, SDS, and EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity. This agarase gave Km and Vmax values of 1.47mgml-1 and 0.98μMmin-1ml-1. The components of the hydrolytic product analyzed by the linear ion trap mass spectrometry showed that agarase mainly produced trisaccharide, as well as a small amount of disaccharides, tetrose, pentasaccharide, and hexose. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lu Z.-H.,Soochow University of China | Wu M.,Soochow University of China
Korean Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Hemangiomas in the pancreas are very rare and only a few cases in adulthood have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of pancreatic hemangiomas in an adult with unique imaging findings. A 23-year-old woman visited the hospital for an incidentally detected pancreatic mass. CT and MRI revealed a multilocular cyst with fluid-fluid levels and no obvious enhancement. The patient underwent surgery and the mass was confirmed as a pancreatic hemangioma. The radiological features and differential diagnosis of this rare lesion are discussed.


Yuan W.,Soochow University of China | Zhang K.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Langmuir | Year: 2012

Electrospinning provides a versatile method for generating fibrous materials from a large variety of substances, including polymers, composites, proteins, and nano/microcolloids. In particular, the incorporation of nano/microparticles with polymeric materials is beneficial to many of electrospun fibers with multiple functionalities. This report evaluates the spinnability of a polymer solution containing polymer nanoparticles obtained through electrospinning. Tunable structures of electrospun composite fibers were obtained from a blended solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polystyrene nanospheres (PSNs). The in-fiber arrangements of polymer nanoparticle fibers, influenced by the PVA:PSN weight ratio, and the viscosity of the blended solution and the size of PSNs were systemically studied. Once PVA was determined to dominate the solution, the diameter of the electrospun PVA fibers was comparable to the diameters of the colloidal particles, which confined the nanospheres into string-on-bead and necklace-like structures. When PSNs occupied a large portion of the solution, PVA wrapped the PSNs, forming a blackberry-like aggregate and a uniform colloidal fiber. The results from the colloid electrospinning serve as references in the creation of novel composite fibers involving various polymer nanoparticles via electrospinning. The obtained composite fibers of the polymers and colloids are expected to have potential application in various areas. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Shao Q.,Soochow University of China | Shao Q.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Que R.,Soochow University of China | Shao M.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

Copper nanoparticles grafted on a silicon wafer are fabricated by reducing copper ions with silicon-hydrogen bonds and assembling them in situ on the Si wafer. The nanoparticles, with an average size of 20 nm, grow uniformly and densely on the Si wafer, and they are used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. These substrates exhibit excellent enhancement in the low concentration detection (1 × 10 -9 M) of rhodamine 6G with an enhancement factor (EF) of 2.29 × 10 7 and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <20%. They are also employed to detect sudan-I dye with distinguished sensitivity and uniformity. The results are interesting and significant because Cu substrates are otherwise thought to be poor. These effects might provide new ways to think about surface-enhanced Raman scattering based on Cu substrates. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhou Y.,Soochow University of China
Current hypertension reports | Year: 2014

Corin is a serine protease originally isolated from the heart. Functional studies show that corin is the long-sought enzyme responsible for activating cardiac natriuretic peptides. In mice, lack of corin prevents natriuretic peptide processing, causing salt-sensitive hypertension. In humans, corin variants and mutations that reduce corin activity have been identified in patients with hypertension and heart failure. Decreased plasma levels of corin antigen and activity have been reported in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. Low levels of urinary corin also have been found in patients with chronic kidney disease. Most recent studies show that corin also acts in the uterus to promote spiral artery remodeling and prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension. Here, we review the role of corin in natriuretic peptide processing and cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, pre-eclampsia, and chronic kidney disease.


Ni J.,Soochow University of China
Electronics Letters | Year: 2012

Proposed is a subband adaptive filter, which is derived by minimising the sum of the squared Euclidean norms of the differences between the updated tap-weight vector and past tap-weight vectors subject to a set of constraints on the updated tap-weight vector of the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the misalignment of the proposed subband adaptive filter is low in a relatively high background noise environment. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Dong B.,Soochow University of China | Dong B.,Drexel University | Zhou T.,Drexel University | Zhang H.,Soochow University of China | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

We report, for the first time, the design and fabrication of a nanoparticle-based nanomotor system by directly self-assembling nanoparticles onto functional, nanometer-thin lamellae, such as polymer single crystals. Tens of thousands of judiciously selected nanoparticles (gold, iron oxide, and platinum nanoparticles) with sizes ranging from <5 to a few tens of nanometers have been introduced into a single nanomotor via directed self-assembly. The resulting nanomotor realizes functions such as autonomous movement, remote control, and cargo transportation by utilizing the advantages offered by nanoparticles, such as the small size, surface plasmon resonance, catalytic and magnetic properties. Because of the structural and functional versatility of nanoparticles, the facile fabricating procedure, and the potential for mass production, our strategy shows a key step toward the development of next generation multifunctional nanomotors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Liu R.,Soochow University of China | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China | Sun B.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

High reflection and low build-in electrical field hinder the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of planar n-Si/organic solar cells. Depositing a thin layer of MoO3 can improve the performance by creating an antireflection layer on the front surface as well as inducing an inversion layer in the Si. The as-processed device achieves a record PCE of 13.8%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xing Y.F.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases | Year: 2012

To analyze the expression of soluble programmed death-1 ligand 1 (sPD-L1) in the serum of patients with lung cancer and to explore its biological and clinical implications. Fifty-five male and twenty-six female lung cancer patients ages 34 to 87 years (mean age 65 ± 6) were selected from the Department of Respiratory Diseases in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from June 2009 to March 2011. All lung cancer patients were newly-diagnosed, treatment-free and confirmed by histopathology or cytopathology. Eight-eight healthy volunteers matching in sex and age from the Healthcare Center of the hospital were also enrolled as controls. The sPD-L1 protein expression in serum was determined by Western blot and self-developed ELISA kit. Fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibody and cytometry were used to examine changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients and healthy controls. A higher level of sPD-L1 level in the lung cancer patients [1.6 (0.7 - 7.8) μg/L] was found compared to the control group [0.9 (0.4 - 3.7) μg/L] (P < 0.001). High expression of sPD-L1 in the lung cancer patients was closely correlated to lymph node metastasis and the extent of distant metastasis (χ(2) = 5.636, P < 0.05; χ(2) = 4.601, P < 0.05). The sPD-L1 level in lung cancer patients with objective response to treatment (complete response + partial response) was 2.7 (1.6 - 7.0) μg/L and 1.1 (0.8 - 1.7) μg/L before and after treatment, respectively (P < 0.01). The level of sPD-L1 with progression disease was 1.9 (1.3 - 8.5 μg/L) which was significantly increased compared to the baseline level 1.4 (0.8 - 2.2) μg/L (P < 0.01). Additionally, abnormal changes of T and B lymphocytes and their subsets were found, with a significant decrease of CD(8)(+) T lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a rise in CD(4)/CD(8) ratio (P < 0.05). Further double-labeling study showed increased percentages of CD(4)(+)PD-1(+) T lymphocytes and CD(8)(+)PD-1(+) T lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The elevated expression of sPD-L1 in lung cancer patients was closely related to lung cancer staging, metastasis and clinical response. sPD-L1 may become a predictive marker and an important anti-tumor target in individualized treatment of lung cancer.


Zhu F.,Soochow University of China | Shen B.,Soochow University of China
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F1 of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data. © 2012 Zhu, Shen.


Song X.,Soochow University of China | Chen Q.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
Nano Research | Year: 2015

Recently, photothermal therapy (PTT) has attracted tremendous attention because of its high efficacy in tumor ablation and minimal damage to normal tissues. While many inorganic nanomaterials, especially various gold nanostructures and nanocarbons, have been extensively explored for near-infrared (NIR) light triggered PTT in the past decade, a variety of organic photothermal agents have also emerged in recent years, aiming at replacing their inorganic counterparts which usually are not biodegradable. In this mini-review, we will summarize several typical classes of recently developed NIR-absorbing organic PTT nanoagents, which include NIR dye-containing micelles, porphysomes, protein-based agents, conjugated polymers, and organic/inorganic nanocomposites. The development of imaging-guided PTT and combination therapy will be introduced as well. Finally, the perspectives and challenges in the future development of PTT will be discussed. © 2014, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hao Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang M.,Soochow University of China | He J.,Soochow University of China | Ni P.,Soochow University of China
Langmuir | Year: 2012

A novel magnetic-responsive complex composed of polycation, DNA, and polyanion has been constructed via electrostatic interaction. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were first coated with a polycation, poly[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] end-capped with cholesterol moiety (Chol-PDMAEMA 30), and then binded with DNA through electrostatic interaction; the complexes were further interacted with the brush-type polyanion, namely poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate]-block-poly[methacrylic acid carrying partial mercapto groups] (PPEGMA-b-PMAA SH). The resulting magnetic particle/DNA/polyion complexes could be stabilized by oxidizing the mercapto groups to form cross-linking shell with bridging disulfide (S-S) between PPEGMA-b-PMAA SH molecular chains. The interactions among DNA, Chol-PDMAEMA coated MNPs, and PPEGMA-b-PMAA SH were studied by agarose gel retardation assay. The complexes were fully characterized by means of zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, cytotoxicity assay, antinonspecific protein adsorption, and in vitro transfection tests. All these results indicate that this kind of magnetic-responsive complex has potential applications for gene vector. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Tian W.-D.,Nanjing University | Yu-qiang M.,Nanjing University | Yu-qiang M.,Soochow University of China
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

We employ extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to explore the influence of rigidity of linear polyelectrolyte (PE) on the dendrimer-PE complexes. We find that the size of PE chain increases and its shape changes from oblate to prolate concomitant with the interesting conformation transformations from "coil"-like to "U"-like or "V"-like and further to "rod"-like as the stiffness of PE is increased, We also find that, as a soft nanoparticle, the changes of the size and the shape of charged dendrimer depend not only on the stiffness of PE but also on Bjerrum length of system. This can be explained in terms of two competing interaction energies: the bending energy and the electrostatic attractive energy. Furthermore, we witness that the effective charge of dendrimer exists a jump at both Bjerrum lengths studied, but the overcharge only appears at the large Bjerrum length. Moreover, we propose that there may exist an optimum stiffness of bioactive guest in the complexes for delivery and release. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Tian B.,Soochow University of China | Wang C.,Soochow University of China | Zhang S.,Soochow University of China | Feng L.,Soochow University of China | Liu Z.,Soochow University of China
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

Graphene with unique physical and chemical properties has shown various potential applications in biomedicine. In this work, a photosensitizer molecule, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), is loaded on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) via supramolecular π-π stacking. The obtained GO-PEG-Ce6 complex shows excellent water solubility and is able to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen under light excitation for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Owing to the significantly enhanced intracellular trafficking of photosensitizers, our GO-PEG-Ce6 complex offers a remarkably improved cancer cell photodynamic destruction effect compared to free Ce6. More importantly, we show that the photothermal effect of graphene can be utilized to promote the delivery of Ce6 molecules by mild local heating when exposed to a near-infrared laser at a low power density, further enhancing the PDT efficacy against cancer cells. Our work highlights the promise of using graphene for potential multifunctional cancer therapies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Y.,Jiangsu University of Science and Technology | Liu R.,Soochow University of China | Lee S.-T.,Soochow University of China | Sun B.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

We report an ultra-thin layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) between silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell which resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.09%. The insertion of a thin layer of LiF improved the contact between Si and Al, which decreased the contact resistance from 5.4 × 10-1 Ω cm2 to 2.6 × 10 -2 Ω cm2. Also, the electron transport from Si to Al was improved and charge carrier recombination was suppressed. As a result, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, and the fill factor were all improved with the presence of the LiF layer. The solar cell with the LiF/Al bilayer as a cathode displayed a 14.45% enhancement on PCE when compared with the device using pristine Al as a cathode. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Wang Q.,Soochow University of China | Xu S.,Soochow University of China | Shen F.,Soochow University of China
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011

Titanium dioxide photocatalysts co-doped with iron (III) and lanthanum were prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The structure of catalysts was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solutions under visible light (λ > 420 nm) and UV light irradiation. Doping with Fe3+ results in a lower anatase to rutile (A-R) phase transformation temperature for TiO2 particles, while doping with La3+ inhibits the A-R phase transformation, and co-doping samples indicate that Fe3+ partly counteracts the effect of La3+ on the A-R transformation property of TiO2. Fe-TiO2 has a long tail extending up the absorption edges to 600 nm, whereas La-TiO2 results in a red shift of the absorption. However, Fe and La have synergistic effect in the absorption of TiO2. Compared with Fe3+ and La3+ singly doped TiO2, the co-doped simple exhibits excellent visible light and UV light activity and the synergistic effect of Fe3+ and La3+ is responsible for improving the photocatalytic activity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China
Dianli Zidonghua Shebei/Electric Power Automation Equipment | Year: 2016

Based on the cascaded VRCPA (Voltage Regulator with Controllable Phase and Amplitude), a kind of π-shaped VRCPA is proposed for the power transmission control. Relative to its input voltage, the phase and amplitude of its output voltage can be continuously regulated. The proposed single-phase π-shaped VRCPA is composed of a Buck-type AC unit, a 3rd-order harmonic trap and a Boost-type AC unit. Compared with the single-phase cascaded VRCPA, it omits the LC output filter of Buck-type AC unit to simplify its circuit structure, but adopts the same two-stage duty-cycle modulation, i.e. the Buck-type AC unit regulates phase and the Boost-type AC unit regulates amplitude. With the impedance compensation, the single-phase π-shaped VRCPA effectively counteracts or reduces the effect of 3rd-order harmonic trap and line impedance on the lag of fundamental voltage. The three-phase π-shaped VRCPA is composed of three Buck-type AC units and a three-phase Boost-type AC converter. Without three LC output filters and the 3rd-order harmonic trap, its circuit structure becomes simple. Experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed π-shaped VRCPA. © 2016, Electric Power Automation Equipment Press. All right reserved.


Liang C.,Soochow University of China | Diao S.,Stanford University | Wang C.,Soochow University of China | Gong H.,Soochow University of China | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Multi-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy with single-walled carbon nanotubes affords effective destruction of primary tumors together with cancer cells in sentinel lymph nodes. This results in remarkably prolonged mouse survival compared to mice treated by elimination of only the primary tumor by either surgery or conventional photothermal therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cong S.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Tian Y.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Li Q.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Zhao Z.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Geng F.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Tungsten oxide quantum dots (QDs) with an average size down to 1.6 nm are developed, serving as a new class of promising electrode materials, which yield efficient and fast electron/ion transport in the charge/discharge process. With a visually impressive display, the QDs present coloration/bleaching times within 1 s, which is much superior to inorganic analogues and even competitive to organic-related materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xu Y.H.,Soochow University of China
Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine | Year: 2010

Technetium-extraosseous accumulation of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) on bone scan is not usual. It was described and in various diseases with solitary spleen or lung uptake. Simultaneous splenic, pulmonary and renal concentration of (99m)Tc-MDP has not been illustrated previously. Herein, we present a 17 years old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in whom (99m)Tc-MDP was accumulated in the spleen, both lungs and the kidneys. Related literature was mentioned.


Tian W.,Soochow University of China | Lu H.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Soochow University of China
Nano Research | Year: 2015

Among the important optoelectronic devices, ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors show wide applications in fire monitoring, biological analysis, environmental sensors, space exploration, and UV irradiation detections. Research interest has focused on the utilization of one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures to build advanced UV photodetectors through various processes. With large surface-to-volume ratio and well-controlled morphology and composition, 1D metal oxide nanostructures are regarded as promising candidates as components for building photodetectors with excellent sensitivity, superior quantum efficiency, and fast response speed. This article reviews the latest achievements with 1D metal oxide nanostructures reported over the past five years and their applications in UV light detection. It begins with an introduction of 1D metal oxide nanostructures, and the significance, key parameters and types of photodetectors. Then we present several kinds of widely-studied 1D nanostructures and their photodetection performance, focusing on binary oxides with wide-bandgap (such as ZnO, SnO2, Ga2O3, Nb2O5, and WO3) and ternary oxides (such as Zn2SnO4, Zn2GeO4, and In2Ge2O7). Finally, the review concludes with our perspectives and outlook on future research directions in this field. © 2014, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2010

Drug likeness analysis is widely used in modem drug design, However, most drug likeness filters, represented by Lipinski's "Rule of 5", are based on drugs' simple structural features and some physiochemical properties. In this study, we conducted thorough structural analyses for two drug datasets. The first dataset, ADDS, is composed of 1240 FDA-approved drugs, and the second drug dataset, EDDS, is a nonredundant collection of FDA-approved drugs and experimental drugs in different phases of clinical trials from several drug databases (6932 entries). For each molecule, all possible fragments were enumerated using a brutal force approach. Three kinds of building blocks, namely, the drug scaffold, ring system, and the small fragment, were identified and ranked according to the frequencies of their occurrence in drug molecules. The major finding is that most top fragments are essentially common for both drug datasets; the top 50 fragments cover 52.6% and 48.6% drugs for ADDS and EDDS, respectively. The identified building blocks were further ranked according to their relative hit rates in the drug datasets and in a screening dataset, which is a nonredundant collection of screening compounds from many resources. In comparison with the previous reports in the field, we have identified many more high-quality building blocks. The results obtained in this study could provide useful hints to medicinal chemists in designing drug-like compounds as well as prioritizing screening libraries to filter out those molecules lack of functional building blocks. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Du W.,Soochow University of China | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics and Lasers in Engineering | Year: 2011

By expanding the hard-aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, we derive approximate analytical formulae for Lorentz and LorentzGauss beams propagating through an apertured fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system. As an application example, properties of a LorentzGauss beam in the FRT plane after propagating through a squarely or annularly apertured FRT optical system are studied numerically. The results obtained using the approximate analytical formula are in good agreement with those obtained using numerical integral calculation. The FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang F.,North China Electrical Power University | Tan Z.,North China Electrical Power University | Li Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The interfaces between the electrodes and the photoactive layer significantly influence the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs). By choosing suitable interfacial materials, the energetic barrier height at the interface could be reduced to form an ohmic contact with less series resistance, inducing high charge collection efficiency of the corresponding electrodes for holes or electrons. Solution-processable metal compounds, especially metal oxides and transition metal chelates, have the advantages of high charge carrier mobility, suitable work function, low cost, and high environmental stability, which make them attractive for applications as cathode and anode interfacial materials for efficient and stable PSCs. In this paper, we reviewed the recent progress on solution processable metal oxides and metal chelates as buffer layers in conventional and inverted PSCs. In the introduction section, we introduced the operating principles of conventional and inverted PSCs, followed by introducing the energy levels, optical properties, processing methods and characterization techniques of the buffer layers. In the second and third parts, we reviewed recent progress in materials for both anode and cathode buffer layers. Finally, we drew a conclusion and gave a perspective. We believe that solution-processable metal oxides and metal chelates will play a key role as buffer layers in the future fabrication of large area and flexible PSCs with high performance and long term stability. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Cathodic arc deposition technique was used to deposit zirconia (ZrO(2)) films and titania (TiO(2)) films on titanium (Ti) disks respectively. The surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The element composition of the films was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase of films was identified by thin film X-ray diffraction. The biological behavior of osteoblast-like MG63 cells cultured on Ti, TiO(2) and ZrO(2) was investigated and the possible signaling molecules involved was studied by the gene expressions of integrin β1, extracellular related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and c-fos. The results indicated that both the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films were amorphous. Scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion of MG63 cells on TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films was significantly enhanced compared to Ti. The CCK8 assay indicated that the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test and the production of type collagen I (COLI) by immunofluorescence showed that both the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films can enhance ALP activity and COLI expression of MG-63 cells. In addition, the ALP activity on ZrO(2) films was higher than on TiO(2) films at day 4, which indicate ZrO(2) films may lead to promotion of a more osteoblastic phenotype of MG-63 cells than TiO(2) films. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that The gene expression of integrin β1, ERK1/2, and c-fos was higher on TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films than on Ti. The present work suggests that the amorphous ZrO(2) films produced by cathodic arc deposition may be favorable for orthopedic implant applications and worth further study.


Tao Z.,Soochow University of China | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

Blue-emitting phosphors of the Ce3+-activated phosphosilicate Sr5(PO4)2SiO4 with an apatite structure were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, time-resolved luminescence, thermal quenching and luminescence decay curves (lifetimes) were applied to characterize the phosphors. The effects of the Ce3+ activator concentration on the phase evolution and luminescence properties were investigated. Sr5-5xCe 5x(PO4)2SiO4 (x = 0.03) exhibits the brightest blue emission with CIE coordinates of (x = 0.185, y = 0.165) and a quantum efficiency of 46%. The crystallographic site of the Ce3+ ions in the Sr5(PO4)2SiO4 lattice was identified and discussed. There is only one distinguishable crystallographic Ce3+ site occupied on a Sr(ii) site in the Sr5(PO 4)2SiO4 lattices, which results in a typical doublet emission band. The wavelengths of the excitation and emission bands show a red shift with increasing Ce3+ doping concentration. The luminescence features of the Ce3+ ions were discussed on the base of the crystal structure. The thermal stability of the blue-emitting phosphors was evaluated by the temperature-dependent luminescence and the activation energy of the thermal quenching. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Geng H.,Soochow University of China | Zhou Q.,Soochow University of China | Zheng J.,Soochow University of China | Gu H.,Soochow University of China
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Carbon coated porous nanospheres (p-Fe3O4@C) were successfully synthesized by the pyrolysis treatment at 500°C of glucose coated porous Fe3O4 spheres and used as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. Compared with pure porous Fe 3O4 (p-Fe3O4), hollow Fe 3O4 (h-Fe3O4) and carbon coated hollow Fe3O4 (h-Fe3O4@C), the as-prepared composite exhibited much better electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity of 875 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at a current rate of 0.1 C. Even at a current rate of 1 C (1 C = 928 mA h g-1) and after 300 charge and discharge cycles, the reversible capacity was still as high as about 600 mA h g-1. The improved lithium storage performance was attributed to the presence of an inner pore structure and the carbon layer of the p-Fe3O4@C granting extremely high mechanical support to the whole framework, which could not only prevent the large volume change of Fe3O4, but also improve the electrochemical activity and the stability of the material. The superior electrochemical properties of p-Fe3O4@C nanospheres means they might have promising applications in high performance Li-ion batteries. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2010

The linear energy-momentum relation results in more high-energy electrons in 2D (two-dimensional) graphene FETs (field-effect transistor) than those in silicon FETs that features parabolic energy-momentum relation if the same surface electron density has been assumed in all FETs. The numerical calculations demonstrate that, under such assumption, the gate leakage currents in graphene FETs are much larger than that in silicon FETs. The results illustrate that if the conduction band offset between graphene and gate oxide is lower than 3.55 eV, the gate leakage currents in graphene electronics are more significant than those in the silicon electronics. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Peng M.,Soochow University of China | Xu H.,Soochow University of China | Shao M.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect was demonstrated on nanomaterial array, which was fabricated by Au deposition on the profile of etched Si nanowires. Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals from the nanoside array structures were observed with the enhancement factor of 2.3 × 109, even though the concentration of the R6G was as low as 1 × 10-11 M. Moreover, the Raman enhancement effect of nanoside array was proved to be 6.2 times compared with the counterpart of nanoplane array, which suggested the potential applications in ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman detection. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Fu Y.,Soochow University of China | Xu L.,Soochow University of China | Hong Hang Z.,Soochow University of China | Chen H.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

In this Letter, we find that high efficient unidirectional transmission occurs for an array of prisms made of zero-refractive-index metamaterials. As a specific demonstration, we further design the device using Dirac-cone-like photonic crystals. The device can function for a broadband of spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the one-way wave functionality. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Ming J.,Soochow University of China | Zuo B.,Soochow University of China
Polymer Engineering and Science | Year: 2014

Porous silk fibroin/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds were prepared through lyophilization method. Hybrid scaffolds were characterized for morphological and functional properties related to different mixture ratios between silk fibroin and sodium alginate. The silk fibroin/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds showed a thin-layer structure and much more irregular rod-like structure appeared at the layer surface after adding 50% sodium alginate. The results of wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed that the crystal structure of silk fibroin was not influenced by adding the different contents of sodium alginate, exhibiting the random coil structure in the hybrid scaffolds. The thermal behavior of the hybrid scaffolds exhibited major change with containing 30% sodium alginate or more. The porosity of the scaffolds varied between 92 and 94% with a favorable compressive modulus and stress. The mechanical properties results depicted the hybrid scaffolds containing 10% sodium alginate, with a porosity of 94.0 ± 0.10%, attained the highest compressive modulus and stress for 41 ± 6 and 44 ± 3 kPa, respectively. In addition, mineralization results showed hydroxyapatite crystal growing on the surface of the scaffold. This hybrid biomaterial should offer new and important options to the needs related to biomineralization and tissue engineering, in general. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.


You W.-L.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | You W.-L.,Soochow University of China | Oles A.M.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | Oles A.M.,Jagiellonian University | Horsch P.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We consider the low-energy excitations of one-dimensional spin-orbital models which consist of spin waves, orbital waves, and joint spin-orbital excitations. Among the latter we identify strongly entangled spin-orbital bound states and spin-orbital quasiparticle states which appear as peaks in the von Neumann entropy spectral function introduced in this work. We present the scaling of the von Neumann entropy with system size and find a qualitatively different behavior for the bound state and the quasiparticle-the strong entanglement of these states is manifested by a universal logarithmic scaling of the von Neumann entropy with system size, while the entropy saturates for other spin-orbital excitations. We suggest that spin-orbital entanglement can be experimentally explored by the measurement of the dynamical spin-orbital correlations using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where strong spin-orbit coupling associated with the core hole plays a role. © 2012 American Physical Society.