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Suzhou, China

The original Soochow University was established in 1900 in Suzhou, Jiangsu in Qing dynasty China. The original Soochow University and the university currently in Taiwan are named Dōngwú Dàxué , after the general region in which Suzhou is located. The university in the People's Republic of China is named Sūzhōu Dàxué after the city of Suzhou. Wikipedia.


Liu J.C.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To investigate the relative contribution of lifestyle and obesity to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. All baseline survey data were based on the program Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and Metabolic Syndrome in Jiangsu Province (PMMJS) which was conducted during April 1999 to May 2004. In the baseline survey, 8685 participants were selected using multi-stage sampling method. Frem March 2006 to November 2007, 4582 participants who had been in the study for at least 5 years were included in the follow-up survey. A total of 3847 participants were followed and of them 3461 non-diabetic subjects were included in this analysis. High fat diet or not, low fiber diet or not, sedentary or not and occupational physical activity classification were defined as lifestyle variables and the incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up survey was defined as outcome variable. It was prospectively examined that the separate and joint association of lifestyle and obesity with the development of type 2 diabetes in subjects recruited from PMMJS, using logistic regression model. A total of 162 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during 6.3 years of follow-up in total 3461 participants were documented. The incidence rate was 4.7%. After adjusted for sex, age, family history of diabetes, blood pressure, lipids and fast plasma glucose, risk of type 2 diabetes increased with lighter occupational physical activity (compared with vigorous group, moderate group aRR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.26 - 3.68; light group aRR = 2.39, 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.87), sedentary lifestyle (aRR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.90 - 4.54), low fiber diet (aRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.01 - 2.53), overweight (aRR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.90) and obesity (aRR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.75). In joint analysis of lifestyle and obesity, the impact of sedentary lifestyle (in BMI < 25 group, aRR = 3.42, 95%CI: 1.99 - 5.86; in BMI ≥ 25 group, aRR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.13 - 5.12) and low fiber diet (in BMI < 25 group, aRR = 1.42, 95%CI: 0.81 - 2.54; in BMI ≥ 25 group, aRR = 2.63, 95%CI: 1.15 - 6.03) on diabetes were independent of overweight and obesity. When stratified by sedentary lifestyle or low fiber diet, there was no association between overweight/obesity and diabetes risk (sedentary aRR = 2.04, 95%CI 0.87 - 4.71, non sedentary aRR = 1.21, 95%CI: 0.82 - 1.78; non low fiber diet aRR = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.87 - 1.84, low fiber diet aRR = 1.88, 95%CI: 0.80 - 4.80). Unhealthy lifestyle, overweight and obesity independently increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. The magnitude of risk contributed by sedentary lifestyle and low fiber diet are much greater than that imparted by overweight and obesity. Source


Lochbihler H.,Louisenthal GmbH | Ye Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

A concept of two-dimensional periodic subwavelength gratings exhibiting different reflectance on the front and back sides is presented. This structure incorporates an arrangement of a metalized hole array and a nanodot array on top. We exemplify the optical properties for an aluminum grating with 243 nm period, and we demonstrate its color filtering properties for unpolarized light in reflectance as well as in transmittance yielding different colors for frontside and backside illumination. These findings have been confirmed by a numerical study. The gratings may be replicated by a simple nanoimprint process on plastic foils predestined for industrial mass production. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source


Liu H.-Y.,Zhongyuan University of Technology | He J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Li Z.-B.,Qujing Normal University
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2014

Purpose - Academic and industrial researches on nanoscale flows and heat transfers are an area of increasing global interest, where fascinating phenomena are always observed, e.g. admirable water or air permeation and remarkable thermal conductivity. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the phenomena by the fractional calculus. Design/methodology/approach - This paper begins with the continuum assumption in conventional theories, and then the fractional Gauss' divergence theorems are used to derive fractional differential equations in fractal media. Fractional derivatives are introduced heuristically by the variational iteration method, and fractal derivatives are explained geometrically. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g. the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method and the fractional complex transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given. Findings - Heat conduction in silk cocoon and ground water flow are modeled by the local fractional calculus, the solutions can explain well experimental observations. Originality/value - Particular attention is paid throughout the paper to giving an intuitive grasp for fractional calculus. Most cited references are within last five years, catching the most frontier of the research. Some ideas on this review paper are first appeared. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Li C.,Soochow University of China
Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer | Year: 2013

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is now generally accepted for patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study is to review the technology of thoracoscopic lobectomy with single utility port in the treatment of peripheral lung cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 87 patients with peripheral lung cancer who underwent single utility port complete VATS lobectomy from February 2011 to January 2013 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (single utility port group), and compared them with 75 patients with peripheral lung cancer who underwent conventional, 3-port VATS lobectomy in the same period (3-port group). The clinical outcomes including operation time, time to first activity out of bed, postoperative hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, chest drainage duration, lymph node dissection number, postoperative complications and degree of chest pain were compared between the two groups. No perioperative death was observed in both groups. There was no statistical difference in operation time (151.03±25.97 min vs 156.27±26.49 min), lymph node dissection number (13.06±1.36 vs 12.61±1.56), intraoperative blood loss (188.62±47.03 mL vs 179.60±28.96 mL) and incidence of serious postoperative complications (18/87 vs 21/75) between the two groups. There were statistical differences in time to first activity out of bed (11.17±8.69 h vs 13.76±7.43 h), postoperative hospital stay (7.18±1.95 d vs 7.92±2.03 d), chest drainage duration (3.85±1.21 d vs 4.43±1.43 d) and total postoperative drainage volume (671.49±178.31 mL vs 736.93±170.39 mL) between the two groups (P<0.05). The change of vision analogue score (VAS) score between the two groups after operation was also statistically significant (P<0.01). The completely thoracoscopic lobectomy with single utility port is a safe and feasible surgical procedure compared with conventional 3-port VATS lobectomy for selected patients. Source


De L.,University of Minnesota | Brass D.J.,University of Kentucky | Lu Y.,Southwestern University of Finance and Economics | Lu Y.,Pennsylvania State University | Chen D.,Soochow University of China
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2015

This paper investigates how friendship relationships act as pipes, prisms, and herding signals in a large online, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending site. By analyzing decisions of lenders, we find that friends of the borrower, especially close offline friends, act as financial pipes by lending money to the borrower. On the other hand, the prism effect of friends' endorsements via bidding on a loan negatively affects subsequent bids by third parties. However, when offline friends of a potential lender, especially close friends, place a bid, a relational herding effect occurs as potential lenders are likely to follow their offline friends with a bid. Source


Shen G.,Soochow University of China | Zukerman M.,City University of Hong Kong
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2012

Traditional ITU-T fixed frequency grid-based optical transport networks suffer several drawbacks such as low fiber spectral efficiency, difficulty in supporting large-bandwidth super-channels, and inflexibility in network bandwidth reconfiguration and modification. To overcome these drawbacks, a new-generation optical transport network based on the concepts of agile spectrum operation and elastic bandwidth allocation has been recently proposed and is receiving increasing attention. This new-generation network is called coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) optical transport network. It employs the promising CO-OFDM transmission technique and the new-generation bandwidth-variable ROADMs that use the coherent detection capability of the CO-OFDM transmission for optical channel filtering. The CO-OFDM optical transport network is characterized by arbitrarily assigning center frequency and bandwidth of an optical channel, thereby providing flexibility in network design and operation and achieving efficient fiber spectrum utilization. Despite the increasing attention and considerable progress, there are still many outstanding issues regarding the implementation of CO-OFDM optical transport networks. This article reviews the literature on the architectures of the CO-OFDM optical transport network and discusses key issues, particularly involving network control plane, lightpath routing and spectrum assignment, impact of channel modulation format and optical reach, subwavelength traffic grooming, network survivability, and network reconfiguration. © 1979-2012 IEEE. Source


It has been recently identified that loss-of-function mutations in the uncharacterized gene ZBTB24 (zinc finger and BTB domain-containing 24) cause ICF2 (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome 2) with immunological characteristics of greatly reduced serum antibodies and circulating memory B cells. ZBTB24 belongs to the large ZBTB family of transcriptional repressors with members like B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6; ZBTB27) playing critical roles in B-cell functions. Given the genotype–phenotype correlation analyses in ICF2 patients and the high expression of ZBTB24 in human B cells, we, in the present study, investigated the function of ZBTB24 in human B-cell line Raji cells. Knockdown of endogenous ZBTB24 by small hairpin RNAs results in a significantly reduced proliferation through blocking the G0/1- to S-phase cell-cycle progression, but not apoptosis induction. Moreover, downregulation of ZBTB24 increases the expression of IRF-4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) and Blimp-1 (B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1), two crucial factors involved in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. Importantly, ZBTB24 exerts these functions independent of BCL-6 as it does not affect the expression and function of BCL-6. Our study thus not only provides a molecular explanation for the B-cell and antibody defects observed in ZBTB24-deficient ICF2 patients, but also indicates that ZBTB24 represents a novel transcriptional factor essentially involved in human B-cell functions.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 21 April 2016; doi:10.1038/gene.2016.18. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Feng S.R.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2011

To observe the effect of leukemic cells on blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice with central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) by establishing mice CNSL model and an in vitro BBB model and explore the mechanism of leukemic cell infiltrating central nervous system (CNS). After splenectomy, cytoxan intraperitoneal injection, and sublethal irradiation, 10 BALB/c nu/nu mice were transplanted intravenously with 1.2 × 10(7) of SHI-1 human monocytic leukemic cells. Mice were monitored for survival and clinical manifestation of nerve palsy. The leukemic cells engrafted were examined by RT-PCR, histopathology and bone marrow (BM) smears. Immunofluorescence analysis with laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to determine the expression of fibrinogen and tight-junction protein ZO-1. An in vitro BBB model composed of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) was developed on a Matrigel-based insert. Different leukemic cell lines were seeded onto the upper compartment of transwell insert. After incubated for 24 h with BMVECs, cells that had migrated into the lower compartment were counted and analyzed. (1) Paralysis with or without sight loss was developed in half the mice 30-35 d after innoculated with SHI-1 cells. Leukemic cells infiltrates were observed in BM and in different part of brain tissues including brain parenchyma. The transcriptions of human MLL/AF6 fusion gene were also detected in BM and brain tissues in paralysis mice. The fibrinogen expression and ZO-1 disruption were detected in the infiltrated tissue. (2) After 24 h incubation with leukemic cells, the BMVECs sheets were disrupted and grew singly and ZO-1 expression was down-regulated markedly. SHI-1 cells showed more injurious to BMVECs and higher invasive rate \[(40.33 ± 1.53)% vs (11.83 ± 1.44)%, P < 0.05\] than HL-60 cells did. One of the mechanisms of leukemic cells infiltrates CNS in CNSL is injure to the BBB. Source


Jiang J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Jiang J.-H.,University of Toronto | Agarwalla B.K.,University of Toronto | Segal D.,University of Toronto
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

Universal properties of the statistics of stochastic efficiency for mesoscopic time-reversal symmetry broken energy transducers are revealed in the Gaussian approximation. We also discuss how the second law of thermodynamics restricts the statistics of stochastic efficiency. The tight-coupling limit becomes unfavorable, characterized by an infinitely broad distribution of efficiency at all times, when time-reversal symmetry breaking leads to an asymmetric Onsager response matrix. The underlying physics is demonstrated through the quantum Hall effect and further elaborated in a triple-quantum-dot three-terminal thermoelectric engine. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source


Tian H.,Soochow University of China
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2013

Despite the chemotherapy is successful in inducing remission of hematologic malignancy, this disease also has a high probability of relapse; besides, the toxicity of chemotherapy for these patients can not be avoided. Researchers have been attempting to eliminate tumor cells by immunotherapy. Recently, various leukemia-associated antigens (LAA) that are recognized by cytotoxic T cell (CTL) in the context of HLA class I molecules have been identified. These LAA include WT1, PR-3, RHAMM, BCR-ABL and Aur-A. On the basis of these findings, various clinical trials of immunotherapy for hematologic malignancy including tumor peptide vaccination, adoptive T cell therapy, NK cell therapy and dendritic cells-cytokine induced killer (DC-CIK) cell therapy are on going. In this review, the current status and future feasibility of cellular immunotherapy for leukemia are discussed. Source


Liu Y.,Mudu Peoples Hospital of Suzhou | Xu Z.,Shanghai University | Li X.,Soochow University of China
Brain Injury | Year: 2013

Aim: To find the cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) posed to neuroglia cells. Methods: This study tested the inhibiting effect of different sized nano-TiO2 on the cell survival rate for rat astrocytes in vitro and in vivo and pathological analysis was also done to evaluate its effect; IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 of rat brain tissue was also examined. Results: In vitro examination, the inhibiting effect of nano-TiO2 on the cell survival rate, was significantly enhanced dose dependently. There were also obvious changes in cellular configuration, such as sparse arrangement, increscent cell spaces, increasing intracellular particles and decreasing cellular transparency. When rats were exposed to nano-TiO2 of 10 and 20 nm in diameter in 1.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1, the concentrations IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in brain tissue increased with the dose of nano-TiO2. Pathological observation indicated that the blood-brain barrier was destroyed and resulted in brain tissue necrosis, inflammation and cellular oedema. Conclusions: Nano-TiO2 is toxic to rat neuroglia cells. This toxicity may be related to particle size and the mechanism may be associated with its induction inflammation. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Tang Y.,Soochow University of China | Xu H.,University of California at Los Angeles
Biometrika | Year: 2014

Fractional factorial designs are widely used in screening experiments. They are often chosen by the minimum aberration criterion, which regards factor levels as symbols. For designs with quantitative factors, however, permuting the levels for one or more factors could alter their geometrical structures and statistical properties. We provide a justification of the minimum β-aberration criterion for quantitative factors and study level permutations for regular fractional factorial designs in order to improve their efficiency for screening quantitative factors. We show how regular designs can be linearly permuted to reduce contamination of nonnegligible interactions on the estimation of linear effects without increasing the run size. We further show that such linear permutations are unique under the minimum β-aberration criterion and the best level permutations can be determined without an exhaustive search. We establish additional theoretical results for three-level designs and obtain the best level permutations for regular designs with 27 and 81 runs. We illustrate the practical benefits of level permutation with an antiviral drug combination experiment. © 2014 Biometrika Trust. Source


Neukirch A.J.,University of Rochester | Guo Z.,Soochow University of China | Prezhdo O.V.,University of Rochester
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Relaxation of plasmon excitations through the phonon channel is investigated in a silver nanocrystal with a surface-hopping Kohn-Sham density functional theory in the time domain. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Plasmons delocalize away from the nanocrystal core and couple to a narrow range of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Higher energy plasmon excitations tend to be more delocalized, exhibit weaker coupling to phonons, and relax more slowly than lower energy plasmons. The phonon-induced plasmon relaxation occurs on a picosecond time scale. This is two orders of magnitude longer than the time scale of elastic plasmon-phonon scattering, which contributes to the line-width of plasmon resonances via the pure-dephasing mechanism. The phonon-induced energy relaxation of plasmons in metallic particles is somewhat slower than that of charge carriers in semiconducting nanoscale materials. The difference can be attributed to the extended nature of plasmon excitations, resulting in a weaker interaction with phonons and coupling only to low-frequency vibrations. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China
Dianli Zidonghua Shebei/Electric Power Automation Equipment | Year: 2016

Based on the cascaded VRCPA (Voltage Regulator with Controllable Phase and Amplitude), a kind of π-shaped VRCPA is proposed for the power transmission control. Relative to its input voltage, the phase and amplitude of its output voltage can be continuously regulated. The proposed single-phase π-shaped VRCPA is composed of a Buck-type AC unit, a 3rd-order harmonic trap and a Boost-type AC unit. Compared with the single-phase cascaded VRCPA, it omits the LC output filter of Buck-type AC unit to simplify its circuit structure, but adopts the same two-stage duty-cycle modulation, i.e. the Buck-type AC unit regulates phase and the Boost-type AC unit regulates amplitude. With the impedance compensation, the single-phase π-shaped VRCPA effectively counteracts or reduces the effect of 3rd-order harmonic trap and line impedance on the lag of fundamental voltage. The three-phase π-shaped VRCPA is composed of three Buck-type AC units and a three-phase Boost-type AC converter. Without three LC output filters and the 3rd-order harmonic trap, its circuit structure becomes simple. Experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed π-shaped VRCPA. © 2016, Electric Power Automation Equipment Press. All right reserved. Source


Zhou Y.,Soochow University of China
Current hypertension reports | Year: 2014

Corin is a serine protease originally isolated from the heart. Functional studies show that corin is the long-sought enzyme responsible for activating cardiac natriuretic peptides. In mice, lack of corin prevents natriuretic peptide processing, causing salt-sensitive hypertension. In humans, corin variants and mutations that reduce corin activity have been identified in patients with hypertension and heart failure. Decreased plasma levels of corin antigen and activity have been reported in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. Low levels of urinary corin also have been found in patients with chronic kidney disease. Most recent studies show that corin also acts in the uterus to promote spiral artery remodeling and prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension. Here, we review the role of corin in natriuretic peptide processing and cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, pre-eclampsia, and chronic kidney disease. Source


Xing Y.F.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases | Year: 2012

To analyze the expression of soluble programmed death-1 ligand 1 (sPD-L1) in the serum of patients with lung cancer and to explore its biological and clinical implications. Fifty-five male and twenty-six female lung cancer patients ages 34 to 87 years (mean age 65 ± 6) were selected from the Department of Respiratory Diseases in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from June 2009 to March 2011. All lung cancer patients were newly-diagnosed, treatment-free and confirmed by histopathology or cytopathology. Eight-eight healthy volunteers matching in sex and age from the Healthcare Center of the hospital were also enrolled as controls. The sPD-L1 protein expression in serum was determined by Western blot and self-developed ELISA kit. Fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibody and cytometry were used to examine changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients and healthy controls. A higher level of sPD-L1 level in the lung cancer patients [1.6 (0.7 - 7.8) μg/L] was found compared to the control group [0.9 (0.4 - 3.7) μg/L] (P < 0.001). High expression of sPD-L1 in the lung cancer patients was closely correlated to lymph node metastasis and the extent of distant metastasis (χ(2) = 5.636, P < 0.05; χ(2) = 4.601, P < 0.05). The sPD-L1 level in lung cancer patients with objective response to treatment (complete response + partial response) was 2.7 (1.6 - 7.0) μg/L and 1.1 (0.8 - 1.7) μg/L before and after treatment, respectively (P < 0.01). The level of sPD-L1 with progression disease was 1.9 (1.3 - 8.5 μg/L) which was significantly increased compared to the baseline level 1.4 (0.8 - 2.2) μg/L (P < 0.01). Additionally, abnormal changes of T and B lymphocytes and their subsets were found, with a significant decrease of CD(8)(+) T lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a rise in CD(4)/CD(8) ratio (P < 0.05). Further double-labeling study showed increased percentages of CD(4)(+)PD-1(+) T lymphocytes and CD(8)(+)PD-1(+) T lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The elevated expression of sPD-L1 in lung cancer patients was closely related to lung cancer staging, metastasis and clinical response. sPD-L1 may become a predictive marker and an important anti-tumor target in individualized treatment of lung cancer. Source


Xiao F.,Nanyang Technological University | Li Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Gao H.,Nanyang Technological University | Ge S.,Soochow University of China | Duan H.,Nanyang Technological University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

The growing demand for compact point-of-care medical devices and portable instruments for on-site environmental sampling has stimulated intense research on flexible sensors that can be miniaturized and function under considerable physical deformation. We report a new type of flexible electrochemical biosensors based on free-standing graphene paper carrying binary nanocomposites of PtAu alloy and MnO2. The coral-like PtAu-MnO2 nanocomposites are grown on the substrate through one-step template-free electrodeposition, leading to an intimate contact between the PtAu alloy and MnO2 matrix. The flexible electrode exhibits a unique set of structural and electrochemical properties such as better uniformity, larger active surface areas, and faster electron transfer in comparison with the control electrode prepared by tandem growth of MnO2 network and PtAu alloy in two steps. In nonenzymatic amperometric glucose detection, the PtAu-MnO2 binary nanostructure-decorated graphene paper has shown greatly enhanced sensing performance such as wide liner range (0.1mM to 30.0mM), high sensitivity (58.54μAcm-2mM-1), low detection limit (0.02mM, S/N=3), satisfactory selectivity, excellent reproducibility and stability, and tolerability to mechanical stress. The strategy of co-growth of metal and metal oxides on freestanding carbon substrates opens new possibility to develop high-performance flexible electrochemical sensors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kotiya P.,Soochow University of China
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives:The precise role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FBL=any lipid emulsion containing any amount of fish oil) and soy oil-based lipid emulsions (SBL=any lipid emulsion not containing fish oil or containing at least 50% soy oil) in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) needs to be explored.Subjects/Methods:The PubMed, MedLine and Google Scholar databases were searched for randomised control trials in which PN with FBL and SBL was the only difference between intervention and control groups. Methodological quality was assessed based on the Cochrane handbook for systemic reviews and Jadad’s score. Revman 5.2 software was used for meta-analysis.Results:Of 420 trials, 25 met the inclusion criteria. The aggregate results showed that both FBLs and SBLs are beneficial. FBLs were associated with significantly lower incidences of cholestasis (relative risk (RR)=0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27–0.92, P=0.03) compared with SBLs. FBLs also had a tendency to improve the rates of weight gain, increase in head circumference and the time to regain birth weight (mean difference (MD)=0.24; 95% CI=−0.63–0.15). SBLs were associated with reduced duration of respiratory support (MD=2.22, 95% CI=0.35–4.09, P=0.02) and mortality rate in the first 28 days (RR=1.24, 95% CI=–0.72–2.13).Conclusions:Both FBLs and SBLs are beneficial for neonatal PN. FBLs reduce cholestasis, and SBLs reduce the duration of respiratory support.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 4 May 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.69. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Huynh V.T.,University of New South Wales | Chen G.,Soochow University of China | Souza P.D.,University of New South Wales | Stenzel M.H.,University of New South Wales
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2011

Statistical and block copolymers based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methylether methacrylate] (POEGMEMA) were modified with 4-pentenoic anhydride or 4-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyloxy)butanoic anhydride to generate polymers with pendant vinyl or acetylene, respectively. Subsequent thiol-ene or thiol-yne reaction with thioglycolic acid or 2-mercaptosuccinic acid leads to polymers with carboxylate functionalities, which were conjugated with cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)) to generate a drug carrier for Pt-drugs. Only the polymers modified with 2-mercaptosuccinic acid resulted in the formation of soluble well-defined polymers with gel formation being prevented. Due to the hydrophobicity of the drug, the block copolymers took on amphiphilic character leading to micelle formation. The micelles were in addition crosslinked to further stabilize their structure. Pt-containing statistical copolymer, micelles, and crosslinked micelles were then tested regarding their cellular uptake by the A549 lung cancer cell line to show a superior uptake of crosslinked micelles. However, due to the better Pt release of the statistical copolymer, the highest cytotoxicity was observed with this type of polymer architecture. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhang J.-W.,Soochow University of China
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.21, 0 mmol/l), whereas the whey protein had no effects on circulating TC (−0.11 mmol/l, 95% CI: −0.27, 0.05 mmol/l), LDL-C (−0.08 mmol/l, 95% CI: −0.23, 0.07 mmol/l) and HDL-C (0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI: −0.04, 0.05 mmol/l). Subgroup analysis showed that significant TG reduction disappeared in participants with low body mass index, low supplemental whey dose or under exercise training/energy restriction during the trial. No evidence of heterogeneity across studies and publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the effects of whey protein supplementation were modest, with an overall lowering effect on TG but no effect on TC, LDL-C and HDL-C.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 30 March 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.39. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Yang Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhao F.P.,Shanghai University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011

In this paper, a single-phase based Cuk converter topology for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters is used, which has a wide voltage range for PV array voltage. An adaptive perturb and observe maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the converter is proposed. The used MPPT algorithm can fast and accurately track the maximum power point (MPP). All control functions are implemented in software with a single-chip microcontroller. Experimental results obtained on a 2.5-kW prototype, which demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective, fast, and perfect tracking. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhang Y.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China | Ruan X.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2014

By adopting the concept of virtual quadrature source (VQS), a novel method for power transmission control-ac-ac converter with controllable phase and amplitude (ACCPA) was proposed, which has two control variables and is able to continuously regulate the phase and the amplitude of its output voltage independently. The operation principle was studied in detail, and the relationship with the optimization of control parameters of ACCPA's two duty ratios was analyzed for regulating the phase and amplitude of its output voltage. The phase is regulated in the front part, and the amplitude is regulated in the back part. For phase regulation, two methods were proposed to select optimal control parameters dynamically. The curves followed by two methods are crossed at the reference phase angle and have the same initial control parameters. It is necessary to adjust two independent control parameters for method 1 and one parameter for method 2. So method 2 is simple, easy to implement and has high control stability in comparison with method 1. The control strategy of ACCPA was presented and a prototype of single-phase ACCPA was manufactured. The experimental results verified the correctness of the theory and the feasibility of the control strategy. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Rui X.,Soochow University of China
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2010

Exact expressions for outage probability and symbol error rate are presented for a decode-and-forward cooperative network with partial relay selection. An independent but not identically distributed Nakagami-m fading environment is considered. Numerical and simulated results show the validity of the analytical results. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Tian W.-D.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Soft Matter | Year: 2010

The static properties of charged dendrimers in salt solutions with explicit salt ions are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The emphasis is placed on the effects of valences of ions with different salt concentrations. We find that the conformations of dendrimers are of weak dependence on ionic strength in monovalent salt solution, while dendrimers in multivalent salt solution display structural transitions with increasing the salt concentration. At each salt concentration, the higher the valence of salt ions is, the more compact the dendrimers become. We also witness that dendrimers show the dense-core conformation accompanied by a back-folding terminal shell under all the conditions studied and that their shapes are also not sensitive to valences and concentrations of salt ions. Furthermore, charge layering shows no clear difference among different salt concentrations in a monovalent salt solution, whereas it undergoes multi-state transitions in multivalent salt solution with the addition of multivalent salt ions and with the change of valences at a given salt concentration, implying that multivalent salt ions have a significant influence on the interior conformations of charged dendrimers in comparison with univalent salt ions. Moreover, overcharging of dendrimers is observed in multivalent salt solution at high salt concentrations but not in a monovalent salt solution. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Tang Q.-Y.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Soft Matter | Year: 2010

Generating high density-multiplied nanopatterns through the directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) will significantly influence the current microelectronics and storage industries. Here, we provide a two-dimensional (2D) sparse rectangle lattice template to direct the equilibrium morphologies of block copolymers. The areal density of the substrate is multiplied by a factor of 34 through the self-assembled BCP microdomains without losing the long-range order. Local spacings of the BCP microdomains and their orientation can be modulated by template spacings. The selection of optimal templates for specific applications is summarized in the phase diagram based on the template spacings. The suggested approach provides a candidate to enhance the performance of current semiconductor devices, especially ultrahigh-density data storage media. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


You W.L.,Soochow University of China
European Physical Journal B | Year: 2012

We study the correlations in the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model in a transverse magnetic field. By exactly solving the Hamiltonian, we find that the quantum correlation of the ground state of one-dimensional quantum compass model is vanishing. We show that quantum discord can not only locate the quantum critical points, but also discern the orders of phase transitions. Furthermore, entanglement quantified by concurrence is also compared. © 2012 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Zhang L.L.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2013

To study relationships between serum ferritin and bone metabolism in patients with hip fragility fractures. This cross-sectional study included 76 postmenopausal women with hip fracture from Feburary 2011 to June 2012. The mean age of the women was (73 ± 10) years (range, 55-93 years) and the mean duration of menstruation was (22 ± 10)years (range, 5-50 years). Serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino-terminal extension peptide of type I collagen (P1NP), C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX)and femoral and lumbar bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Bone metabolism was compared between normal and elevated ferritin groups with t-test, Pearson linear, partial correlation and multiple regression analysis examined associations between iron- and bone-related markers. Serum ferritin concentration raised to (230 ± 146)μg/L, transferrin concentration reduced to (1.89 ± 0.33)g/L. P1NP concentration raised to (61 ± 32) ng/L when the concentration of serum ALP and β-CTX were in the normal range. T-scores for bone mineral density in the femoral neck (-2.0 ± 1.1) and lumbar (-2.1 ± 1.2) were below the normal ranges(-1.0-1.0). The subjects were divided into two groups according to serum ferritin concentration, normal group(serum ferritin concentration ≤ 150 μg/L, n = 25) and elevated group(serum ferritin concentration > 150 μg/L, n = 51). Patients of elevated group had lower bone mineral density in femoral neck and lumbar than normal group(t = 3.13,2.89, P < 0.01), and higher P1NP, β-CTX concentration (t = -2.38, -3.59, P < 0.05) . In partial correlation analysis adjusted for confounders, serum ferritin concentration was correlated negatively with bone mineral density in both femoral neck and lumbar (r = -0.335,-0.295, P < 0.05), and positively with P1NP and β-CTX (r = 0.467,0.414, P < 0.05), but not correlated with ALP (r = 0.188, P > 0.05). Transferrin concentration tended to be correlated positively with bone mineral density in both femoral neck and lumbar (r = 0.444, 0.262, P < 0.05) and negatively with ALP, P1NP and β-CTX(r = -0.326,-0.285,-0.278, P < 0.05). Iron overload has a high prevalence in postmenopausal women with fragility fracture. Increased iron stores, which might lead to bone loss and lower bone mineral density by enhancing the activity of bone turnover, could be an independent factor to take effects on bone metabolism on postmenopausal women. Source


Wang X.-F.,Soochow University of China | Hu Y.,McGill University | Guo H.,McGill University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Topological insulators (TIs) are materials having an energy band gap in the bulk and conducting helical electronic states on the surface. The helical states are protected by time-reversal symmetry and thus are expected to be robust against static disorder scattering. In this work we report an atomistic first principles analysis of disorder scattering in two-probe transport junctions made of three-dimensional TI material Bi 2Se 3. The robustness of the device against disorder scattering is determined quantitatively. Examining many different scattering configurations, a general trend emerges on how strong is the perturbing potential and how it is spatially distributed so that it can derail the helical states on the Bi 2Se 3 surfaces. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Wan L.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Xu S.,Soochow University of China | Xu S.,Pennsylvania State University | Liao M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB) equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the "charge regulation" behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ξ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surfacenonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO) effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied electric field, a pulse of fluid flow is followed by relaxation to a new ion distribution, owing to the diffusive counter current. We have numerically evaluated the Onsager coefficients associated with the EO effect, L21, and its reverse streaming potential effect, L12, and show that L12 = L21 in accordance with the Onsager relation. We conclude by noting some of the challenges ahead. Source


It remains unclear as to whether P2Y1 purinergic receptor (P2Y1R) and the molecules that act downstream, such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), are involved in the development of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) in vivo. Here, we investigated the role of the P2Y1R in the modulation of CIBP-associated nociception in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). A CIBP model was established by inoculating Walker 256 gland carcinoma cells into the tibia of female rats. Tactile allodynia and spontaneous pain were assessed using von Frey filaments and ambulatory scores. The results showed that both the paw withdrawal latency to tactile allodynia and the ambulatory score to spontaneous pain were significantly different between the CIBP group and the sham group on days 7-9 post-inoculation (P< 0.01). Furthermore, rats in the CIBP group also showed a progressive increase in ambulatory score, which is different from the sham group (P< 0.01). Furthermore, P2Y1R mRNA and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) protein expression levels were increased in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG of the CIBP group relative to the sham group. However, intrathecal injection of the P2Y1R antagonist MRS2179 decreased P2Y1R mRNA and p-ERK1/2 protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG (P< 0.01). These results provide evidence that the inhibition of P2Y1R-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG can attenuate nociception transmission. Source


Yuan K.,Soochow University of China | Yuan K.,Peoples Hospital of Jiangsu Province | Chen H.-L.,Nantong University
International Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the association between obesity and risk of surgical site infections (SSI) risk in orthopedics. Methods: We searched the electronic database of PubMed and Web of Science for observational studies about risk factors for SSI risk in orthopedics, meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI) between infection group and no infection group, infection rate in obesity expose and no obesity expose were conducted, respectively. Results: A total of 20 studies included in the meta-analysis. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of BMI between infection group and no infection group was 0.329 (95% CI 0.215-0.444), which was statistically significant (. z = 5.65, p = 0.000). The pooled relative risk (RR) of infection rate compare obesity expose with no obesity expose was 1.915 (95% CI 1.530-2.396), which was statistically significant (. z = 5.68, p = 0.000). No publication bias was found (Begg test P = 0.174 and Egger test P = 0.345) in pooled WMD of BMI. But there was significant publication bias in pooled RR of infection rate (Begg test P = 0.001 and Egger test P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicates that obesity had about twofold increased risk of surgical site infections risk in orthopedics. However, this conclusion should be verified by further well designed prospective cohort studies. © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Source


Chen R.-X.,Soochow University of China
Thermal Science | Year: 2015

The surface tension of a bubble is described by Young-Laplace equation, which becomes, however, invalid under the presence of electrostatic force, and a modified one is obtained, which can be widely applied for Bubbfil spinning process. Source


Qu Q.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Soochow University of China | Zhu Y.,Fudan University | Gao X.,Fudan University | Wu Y.,Fudan University
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2012

A core-shell structure of polypyrrole grown on V 2O5 nanoribbons as a high performance anode material for supercapacitors is fabricated using anionic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS -) as surfactant. Benefiting from the nanoribbon morphology of V 2O 5, the improved charge-transfer and polymeric coating effect of PPy, PPy@V 2O5 nanocomposites exhibits high energy density, and excellent cycling and rate capability in K 2SO 4 aqueous electrolyte. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Dong J.Y.,Soochow University of China
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Previous studies suggest obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase cardiovascular risk, but the results are inconclusive due to various limitations. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events by a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We searched multiple electronic databases for studies that examined the prospective relationship between OSA and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or total cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among adults. Either fixed- or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the robustness of pooled outcomes. Of 17 studies included, 9 reported results on total CVD, 7 reported on fatal or non-fatal CHD, and 10 reported on fatal or non-fatal stroke. The pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for individuals with moderate-severe OSA compared with the reference group were 2.48 (1.98-3.10) for total CVD, 1.37 (0.95-1.98) for CHD, and 2.02 (1.40-2.90) for stroke. These results did not materially change in the sensitivity analyses according to various inclusion criteria. In conclusion, findings from this meta-analysis supported that moderate-severe OSA significantly increased cardiovascular risk, in particular stroke risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Peng S.,Soochow University of China
Molecular and cellular biochemistry | Year: 2012

Our aim is to investigate the effect of 1.5 and 3.0% sevoflurane on the expression of M(1) acetylcholine receptor (mAChR M(1)) in the hippocampus and the cognitive function of aged rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of 12-month old were randomly divided into five groups. All SD rats received 1.5 or 3.0% sevoflurane in a special glass anesthesia box for 2 h, respectively, except for the normal control group. Y-maze was used to test the ability of learning and memory after being received sevoflurane for 1 or 7 days at the same moment portion. The expression of mAChR M(1) in the hippocampus of rats was tested by RT-PCR. The results showed that 3% sevoflurane induced the decline of cognitive function and significantly decreased the mAChR M(1) expression at mRNA levels at 1 day in the 3.0% sevoflurane I group when compared with the normal control group. However, there was no significant difference among the other groups when compared with normal control group. Therefore, administration of sevoflurane might temporally affect the ability of cognitive function of rats through suppressing the mAChR M(1) expression at mRNA levels in hippocampus. Source


Wang Z.-Y.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

Monte Carlo simulations of a planar negatively charged dielectric interface in contact with a mixture of 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes are carried out using the unrestricted primitive model under more realistic hydrated ion sizes. Two typical surface charge densities are chosen to represent the systems from the weak to strong coupling regimes. Our goal is to determine the dependence of the degree of charge inversion on increasing concentration of both mono- and trivalent salts and to provide a systematic study on this peculiar effect between short-range and electrostatic correlations. The numerical results show that addition of monovalent salt diminishes the condensation of trivalent counterions due to either the favorable solvation energy or the available space constraints. As the concentration of trivalent salt increases, on the other hand, the inclusion of the ionic size and size asymmetry results in a damped oscillatory charge inversion at low enough surface charge and another counterintuitive surface charge amplification. It is proposed that both of the anomalous events in the weak coupling regime are thought to be entropic in origin which is completely different from the electrostatic driven charge inversion in the strong coupling regime. In addition, the electrostatic images arising from the dielectric mismatch lead to a decaying depletion effect on the structure of double layer with growing salt concentration in the case of low charged interface but have no effect at high surface charge values. The microscopic information obtained here points to the need for a more quantitative theoretical treatment in describing the charge inversion phenomenon of real colloidal systems. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source


Liu F.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Huang X.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Chan C.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We show that two-dimensional phononic crystals exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at k - =0 by exploiting dipole and quadrupole accidental degeneracy. While the equifrequency surface of Dirac cone modes is almost isotropic, such systems exhibit super-anisotropy, meaning that only transverse waves are allowed along certain directions, while only longitudinal waves are allowed along some other directions. Only one mode, not two, is allowed near the Dirac point, and only two effective parameters, not four, are needed to describe the dispersion. Effective medium theory finds that the phononic crystals have effectively zero mass density and zero 1/C44eff at the Dirac point. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the unusual elastic wave properties near the Dirac point frequency. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


You W.-L.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | You W.-L.,Soochow University of China | Oles A.M.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | Oles A.M.,Jagiellonian University | Horsch P.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We consider the low-energy excitations of one-dimensional spin-orbital models which consist of spin waves, orbital waves, and joint spin-orbital excitations. Among the latter we identify strongly entangled spin-orbital bound states and spin-orbital quasiparticle states which appear as peaks in the von Neumann entropy spectral function introduced in this work. We present the scaling of the von Neumann entropy with system size and find a qualitatively different behavior for the bound state and the quasiparticle-the strong entanglement of these states is manifested by a universal logarithmic scaling of the von Neumann entropy with system size, while the entropy saturates for other spin-orbital excitations. We suggest that spin-orbital entanglement can be experimentally explored by the measurement of the dynamical spin-orbital correlations using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where strong spin-orbit coupling associated with the core hole plays a role. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Li F.,Fudan University
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2012

L 1-norm optimization-based sign algorithms (SAs) are more robust against impulsive interference than L 2-norm optimization-based adaptive filtering algorithms. However, most SAs suffer from slow convergence rate, especially for highly correlated input signals. In order to overcome this problem, recently, an affine projection SA (APSA) has been proposed , which exhibits fast convergence rate. In this letter, we first analyze the computational complexity of the APSA in detail and then apply a recursive approach proposed for the affine projection algorithm (APA) to the APSA to reduce its computational complexity. Analysis results show that the computational complexity of the APSA with the efficient implementation method is even lower than that of the classical fast affine projection (FAP) algorithm. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Chen G.C.,Soochow University of China
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013

Though vitamin C supplementation has shown no observed effects on stroke prevention in several clinical trials, uncertainty remains as to whether long-term, low-dose intake influences the development of stroke among general populations. Furthermore, the association between circulating vitamin C and the risk of stroke is also unclear. For further clarification of these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched, and the bibliographies of the retrieved articles were also reviewed to identify eligible studies. Summary relative risk (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed with a random-effects model. The summary RR for the high-versus-low categories was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90) for dietary vitamin C intake (11 studies), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49 to 0.79) for circulating vitamin C (6 studies). The summary RR for each 100 mg/day increment in dietary vitamin C was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.93) (10 studies), and for each 20 μmol/L increment in circulating vitamin C was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.88) (5 studies). Few studies reported results for vitamin C supplements (RR for high-versus-low intake=0.83, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.10, 3 studies). This meta-analysis suggests significant inverse relationships between dietary vitamin C intake, circulating vitamin C, and risk of stroke. Source


Wang F.,North China Electrical Power University | Tan Z.,North China Electrical Power University | Li Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The interfaces between the electrodes and the photoactive layer significantly influence the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs). By choosing suitable interfacial materials, the energetic barrier height at the interface could be reduced to form an ohmic contact with less series resistance, inducing high charge collection efficiency of the corresponding electrodes for holes or electrons. Solution-processable metal compounds, especially metal oxides and transition metal chelates, have the advantages of high charge carrier mobility, suitable work function, low cost, and high environmental stability, which make them attractive for applications as cathode and anode interfacial materials for efficient and stable PSCs. In this paper, we reviewed the recent progress on solution processable metal oxides and metal chelates as buffer layers in conventional and inverted PSCs. In the introduction section, we introduced the operating principles of conventional and inverted PSCs, followed by introducing the energy levels, optical properties, processing methods and characterization techniques of the buffer layers. In the second and third parts, we reviewed recent progress in materials for both anode and cathode buffer layers. Finally, we drew a conclusion and gave a perspective. We believe that solution-processable metal oxides and metal chelates will play a key role as buffer layers in the future fabrication of large area and flexible PSCs with high performance and long term stability. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Wang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2010

Drug likeness analysis is widely used in modem drug design, However, most drug likeness filters, represented by Lipinski's "Rule of 5", are based on drugs' simple structural features and some physiochemical properties. In this study, we conducted thorough structural analyses for two drug datasets. The first dataset, ADDS, is composed of 1240 FDA-approved drugs, and the second drug dataset, EDDS, is a nonredundant collection of FDA-approved drugs and experimental drugs in different phases of clinical trials from several drug databases (6932 entries). For each molecule, all possible fragments were enumerated using a brutal force approach. Three kinds of building blocks, namely, the drug scaffold, ring system, and the small fragment, were identified and ranked according to the frequencies of their occurrence in drug molecules. The major finding is that most top fragments are essentially common for both drug datasets; the top 50 fragments cover 52.6% and 48.6% drugs for ADDS and EDDS, respectively. The identified building blocks were further ranked according to their relative hit rates in the drug datasets and in a screening dataset, which is a nonredundant collection of screening compounds from many resources. In comparison with the previous reports in the field, we have identified many more high-quality building blocks. The results obtained in this study could provide useful hints to medicinal chemists in designing drug-like compounds as well as prioritizing screening libraries to filter out those molecules lack of functional building blocks. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

An analytical method using Taylor series is proposed to solve a nonlinear two-point boundary problem arising in corneal shape. The solution process makes it extremely easy to obtain a relatively accurate solution. The pencil-and-paper solution procedure can be extended to other boundary value problems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Deng Z.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the singular elliptic problem -div(|x| β∇u)=Q(x)|x| α|u| p(β,α)-2u+h(x,u)in Ω,u=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω ⊂ ℝ N (N ≥ 3) is a smooth bounded domain, 0 ∈ Ω and Ω is G-symmetric with respect to a subgroup G of O(N), β ≤ 0, N + β - 2 > 0, N + α > 0, α + 2 > β, β ≥ 2α/p(β,α), p(β,α)=2(N+α)/N+β- 2, Q(x) is continuous and G-symmetric on Ω̄ and h : Ω × ℝ → ℝ is a continuous nonlinearity of lower order satisfying some conditions. Based upon the symmetric criticality principle of Palais and variational methods, we obtain several existence and multiplicity results of G-symmetric solutions under some assumptions on Q and h. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Tong Z.,University of Miami | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China | Korotkova O.,University of Miami
Optics Communications | Year: 2010

The dependence of ghost images on polarization properties of illumination is revealed. We derive the general formulas pertaining to ghost imaging by means of electromagnetic stochastic beams and, in particular, study the case when the illumination beam belongs to the class of electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams and is incident onto a soft two-dimensional aperture. We find under which conditions that source polarization may reduce/enhance the ghost image and its visibility. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhu C.,Soochow University of China | Falck J.R.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2014

Arylboronic acids and their derivatives have been widely exploited as important synthetic precursors in organic synthesis, materials science, and pharmaceutical development. In addition to numerous applications in transition metal-mediated cross-coupling reactions, transition metal-free transformations involving arylboronic acids and derivatives have recently received a surge of attention for converting the C-B bond to C-C, C-N, C-O, and many other C-X bonds. Consequently, a wide range of useful compounds, e.g., phenols, anilines, nitroarenes, and haloarenes, has been readily synthesized. Amongst these efforts, many versatile reagents have been developed and a lot of practical approaches demonstrated. The research in this promising field is summarized in the current review and organized on the basis of the type of bonds being formed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Li Y.,Soochow University of China | Dai H.,Stanford University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system-from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Wang S.S.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhou D.Q.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhou P.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Wang Q.W.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Wang Q.W.,Soochow University of China
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO2 emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO2 emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Pramana - Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance oscillations are found and these capacitance oscillations originate from the lateral quantum confinement in graphene nanoribbon. Detailed studies of the capacitance oscillations demonstrate that the local channel electrostatic potential at the capacitance peak, the height and the number of the capacitance peak strongly depend on the width, especially a few nanometres, of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon. It implies that the capacitance oscillations observed in the experiments can be utilized to measure the width of graphene nanoribbon. The results also show that the capacitance oscillations are not seen when the width is larger than 30 nm. © Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Cao X.,Nanyang Technological University | Cao X.,Soochow University of China | Qi D.,Nanyang Technological University | Yin S.,Nanyang Technological University | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

A synchronous reduction and assembly strategy is designed to fabricate large-area graphene films and patterns with tunable transmittance and conductivity. Through an oxidation-reduction reaction between the metal substrate and graphene oxide, graphene oxide is reduced to chemically converted graphene and is organized into highly ordered films in situ. This work will form the precedent for industrial-scale production of graphene materials for future applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Chen M.,Soochow University of China | Tu B.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Lu B.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling | Year: 2012

Generation of manifold mesh is an urgent issue in mathematical simulations of biomolecule using boundary element methods (BEM) or finite element method (FEM). Defects, such as not closed mesh, intersection of elements and missing of small structures, exist in surface meshes generated by most of the current meshing method. Usually the molecular surface meshes produced by existing methods need to be revised carefully by third party software to ensure the surface represents a continuous manifold before being used in a BEM and FEM calculations. Based on the trace technique proposed in our previous work [1], in this paper, we present an improved meshing method to avoid intersections and preserve the topology of the molecular Gaussian surface. The new method divides the whole Gaussian surface into single valued pieces along each of x, y, z directions by tracing the extreme points along the fold curves on the surface. Numerical test results show that the surface meshes produced by the new method are manifolds and preserve surface topologies. The result surface mesh can also be directly used in surface conforming volume mesh generation for FEM type simulation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) structures have raised as the most promising configuration for next generation information storage, leading to great performance and fabrication-friendly Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAM). In these cells, the memory concept is no more based on the charge storage, but on tuning the electrical resistance of the insulating layer by applying electrical stresses to reach a high resistive state (HRS or "0") and a low resistive state (LRS or "1"), which makes the memory point. Some high-k dielectrics show this unusual property and in the last years high-k based RRAM have been extensively analyzed, especially at the device level. However, as resistance switching (in the most promising cells) is a local phenomenon that takes place in areas of ~100 nm2, the use of characterization tools with high lateral spatial resolution is necessary. In this paper the status of resistive switching in high-k materials is reviewed from a nanoscale point of view by means of conductive atomic force microscope analyses. © 2014 by the authors. Source


Tao X.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2015

In this paper, optical power of high-power white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices is evaluated and characterized. A theoretical model for optical power is proposed. The measurements reveal that optical power decreases exponentially with junction temperature and increases linearly with current. The model considers conjunct effect of current and junction temperature on emitted optical power. The proposed theoretical model of optical power will facilitate the optical and thermal performance evaluation of LED devices and will be helpful to device design. With the presented optical power model, heat power can be estimated, because they are complementary to each other. Then, junction temperature of LED device can be predicted with known heat power. In addition, the optical power model can be applied to eliminate chromaticity shift phenomenon of trichromatic-based white-LED devices, simply by monitoring junction temperature and injection current of each chip. Validity of the optical power model has been verified by experimental measurements on two types of commercial LED devices. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


Li B.,Soochow University of China | Wang J.H.-C.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Tissue Viability | Year: 2011

Fibroblasts are one of the most abundant cell types in connective tissues. These cells are responsible for tissue homeostasis under normal physiological conditions. When tissues are injured, fibroblasts become activated and differentiate into myofibroblasts, which generate large contractions and actively produce extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to facilitate wound closure. Both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts play a critical role in wound healing by generating traction and contractile forces, respectively, to enhance wound contraction. This review focuses on the mechanisms of force generation in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and techniques for measuring such cellular forces. Such a topic was chosen specifically because of the dual effects that fibroblasts/myofibroblasts have in wound healing process- a suitable amount of force generation and matrix deposition is beneficial for wound healing; excessive force and matrix production, however, result in tissue scarring and even malfunction of repaired tissues. Therefore, understanding how forces are generated in these cells and knowing exactly how much force they produce may guide the development of optimal protocols for more effective treatment of tissue wounds in clinical settings. © 2011 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

Eu 3-doped borotungstate La 1-xEu xBWO 6 (x=0.01-0.25) were synthesized by Pechini method. The red-emitting nano-phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence excitation and emission measurements. The optimal Eu 3 doping level of the phosphors was determined by the dependence of the red luminescence on the concentration. The abnormally high intensity of 5D 0→ 7F 4 transition from Eu 3 ions was observed in La 1-xEu xBWO 6 (x=0.01-0.25). This nano-phosphor can be efficiently excited by near-ultraviolet and blue light to realize the far stronger red luminescence than the Y 2O 2S:Eu 3. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Li J.-L.,Deakin University | Tang B.,Deakin University | Yuan B.,Soochow University of China | Sun L.,Deakin University | Wang X.-G.,Deakin University
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Nanosized graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are photoluminescent due to the presence of bandgaps and edges/defects. The excellent photostability of these nanomaterials makes them superior to molecular dyes for biological imaging. They can also produce intensive heat under laser irradiation, enabling them to serve as photothermal agents for cancer treatment. In this work, recent studies on the photoluminescence of these materials, their applications for biological imaging and photothermal cancer therapy are reviewed. Properties of laser, particularly the temporal property (continuous wave or pulsed), affect its interaction with materials. Therefore, the photoluminescence and photothermal effects, as well as their applications under both single (one)-photon (continuous wave laser) and two-photon (pulsed laser) excitation were summarized and analyzed. Synergistic therapy which combines chemotherapy and photothermal therapy using these materials is also reviewed. Finally, critical issues and challenges for further research and in medical applications of these materials are analyzed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yang X.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process
Synthetic Metals | Year: 2010

The synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers has been achieved via a simple reactive template approach. The reactive template of FeCl3 and methyl orange (MO) leads to the formation of uniform PPy nanofibers. Moreover, the fabrication of PPy nanofibers with high yield is realized, suggesting that this methodology is appropriate for the large-scale production of the corresponding nanomaterials. In contrast to the NH3 gas sensor based on bulk PPy, the gas sensor based on the as-prepared PPy nanofibers exhibits greatly improved performances. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Shao M.,Soochow University of China | Ma D.D.D.,City University of Hong Kong | Lee S.-T.,City University of Hong Kong
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this review, we summarize the essential aspects of the synthesis, properties, and applications of silicon nanowires. In particular, important applications such as catalysis, Li ionbatteries, solar cells, biological and chemical sensors are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


To examine the protein and mRNA levels of interleukin-9(IL-9) and the frequencies of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells in peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and explore the roles of double positive T cells and IL-9 in the pathogenesis of SLE and the effects of glucocorticoid. Twenty-eight hospitalized SLE patients were recruited and 12 healthy volunteers selected as normal controls. The mRNA levels of IL-9 in peripheral blood were measured by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), plasma protein of IL-9 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and frequencies of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells by flow cytometry. And the differences between two groups and the effects of glucocorticoid were analyzed. (1) The mRNA levels of IL-9 were significantly elevated in SLE patients as compared with normal controls (P < 0.01). The serum levels of IL-9 were significantly higher in active and inactive SLE patients than those in healthy individuals (68 ± 11 vs 26 ± 6 ng/L, P < 0.01; 56 ± 14 vs 26 ± 6 ng/L, P < 0.05). The percentages of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells increased in active SLE patients (1.96% ± 0.31%) versus inactive SLE patients (0.89% ± 0.13%, P < 0.01) and healthy controls (0.28% ± 0.05%, P < 0.001). And it was higher in inactive SLE patients than that in controls (P < 0.05). (2) The serum levels of IL-9 and the frequencies of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells were positively correlated with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). (3) The frequencies of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells and the serum levels of IL-9 in 8 untreated active SLE patients decreased at weeks 1, 2 and 3 after the therapy of methylprednisolone (0.8 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) versus those at pre-treatment. The abnormalities of IL-9 and CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. And the frequencies of CD4(+)IL-9(+)T-cells and the levels of IL-9 are evaluative parameters of SLE activity and severity. Source


Xu Z.Y.,Soochow University of China | Yang W.L.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Feng M.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables on a particle can be precisely predicted when it is maximally entangled with a quantum memory. In this work, we explore the behavior of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under the influence of local unital and nonunital noisy channels. For a class of Bell-diagonal states, we demonstrate that while the unital noises only increase the amount of uncertainty, the amplitude-damping nonunital noises may reduce the amount of uncertainty in the long-time limit. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is also explored by using two dissimilar methods. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Wang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2011

Molecular mechanical force field (FF) methods are useful in studying condensed phase properties. They are complementary to experiments and can often go beyond experiments in atomic details. Even if a FF is specific for studying structures, dynamics, and functions of biomolecules, it is still important for the FF to accurately reproduce the experimental liquid properties of small molecules that represent the chemical moieties of biomolecules. Otherwise, the force field may not describe the structures and energies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions properly. In this work, we have carried out a systematic study to evaluate the General AMBER Force Field (GAFF) in studying densities and heats of vaporization for a large set of organic molecules that covers the most common chemical functional groups. The latest techniques, such as the particle mesh Ewald (PME) for calculating electrostatic energies and Langevin dynamics for scaling temperatures, have been applied in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. For density, the average percent error (APE) of 71 organic compounds is 4.43% when compared to the experimental values. More encouragingly, the APE drops to 3.43% after the exclusion of two outliers and four other compounds for which the experimental densities have been measured with pressures higher than 1.0 atm. For the heat of vaporization, several protocols have been investigated, and the best one, P4/ntt0, achieves an average unsigned error (AUE) and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.93 and 1.20 kcal/mol, respectively. How to reduce the prediction errors through proper van der Waals (vdW) parametrization has been discussed. An encouraging finding in vdW parametrization is that both densities and heats of vaporization approach their "ideal" values in a synchronous fashion when vdW parameters are tuned. The following hydration free energy calculation using thermodynamic integration further justifies the vdW refinement. We conclude that simple vdW parametrization can significantly reduce the prediction errors. We believe that GAFF can greatly improve its performance in predicting liquid properties of organic molecules after a systematic vdW parametrization, which will be reported in a separate paper. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Wang L.J.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of uric acid on nigrostriatal system injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into four groups. Uric acid of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally (ip) into 5, 10, 5 rats twice daily at a 2-hour interval for five days and saline was injected ip into 10 rats as controls. At Day 6, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into striatum to establish Parkinson's disease (PD) model in rats. Then uric acid was injected ip into three groups and saline into controls for five days. Locomotion test, amphetamine-induced rotation and forepaw adjusting step test were performed at Weeks 3 and 4 respectively after injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. HPLC-MS/MS was performed to detect the contents of dopamine and its metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatum at Week 5. RESULTS: The scores of locomotion in 2 minutes of 200 mg/kg uric acid group (14 +/- 4/2 min) was higher significantly than saline group (4 +/- 5/2 min, P < 0.01). The amphetamine-induced rotation number in the 200 mg/kg uric acid group (10.8 +/- 7.5) was lower significantly that in the saline group (19.3 +/- 5.2, P < 0.01). Forepaw adjusting step test scores of 200 mg/kg uric acid group were higher significantly than those in the saline group (9.89 +/- 3.41 vs 4.36 +/- 3.72, P < 0.01). HPLC-MS/MS showed that the contents of DA (0.29 +/- 0.19) and HVA (1.22 +/- 0.5) in injured striatum of 200 mg/kg uric acid group were higher significantly than those in the saline group (0.05 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01; 0.24 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: An appropriately elevated level of uric acid may protect the dopamine neuron of nigrostriatal system from injury of 6-hydroxydopamine in rats. Source


Xia R.,CAS Institute of Automation | Zong C.,CAS Institute of Automation | Li S.,Soochow University of China
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

In this paper, we make a comparative study of the effectiveness of ensemble technique for sentiment classification. The ensemble framework is applied to sentiment classification tasks, with the aim of efficiently integrating different feature sets and classification algorithms to synthesize a more accurate classification procedure. First, two types of feature sets are designed for sentiment classification, namely the part-of-speech based feature sets and the word-relation based feature sets. Second, three well-known text classification algorithms, namely naïve Bayes, maximum entropy and support vector machines, are employed as base-classifiers for each of the feature sets. Third, three types of ensemble methods, namely the fixed combination, weighted combination and meta-classifier combination, are evaluated for three ensemble strategies. A wide range of comparative experiments are conducted on five widely-used datasets in sentiment classification. Finally, some in-depth discussion is presented and conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of ensemble technique for sentiment classification. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Wang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening | Year: 2011

Aqueous solubility is one of the major physiochemical properties to be optimized in drug discovery. It is related to absorption and distribution in the ADME-Tox (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity). Aqueous solubility and membrane permeability are the two key factors that affect a drug's oral bioavailability. Because of the importance of aqueous solubility, a lot of efforts have been spent on developing reliable models to predict this physiochemical property. Although some progress has been made and a lot of models have been constructed, it is concluded that accurate and reliable aqueous models targeted to predict solubility of drug-like molecules, have not emerged based on the outcome of an aqueous solubility prediction campaign sponsored by Goodman et al. In this review paper, we provide a snapshot of the latest development in the field. The challenges of developing high quality aqueous solubility models as well as the strategies of surmounting those challenges have been discussed. We conclude that the biggest challenge of modeling aqueous solubility is to collect more high quality, unskewed and drug-relevant solubility data which are sufficient diverse to cover most the chemical space of drugs. The second challenge is to develop good descriptors to account for the lattice energy of solvation. In order to develop accurate and predictable in silico solubility models, the key is to collect a sufficient number of high quality experimental data and the suspicious data must be verified. In addition, the molecular descriptors must be relevant to the energies in the solvation process (the lattice energy for crystal packing, the energy of forming cavity in solvent, and the solvation energy), and the models must be carefully cross-validated and evaluated using the external data sets. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Luo S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Fu S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Channel-state duality refers to the correspondence between quantum channels and bipartite states, and it is extremely useful and fruitful in quantum information theory. It is often called the Jamiołkowski isomorphism, the Jamiołkowski-Choi isomorphism, or the Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism. We trace the original roots of this duality from a historic perspective, clarify the somewhat misleading term "isomorphism," reveal the underlying subtle nature, and highlight the seemingly similar but actually different features of the original correspondences in the manner of Pillis, Jamiołkowski, and Choi that lead to the duality. We further illustrate some fundamental properties and diverse applications. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been shown to protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced cell apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. We investigated the downstream pathways of PI3K/Akt involved in PQQ protection of glutamate-injured hippocampal neurons. Western blot analysis indicated that PQQ treatment following glutamate stimulation triggers phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, accompanied by maintenance of Akt activation. Immunostaining and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that PQQ treatment promotes nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and up-regulates mRNA expression of Nrf2 and the antioxidant enzyme genes, heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic in glutamate-injured hippocampal neurons; this is a process dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway, as evidenced by blocking experiments with PI3K inhibitors. In addition, increased ROS production and decreased glutathione levels in glutamate-injured hippocampal neurons were found to be reduced by PQQ treatment. Collectively, our findings suggest that PQQ exerts neuroprotective activity, possibly through PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of Nrf2 and up-regulation of antioxidant genes. However, the ability of PQQ to scavenge ROS was not totally regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling; possibly it is governed by other mechanisms. Source


Wu J.,Changshu Institute of Technology | Wu J.,Soochow University of China | Yin F.,Changshu Institute of Technology
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this study, a simple, novel method of preparing glucose amperometric biosensors is reported. This biosensor is based on the quantitative measurement of an intermediate product, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn is oxidized by Prussian blue film in composite nanofibers. The biocomposite is composed of Prussian blue, chitosan, and polyvinyl alcohol fabricated by electrodeposition and subsequent electrospinning in enzyme-friendly conditions. The resulting biocomposite nanofibers with porous structures and good biocompatibility sustained the stability of the Prussian blue film and the efficient enzyme immobilization without additional cross-linking agents. The stability of the Prussian blue film at neutral and weak alkalescent solutions was increased after the modification. Furthermore, glucose oxidase retained the biocatalytic activities and glucose is oxidized by dissolved oxygen efficiently, which is catalyzed by glucose oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide. The exhibited good linear behavior in glucose concentrations ranging from 3.30 × 10-6 M to 5.56 × 10-2 M with a low detection limit of 3.61 × 10-7 M. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor exhibited long-term stability, good reproducibility, and absence of interference from other co-existing electroactive species. Thus, the facile and effective methodology of sensor preparation in this study will promote further electrochemical research on proteins, biosensors, and other bioelectrochemical devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Li H.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.,Soochow University of China | Li M.-Q.,Fudan University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2013

Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers. Source


Xu C.F.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2011

To evaluate the effect of enteral nutrition (EN) versus total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on gut barrier function in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty-three patients with SAP enrolled from 4 hospitals were randomly assigned into EN group (29 cases) and TPN group (34 cases). EN group patients were fed via a spiral nasojejunal feeding tube placed routinely by endoscopy or fluoroscopy, and TPN group patients were nourished intravenously with TPN during the same period. The changes of serum endotoxin, diamine oxidase, and urinary excretion of lactulose and mannitol ratio (L/M) were observed. Plasma concentration of endotoxin were markedly decreased in EN group as compared with that in TPN group at the 7(th), 14(th), 21(th) day of entry trial [(39.30 ± 15.82) EU/L vs (73.05 ± 21.16) EU/L, (22.64 ± 14.31) EU/L vs (49.34 ± 24.54) EU/L, (14.81 ± 10.93) EU/L vs (30.08 ± 14.10) EU/L, P < 0.05]. Plasma concentration of diamine oxidase were markedly decreased in EN group as compared with that in TPN group at the 7(th), 14(th) day of entry trial [(9.97 ± 3.84) U/L vs (19.89 ± 9.89) U/L, (5.42 ± 1.84) U/L vs (8.79 ± 4.08) U/L, both P < 0.05]. The urinary L/M decreased significantly in EN group than those in TPN group at the 7(th), 14(th), 21(th) day of entry trial (0.28 ± 0.25 vs 0.65 ± 0.45, 0.21 ± 0.18 vs 0.54 ± 0.41, 0.08 ± 0.04 vs 0.29 ± 0.06, all P < 0.05). EN has better effect on improving intestinal barrier function than TPN in treatment of patients with SAP. Source


Liu J.,Huaibei Normal University | Liu J.,Soochow University of China | Chen W.,Huaibei Normal University | Ji Y.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huaibei Normal University
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2012

2-Arylbenzofurans(thiophenes) were prepared through an efficient tandem elimination-intramolecular addition-Hiyama cross-coupling reaction. In the presence of tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium fluoride (TBAF), palladium(II) acetate [Pd(OAc) 2] and triphenylphosphine (PPh 3), the reaction of 2-(gem-dibromovinyl)phenols(thiophenols) with phenyl(trialkoxy)silanes proceeded smoothly and generated the corresponding products with good yields in one-pot. It should be noted that TBAF plays an important role in the tandem reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Tian W.-D.,Nanjing University | Yu-qiang M.,Nanjing University | Yu-qiang M.,Soochow University of China
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

We employ extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to explore the influence of rigidity of linear polyelectrolyte (PE) on the dendrimer-PE complexes. We find that the size of PE chain increases and its shape changes from oblate to prolate concomitant with the interesting conformation transformations from "coil"-like to "U"-like or "V"-like and further to "rod"-like as the stiffness of PE is increased, We also find that, as a soft nanoparticle, the changes of the size and the shape of charged dendrimer depend not only on the stiffness of PE but also on Bjerrum length of system. This can be explained in terms of two competing interaction energies: the bending energy and the electrostatic attractive energy. Furthermore, we witness that the effective charge of dendrimer exists a jump at both Bjerrum lengths studied, but the overcharge only appears at the large Bjerrum length. Moreover, we propose that there may exist an optimum stiffness of bioactive guest in the complexes for delivery and release. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Thermal Science | Year: 2011

A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively. Source


Xu L.,Soochow University of China
Thermal Science | Year: 2011

In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is used to estimate the length constant of a long cooling fin, and an approximate solution formulation is obtained. The obtained results show that this method is a simple but promising method without any requirement for advanced calculus. Source


Li C.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Meng X.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Liu X.,CAS Institute of Electronics | Li F.,CAS Institute of Electronics | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We experimentally demonstrate the first metamaterial "illusion optics" device-an "invisible gateway" by using a transmission-line medium. The device contains an open channel that can block waves at a particular frequency range. We also demonstrate that such a device can work in a broad frequency range. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Duan J.-W.,Lanzhou University | Hu G.,Soochow University of China | Qiu W.-Y.,Lanzhou University
Match | Year: 2014

DNA cages are kind of artificial polyhedra that are interlinked and interlocked with DNA double-strands. A simple formula to calculate genus of DNA cages is presented here. The formula connects some topological properties of DNA cages, including component number μ, crossing number c and Seifert circle number s. It shows that no matter the way of DNA strands interlinked, the genus is a constant which only depends on the component number of the underlying polyhedral graph. Our study demonstrates that, the genus is an essential topological aspect of DNA polyhedra, which provides a novel classification and a design principle for DNA cages. Source


Zhang J.,Soochow University of China
Cancer Research and Clinic | Year: 2015

Tumor microenvironment is composed by tumor cells, stromal cells, immune-inflammatory cells, extracellular matrix, soluble cytokine and so on. Previous studies focused on the biological behavior, genetic changes and related phenotypic changes of tumor cells, but tumor microenvironment is closely related with the tumor development and treatment resistance. In recent years, new studies have confirmed that tumor microenvironment is an important member of tumor, which play an important role in proliferation, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells. This article mainly introduces the tumor microenvironment features, tumor-associated macrophage and tumor-associated fibroblasts, which led to the radioresistance of tumor. Source


Cathodic arc deposition technique was used to deposit zirconia (ZrO(2)) films and titania (TiO(2)) films on titanium (Ti) disks respectively. The surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The element composition of the films was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase of films was identified by thin film X-ray diffraction. The biological behavior of osteoblast-like MG63 cells cultured on Ti, TiO(2) and ZrO(2) was investigated and the possible signaling molecules involved was studied by the gene expressions of integrin β1, extracellular related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and c-fos. The results indicated that both the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films were amorphous. Scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion of MG63 cells on TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films was significantly enhanced compared to Ti. The CCK8 assay indicated that the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test and the production of type collagen I (COLI) by immunofluorescence showed that both the TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films can enhance ALP activity and COLI expression of MG-63 cells. In addition, the ALP activity on ZrO(2) films was higher than on TiO(2) films at day 4, which indicate ZrO(2) films may lead to promotion of a more osteoblastic phenotype of MG-63 cells than TiO(2) films. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that The gene expression of integrin β1, ERK1/2, and c-fos was higher on TiO(2) and ZrO(2) films than on Ti. The present work suggests that the amorphous ZrO(2) films produced by cathodic arc deposition may be favorable for orthopedic implant applications and worth further study. Source


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2010

The linear energy-momentum relation results in more high-energy electrons in 2D (two-dimensional) graphene FETs (field-effect transistor) than those in silicon FETs that features parabolic energy-momentum relation if the same surface electron density has been assumed in all FETs. The numerical calculations demonstrate that, under such assumption, the gate leakage currents in graphene FETs are much larger than that in silicon FETs. The results illustrate that if the conduction band offset between graphene and gate oxide is lower than 3.55 eV, the gate leakage currents in graphene electronics are more significant than those in the silicon electronics. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source


Xu Y.H.,Soochow University of China
Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine | Year: 2010

Technetium-extraosseous accumulation of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) on bone scan is not usual. It was described and in various diseases with solitary spleen or lung uptake. Simultaneous splenic, pulmonary and renal concentration of (99m)Tc-MDP has not been illustrated previously. Herein, we present a 17 years old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in whom (99m)Tc-MDP was accumulated in the spleen, both lungs and the kidneys. Related literature was mentioned. Source


Cong S.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Tian Y.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Li Q.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Zhao Z.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Geng F.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Tungsten oxide quantum dots (QDs) with an average size down to 1.6 nm are developed, serving as a new class of promising electrode materials, which yield efficient and fast electron/ion transport in the charge/discharge process. With a visually impressive display, the QDs present coloration/bleaching times within 1 s, which is much superior to inorganic analogues and even competitive to organic-related materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wang Z.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry | Hu Z.,CAS Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering | He T.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2010

Single crystals of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) have been prepared by tetrahydrofuran vapor annealing and controlling solvent evaporation, respectively. The morphology and structure of the single crystals are characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. It is observed that in P3HT single crystals, the molecules are packed with - stacking direction perpendicular to the length axis of the crystals and main chains parallel to the substrate, whereas in P3OT single crystals, the molecules are packed with - stacking direction parallel to the length axis of the crystal and main chains parallel to the substrate. In the field effect transistors, the current flow is parallel to the length axis of the single crystals, and the mobility is 1.57 × 10-3 cm 2/Vs for a P3HT single crystal and 0.62 cm2/Vs for a P3OT single crystal. The single crystals of P3HT and P3OT showed high anisotropic electrical properties. The influences of molecular conformation and alkyl chain length on the electrical properties of P3ATs are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Chen K.,Soochow University of China | Schweizer K.S.,Urbana University
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The nonlinear Langevin equation theory of segmental relaxation, elasticity, and nonlinear mechanical response of deformed polymer glasses with aging and mechanical rejuvenation processes taken into account is applied to study material response under a constant strain rate deformation. In the postyield softening regime, the amplitude of the stress overshoot feature, and its breadth in strain, are predicted to be positively correlated with the mechanically induced disordering process. The key physics is the increase of the density fluctuation amplitude due to mechanically generated disorder (rejuvenation) which reduces the elastic modulus and speeds up relaxation beyond the effects of the landscape tilting mechanism. Detailed numerical calculations reveal that the emergence of strain softening is not directly tied to a difference between the initial and steady plastic flow states, but rather on whether there exists a rejuvenation-dominated process during deformation. Calculations suggest a roughly linear relation between the strain softening amplitude (SSA) and the amount of rejuvenation as quantified by variation of the density fluctuation amplitude. The dependences of the yield stress and strain, steady state flow stress, and SSA on deformation rate, temperature, preaging time, and also two distinct thermal history protocols are investigated in detail for PMMA glass. Overall, good agreement between theory and experiment is found. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation | Year: 2013

A fractional nonlinear wave equation is used as an example to elucidate how to solve fractional differential equations with local fractional derivatives via the fractional complex transform and the exp-function method. © [2013] by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston 2013. Source


Tong X.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of soybean products consumption on the risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: Literatures published in English and Chinese reporting the relationship between soybean product consumption and gastric cancer from 1988 to 2008 were searched in this study. Fifty-three relevant articles were selected and 28 of them met the criteria. Meta-analysis was applied to estimate the combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) between soybean product consumption and gastric cancer. RESULTS: A total of 28 independent studies were selected including 16 case-control studies, 10 cohort studies and 2 cross sectional studies. The random-effect model was used due to the heterogeneity among these studies. The overall ORs (95%CI) of Meta-analysis on subjects who consumed soybean products, tofu and miso were 0.58 (0.52 - 0.65), 0.90 (0.80 - 1.00) and 1.18 (1.09 - 1.28), respectively. CONCLUSION: Consumption of soybean products and tofu was inversely associated with gastric cancer, while miso consumption could increase the risk to gastric cancer. Source


Deng Z.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Huang Y.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This paper deals with the singular semilinear elliptic system -Δu=μu|x| 2+2αQ(x)/(α+β)|x| s|u| α-2u|v| β+λ|u| q-2uin Ω,-Δv=μv|x| 2+2βQ(x) (α+β)|x| s|u| α|v| β-2v+δ|v| q-2vinΩ,u=v=0on∂Ω, where Ω⊂ RN(N<3) is a smooth bounded domain, 0∈Ω and Ω is G-symmetric with respect to a subgroup G of O(N), 0≤μ<μ̄ with μ̄=( N-22) 2, λ,δ<0, 0≤s<2 and α,β>1 satisfy α+β=2 *(s)=2(N-s)N-2, 2 Source


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Jiang F.,University of New South Wales
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

In this Letter, we put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy for joint remote preparation of arbitrary two-qudit states (JRSP) in a deterministic manner from a spatially separated multi-sender to one receiver. The scheme is then extended to the arbitrary multi-qudit case. In our schemes, various partially entangled GHZ-like states with arbitrary complex parameters are used as the quantum channels. It overcomes state preparation failure leading to the loss of valuable quantum channel resource and ensures the prepared data available for the remote terminals under extreme conditions such as limited number of quantum channels and limited quantum information processing technologies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Peng D.,Boston University | Yang Z.,Soochow University of China | Tsui O.K.C.,Boston University
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

In this paper, we report a method to measure the viscoelastic properties, namely the plateau shear modulus and zero-shear viscosity, of nanometer polymer films. In this method, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to capture the surface topographic image of the films at different times as they are annealed at the measurement temperature. A model is developed based on the dynamics of surface capillary waves to analyze the data. We demonstrate how this method was applied to measure the viscoelastic properties of polystyrene films supported by silicon with thicknesses of 3 and 125 nm. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Jia L.,Soochow University of China | Jia L.,Liaocheng University | Liu J.,Liaocheng University | Wang H.,Liaocheng University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

In this study, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was selected as an electron acceptor for functionalizing graphene. The resultant PDDA functionalized graphene (PDDA-G) was characterized using TEM, UV-vis absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and electrochemical method. The PDDA-G modified electrode displayed remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward H 2O2reduction and can beused as a nonenzymatic biosensor for H2O2detection. Then negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOD)was immobilized onto the positively charged PDDA-G matrix driven by electrostatic interaction. This novel GOD/PDDA-G bionano composite can be used as a biosensor for the detection of glucose with a linear range from 0.02 to 1.8 mM and a detection limit of 8 M. In this report, the biosensors are easy to prepare, have good stability, and will have potential applications in H 2O2and glucose sensing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Xu Z.,Nanjing Normal University | Xiang B.,Nanjing Normal University | Sun P.,Nanjing Normal University | Sun P.,Soochow University of China
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

A facile ortho-acylation of 2-arylpyridines by a Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H activation was developed, in which no prefunctionalized toluene derivatives were used as acylation reagents in a tandem reaction to form 2-pyridyldiaryl ketones with moderate yields. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Liu F.,Soochow University of China | Li C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2014

A concise synthesis of (S)-14-azacamptothecin has been accomplished in 8 steps from commercially available (R)-2-hydroxybutanoic acid. The key strategy involved in this synthesis is the Michael addition/β-elimination sequence to construct the chiral quaternary carbon center, followed by palladium catalyzed cyanation and formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition/elimination/aromatization in a one pot manner to form the pyrrolopyrimidin-4-one moiety. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Wang X.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Fudan University | Qu Q.,Soochow University of China | Hou Y.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Using a coated Li metal as an anode and LiCoO2 as a cathode, an aqueous rechargeable battery is built up, whose average discharge voltage is 3.70 V. This high voltage stability is due to the "cross-over" effect of Li+ ions, which is different from the traditional ways of increasing overpotentials. The total energy density can be 465 W h kg -1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source


Yang Y.,Soochow University of China | Ruan Y.,Shanghai University
Dianli Zidonghua Shebei/Electric Power Automation Equipment | Year: 2011

According to the dynamic mathematical model of three-phase grid-connected inverters, the influence of voltage vectors on active power change and reactive power change is analyzed. To reduce the ripples of active power and reactive power, the best voltage vector is selected according to the signs of active power change and reactive power change, based on which, a direct power control is proposed. It realizes the decoupling control of active power and reactive power, as well as the adjustable power factor. The three-phase grid-connected inverter with direct power control has better static and dynamic performances. Its feasibility and correctness are verified by simulation and experiment. Source


Gu Y.,Soochow University of China
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology | Year: 2011

To prepare and identify a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human platelet glycoprotein Ib and make its application. BALB/c mice were immunized with human platelets washed, and the spleen cells of them were fused with myloma cells. A hybridoma cell was screened by indirect ELISA and cloned, and the mAb were purified from the ascites of mice. Ig subclass was analysed by double immunodiffusion. The antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody was identified by flow cytometry and radioimmunoassy, respectively. The inhibition of mAb on plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:Rcof) was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A murine mAb against human platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib was developed and denominated as SZ-151. SZ-151 belonged to IgG1 subclass and its titer in ascites was 1:20 000. Flow cytometry and radioimmunoassy showed that the antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody SZ-151 was platelet membrane GPIb. ELISA showed that SZ-151 did not inhibit plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity. A mAb, SZ-151 against platelet glycoprotein Ib was developed, which could be useful in assays of plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity(vWF:Rcof) and can be used for diagnose patients with vWD. Source


Zhang Y.,Soochow University of China | Wang Q.,Xuzhou Medical College
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Sunitinib, a small-molecule multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been applied in phase II clinical trial as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer. In this study, we determined the effect of Sunitinib on the multidrug resistance in gastric cancer cells selected by vincristine. Our results showed that Sunitinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of adriamycin, vincristine, etoposide, 5-Fluorouracil, and cisplatin in multidrug-resistant gastric cancer cells (SGC7901/VCR). Sunitinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation and retention of rhodamine 123 in the SGC7901/VCR cells. However, Sunitinib, at a concentration that reverses MDR, had no significant effect on P-gp protein or mRNA expression levels. In addition, the present study revealed that Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 and down-regulated Bcl-2 in SGC7901/VCR cells, which might also contribute to the reversal of MDR. In conclusion, Sunitinib reverses multidrug resistance in gastric cancer cells by inhibiting P-gp transporter function and modulating Stat3 and Bcl-2. Further study with Sunitinib may be helpful for developing combination therapeutic strategy or circumventing gastric cancer MDR to other conventional anti-cancer drugs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Wang H.,Soochow University of China
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. Source


Chen M.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2010

To evaluate clinical outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with double-bundle or single-bundle by meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on differences of clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction were retrieved in Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM and VIP database. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were also searched manually. Then extracted the date of KT-1000 arthrometer, pivot-shift testing, Lysholm score and IKDC final score in these researches. RevMan 5.0.23 software was used for data analyses. Eight prospective RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The combined results of meta-analysis indicated that there was statistical difference between two operative procedures on postoperative KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side [WMD = -0.35, 95%CI (-0.61, -0.08), P = 0.01], Lysholm score [WMD = -1.91, 95%CI (-3.45, -0.37), P = 0.01]. But the difference of KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side is demonstrated to be clinically insignificant. Others indicated that there was no statistical differences with respect to IKDC final score [OR = 1.80, 95%CI (0.98, 3.31), P = 0.06], having a normal or nearly normal pivot-shift testing [OR = 1.64, 95%CI (0.85, 3.16), P = 0.14]. Double-bundle reconstruction does not result in clinically significant advantage when compared with single-bundle. The results do not support the theory that double-bundle reconstruction controls knee rotation better. Source


Li Z.-L.,Nanjing University | Ding H.-M.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

Understanding how cell-penetrating peptides translocate across cell membranes is of great importance in biomedicine. In this paper, we study the interactions between polyarginines and asymmetric membranes by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that a peptide has the probability to penetrate through the membrane because of the transmembrane potential difference; however, it is difficult for a single peptide to spontaneously penetrate through the membrane while multiple peptides can translocate across membranes by pore-mediated processes. Further, we also provide insights into the transporting ability of polyarginines, and find that the peptide can transport hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic particles through membranes, where the translocation of a hydrophobic particle is easier than that of a hydrophilic one. The present study can help to better understand the interactions of the peptides with cell membranes and may give some new suggestions on the design of future nanomaterials for drug delivery. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Tree D.R.,University of Minnesota | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China | Dorfman K.D.,University of Minnesota
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

DNA confinement in nanochannels is emerging as an important tool for genomics and an excellent platform for testing the theories of confined wormlike polymers. Using cutting-edge, large scale Monte Carlo simulations of asymptotically long wormlike chains, we show that, in analogy to the rod-to-coil transition for free wormlike polymers, there exists a universal, Gauss-de Gennes regime that connects the classic Odijk and de Gennes regimes of channel-confined chains. For DNA in a nanochannel, this Gauss-de Gennes regime spans practically the entire experimentally relevant range of channel sizes, including the nanochannels used in an incipient genome mapping technology. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Li B.,Soochow University of China
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2010

Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research. Source


Dong B.,Dalian Nationalities University | Cao B.,Dalian Nationalities University | He Y.,Dalian Nationalities University | He Y.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

A novel high excited state energy transfer pathway to overcome the phonon quenching effect in rare-earth (RE) oxide upconversion (UC) materials is reported. In Er(Tm)-Yb oxide systems, an extraordinary enhancement of UC luminescence efficiency with four orders of magnitude is realized by Mo co-doping. The RE oxides with significant UC efficiency are successfully utilized for temperature sensing and in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wang L.,Soochow University of China | Regatte R.R.,Biomedical Imaging Center
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2015

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the direct visualization of the human musculoskeletal (MSK) system, especially all diarthrodial tissues including cartilage, bone, menisci, ligaments, tendon, hip, synovium, etc. Conventional MRI techniques based on T1- and T2-weighted, proton density (PD) contrast are inconclusive in quantifying early biochemically degenerative changes in MSK system in general and articular cartilage in particular. In recent years, quantitative MR parameter mapping techniques have been used to quantify the biochemical changes in articular cartilage, with a special emphasis on evaluating joint injury, cartilage degeneration, and soft tissue repair. In this article we focus on cartilage biochemical composition, basic principles of T1ρ MRI, implementation of T1ρ pulse sequences, biochemical validation, and summarize the potential applications of the T1ρ MRI technique in MSK diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and knee joint repair. Finally, we also review the potential advantages, challenges, and future prospects of T1ρ MRI for widespread clinical translation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Background/Aims: Peritoneal fibrosis is one of the long-term complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Recent evidences have suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is beneficial in treating various fibrotic diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, cirrhosis, kidney fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy. However, no information is known about the effect of H2S on peritoneal fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H2S on peritoneal fibrosis and explored its potential mechanisms. Methods: We developed a model of peritoneal fibrosis by intraperitoneally injecting 4.25%-glucose PD fluids and lipopolysaccharide to Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of NaHS (56 μg/kg), an H2S donor. After 28 days, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was used to assess peritoneal function. At the end of dialysis, the rats were killed and parietal peritoneum was harvested for microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry. Results: On the 28th day, the parietal peritoneum of the PD rats markedly thickened as a result of increased depositions of type III collagen and fibronectin. Moreover, the number of ED-1-positive cells and the expressions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD31 were significantly increased in the fibrotic peritoneum. Administration of NaHS markedly decreased the biomarkers of inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis in the peritoneum. NaHS also improved peritoneal function assessed by PET. Conclusion: Exogenous H2S ameliorates the pathologic process of peritonitis via attenuating inflammatory events and TGF-β1 synthesis. These results suggest that H2S may be a potential therapy against peritoneal fibrosis during chronic PD. In the future, compounds releasing H2S at controlled rate will be assessed as potential candidates to treat peritoneal fibrosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel Copyright © 2015, S. Karger AG. All rights reserved. Source


Xu X.,Soochow University of China | Deng Y.,University of Maryland University College | Yim D.N.,University of Maryland University College | Zavalij P.Y.,University of Maryland University College | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Chemical Science | Year: 2015

β-Lactam derivatives are produced through intermediate donor-acceptor cyclopropene intermediates in high yield, exclusive cis-diastereoselectivity, and high enantiocontrol in a chiral dirhodium carboxylate catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction of enoldiazoacetamides. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Han Z.-P.,Yulin University | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2012

A complex of composition [Cu I 4Cu II(mtpo) 4(H 2O) 2Cl 2] n (1) was synthesized from reaction of Hmtpo (Hmtpo = 5-methyl-[l,2,4]-triazolo-[l,5-a]- pyrimidin-7-o1) with one equivalent of CuCl 2·2H 2O in water at 100 °C under autogenous pressure. Complex 1 was fully characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 is a mixed-valence coordination polymer and displays 1-D chain structure. Compound 1 was able to heterogeneously catalyze the ketalization reaction of 2-butanone and ethylene glycol to afford 2-ethyl-2-methyl-[1,3]-dioxolane in excellent yield under mild conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Qiu J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, we establish a general set-valued Ekeland's variational principle in fuzzy metric spaces, where the objective function is a set-valued map defined on a fuzzy metric space and taking values in a pre-ordered locally convex space, and the perturbation involves a quasi-metric family generating the fuzzy topology of the domain space. Moreover, the direction of the perturbation is a convex subset of the positive cone instead of a single positive vector. In our general version, the assumption that the objective function is lower semi-continuous and one that the range of the function is lower bounded are both weakened. From the general Ekeland's variational principle, we obtain several particular set-valued Ekeland's variational principles in fuzzy metric spaces, which generalize and improve some related known results. From these, we deduce the corresponding Caristi's fixed point theorems for set-valued maps and the corresponding Takahashi's non-convex minimization theorems in set-valued optimization. Finally, we extend the obtained results to F-type topological spaces. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Xu Z.,University of California at San Diego | Hou T.,Soochow University of China | Li N.,University of California at San Diego | Xu Y.,University of California at San Diego | Wang W.,University of California at San Diego
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

Protein-protein interactions are essential for regulating almost all aspects of cellular functions. Many of these interactions are mediated by weak and transient protein domain-peptide binding, but they are often under-represented in high throughput screening of protein-protein interactions using techniques such as yeast two-hybrid and mass spectrometry. On the other hand, computational predictions and in vitro binding assays are valuable in providing clues of in vivo interactions. We present here a systematic approach that integrates computer modeling and a peptide microarray technology to identify binding peptides of the SH3 domain of the tyrosine kinase Abl1 in the human proteome. Our study provides a comprehensive list of candidate interacting partners for the Abl1 protein, among which the presence of numerous methyltransferases and RNA splicing proteins may suggest a novel function of Abl1 in chromatin remodeling and RNA processing. This study illustrates a powerful approach for integrating computational and experimental methods to detect protein interactions mediated by domain-peptide recognition. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Jiang M.,Soochow University of China | Luo S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We compare several criteria for quantum Markovianities and illustrate the differences and similarities through explicit examples of random unitary qubit dynamics (Pauli channels). In particular, we demonstrate that the quantum Markovianity based on distinguishability is not equivalent to that based on correlations. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Li Y.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine | Year: 2014

The rising global energy demand has stressed the need to develop and implement novel materials and methods for sustainably harvesting, conserving, and using energy [1]?[6]. The ability to control the interconversion of energy from one form to another with a high rate and efficiency at low cost is essential. Electrochemistry is a fundamental science to study the conversion between electrical and chemical energies. Its principle has been applied to a range of energy technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, and electrolytic or solar water splitting devices [1]?[6]. In contrast to fossil fuel combustion, electrochemical reactions are direct and clean processes with minimal environmental impact. They are not limited by Carnot efficiency and therefore can attain substantially higher efficiency than, for example, a conventional heat engine at low temperatures [7]. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Xiao Q.,Jiangxi Normal University | Sheng J.,Fudan University | Ding Q.,Jiangxi Normal University | Wub J.,Soochow University of China
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2013

A tandem reaction of N'-(2-alkynylbenzylidene) hydrazone with alcohol in the presence of oxygen co-catalyzed by silver triflate and palladium chloride under mild conditions is reported, providing H-pyrazolo [5,1-α] isoquinolines in good yields. During the transformation, isoquinolinium-2-yl amide was the key intermediate via a silver(I)-catalyzed 6-endo cyclization of N'-(2-alkynylbenzyli- dene)hydrazone. The presence of a palladium catalyst and molecular oxygen promoted the oxidation of the alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone. Subsequent nucleophilic attack of the in situ generated enolate to isoquinolinium-2-yl amide, intramolecular condensation, and aromatization afforded the H-pyrazolo- [5,1-α]isoquinolines. The easily available starting materials, good substrate generality, mild reaction conditions, and experimental ease should make this method attractive for further library construction. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

Eu 2+-doped CsMgPO 4 phosphors were synthesized by the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction. The phase formations of the phosphors were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction measurements. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, the temperature dependent (10-300 K) luminescence intensities and the decay curves of the phosphor were measured. The Eu 2+-doped CsMgPO 4 shows a red emission band peaking at around 650 nm from 4f 65d 1→4f 7 transitions of Eu 2+ ions. The luminescence nature of CsMgPO 4:Eu 2 is greatly different from the other Eu 2+ doped ABPO 4 orthophosphates (A and B are mono- and divalent cations, respectively) and is characterized by the red-shifted emission, the larger Stokes shift and a lower luminescence quenching temperature. The anomalous luminescence properties of CsMgPO 4:Eu 2+ are ascribed to impurity trapped exciton emission. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society. Source


Xu C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu D.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu D.-M.,Soochow University of China | Zhu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2013

eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis that is overexpressed in various cancers, with important functions in tumor genesis and progression. We have previously showed that the ectopic expression of eEF1A2 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the functional role of eEF1A2 in the regulation of cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms involved. By evaluating the invasive ability of a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, eEF1A2 expression in cells was positively associated with their invasive ability. The knockdown of eEF1A2 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cells. By contrast, the ectopic expression of exogenous eEF1A2 significantly promoted the migration and invasion of SW1990 cells. Stable eEF1A2 overexpression in a nude mouse model of peritoneal metastasis likewise dramatically enhanced the intraperitoneal metastatic ability of SW1990 cells. In addition, eEF1A2 overexpression could upregulate MMP-9 expression and activity. A significant positive correlation between the overexpression of both eEF1A2 and MMP-9 was observed in pancreatic cancer tissues. The inhibition of MMP-9 activity reduced the promoting effect of eEF1A2 on cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, eEF1A2-mediated cell migration and invasion, as well as MMP-9 expression and upregulation, were largely dependent on the eEF1A2-induced Akt activation. The findings suggested the potentially important role of eEF1A2 in pancreatic cancer migration, invasion, and metastasis. Thus, the results provide evidence of eEF1A2 as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of aggressive pancreatic cancer. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Sun Q.,Soochow University of China
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To research the chemical constituents from Gnaphalium hypoleucum. Compounds were separated by using silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and their structures were elucidated by means of spectral data analysis. Ten compounds were isolated and identified as tetracosanoic acid (1), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (2), beta-sitosterol (3), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-3,6, 7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5), apigenin (6), luteolin (7), quercetin (8), luteolin4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (10). All of these compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 5 is isolated from the genus for the first time. Source


To evaluate the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infusion in patients with steroid-resistant severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). A total of 19 patients with steroid-resistant severe aGVHD received MSCs infusion treatment. The treatment response, transplantation-related mortality, events associated with infusion and relapse rate were analyzed. Two patients with grade II, 5 patients with grade III and 12 patients with grade IV aGVHD received a total of 58 infusions of MSCs. The mean total dose of MSCs was 2.13 (range 0.60 - 7.20)×10(6) cells per kg bodyweight. Seven patients received one infusion, 2 patients received two infusions, and 10 patients received three or more infusions. Eleven patients had a complete response and 4 had a partial response and 4 had no response. No patients had side-effects during or immediately after infusions, and no MSCs related tumorigenesis was detected to date. Eleven patients survived and 8 died, 4 for aGVHD, 1 for infection and 2 for aGVHD with concomitant infection and 1 for underlying leukemia relapse. The cell viability of freshly prepared MSCs is 93% (92% - 95%) by trypan blue staining. The cell viability of programmatically frozen and thawed MSCs is 72% (70% - 74%). Infusion of umbilical cord-derived MSCs expanded in vitro is an effective therapy for patients with steroid-resistant severe aGVHD without negative impact on relapse. Freshly prepared MSCs are superior to frozen and thawed cells in terms of cell viability. Source


Zhu R.,Soochow University of China
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology | Year: 2013

To investigate the expressions of costimulatory molecules OX40 and OX40L on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their relationship with clinical characteristics of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Peripheral blood samples were collected from 51 pSS patients and 36 healthy subjects (HC). The expressions of OX40 and OX40L on PBMC were detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. In addition, we observed the changes in the levels of OX40 and OX40L after treatment in 11 patients with primary pSS and searched for the relationship between their expression levels and patients' clinical manifestations. The expression of OX40 on CD4(+);T cells in pSS patients was significantly higher than that in the HC group (8.65%±3.51% vs 5.68%±1.68%, P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in OX40 expression on CD8(+);T cells between patient group and HC group. In comparison with HC group, the expression of OX40L on CD14(+); monocytes (6.76%±3.60% vs 3.15%±1.89%, P<0.01) and CD19(+);B cells (4.69%±2.40% vs 2.76%±1.33%, P<0.01) significantly increased in pSS patients. Moreover, OX40 expression on CD4(+);T cells and OX40L expression on monocytes and B cells rose significantly in active pSS patients compared with those in inactive patients. The expression levels of OX40 and OX40L were higher in pSS patients with multiple system damage than in patients with simple exocrine gland injury. In addition, immunosuppressive therapy significantly reduced the expressions of OX40 and OX40L. The expressions of OX40 and OX40L on peripheral lymphocytes was upregulated in pSS patients. The high levels of OX40 and OX40L expression were significantly correlated with clinical outcome and therapeutic response, suggesting that OX40/OX40L pathway may play a critical role in pSS pathogenesis. Source


Zhang L.,Soochow University of China | Zhou W.-D.,AI Speech Ltd.
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2013

This paper presents a fast algorithm called Column Generation Newton (CGN) for kernel 1-norm support vector machines (SVMs). CGN combines the Column Generation (CG) algorithm and the Newton Linear Programming SVM (NLPSVM) method. NLPSVM was proposed for solving 1-norm SVM, and CG is frequently used in large-scale integer and linear programming algorithms. In each iteration of the kernel 1-norm SVM, NLPSVM has a time complexity of O(ℓ3), where ℓ is the sample number, and CG has a time complexity between O(ℓ3) and O(n′3), where n′ is the number of columns of the coefficient matrix in the subproblem. CGN uses CG to generate a sequence of subproblems containing only active constraints and then NLPSVM to solve each subproblem. Since the subproblem in each iteration only consists of n′ unbound constraints, CGN thus has a time complexity of O(n ′3), which is smaller than that of NLPSVM and CG. Also, CGN is faster than CG when the solution to 1-norm SVM is sparse. A theorem is given to show a finite step convergence of CGN. Experimental results on the Ringnorm and UCI data sets demonstrate the efficiency of CGN to solve the kernel 1-norm SVM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lin Y.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To investigate the association between ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/δ/γ and essential hypertension (EH). Participants were recruited within the framework of a cohort populations survey from the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province) which was conducted in the urban community of Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2007. Eight hundred and twenty subjects (551 non-hypertensive subjects, 269 hypertensive subjects) were randomly selected but were not related to each other. Ten SNP (rs135539, rs1800206, rs4253778 of PPARα; rs2016520, rs9794 of PPARδ; rs10865710, rs1805192, rs4684847, rs709158 and rs3856806 of PPARγ) were selected from the HapMap database. χ(2) test was used to determine whether the whole population was in H-W genetic equilibrium. SHEsis software was used to examine the relations of SNP and linkage equilibrium. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ten SNP in the PPAR and EH. Difference on the distribution of four SNP genotypes including rs1800206, rs9794, rs10865710 and rs4684847 between high blood pressure and non-high blood pressure group, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and normal SBP group, high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and normal DBP group was significant (P < 0.05). After adjusting factors as age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, high-fat diet and compared with wild-type gene carriers, the OR (95%CI) of objects with rs1800206 V allele appeared in high blood pressure, high SBP and high DBP were 0.60 (0.41 - 0.89), 0.57 (0.37 - 0.88) and 0.61 (0.39 - 0.96), respectively. The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs9794 were 0.63 (0.46 - 0.87), 0.51 (0.36 - 0.73) and 0.68 (0.47 - 1.01). The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs10865710 were 1.62 (1.19 - 2.20), 1.59 (1.14 - 2.22) and 1.53 (1.07 - 2.18), respectively. While the OR (95%CI) of objects with rs4684847 T allele were 1.42 (1.04 - 1.94), 1.38 (1.03 - 1.92) and 1.37 (1.00 - 1.88), respectively. The four SNPs including rs1800206 of PPARα, rs9794 of PPARδ and rs4684847, rs10865710 of PPARγ influenced high blood pressure, high SBP and high DBP to different degrees. Source


Texter J.,Eastern Michigan University | Texter J.,Soochow University of China
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is key to obtaining high-performance properties. We present a simple kinetic model for exfoliation that is readily solved analytically. Random and irreversible sheet separation is postulated in the presence of highly effective stabilizers. This model appears to quantitatively fit graphene exfoliation data, and it illuminates mechanistic aspects of exfoliation. Thicker sheets exfoliate much faster than trilayer and bilayer sheets. Exfoliation follows highly activated diffusion-controlled intercalation of stabilizer into inter-sheet galleries. Application to the most concentrated graphene exfoliation data available supports these assumptions and provides insight for practical treatment regimens. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shi Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in many tissues and are capable of differentiating into several different cell types. Exogenously administered MSCs migrate to damaged tissue sites, where they participate in tissue repair. Their communication with the inflammatory microenvironment is an essential part of this process. In recent years, much has been learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction between MSCs and various participants in inflammation. Depending on their type and intensity, inflammatory stimuli confer on MSCs the ability to suppress the immune response in some cases or to enhance it in others. Here we review the current findings on the immunoregulatory plasticity of MSCs in disease pathogenesis and therapy. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Hao J.,Shanghai University | Zhang S.,Soochow University of China | Zhou Y.,Shanghai University | Hu X.,Shanghai University | Shao C.,Shanghai University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2011

Both deregulation of tumor-suppressor genes and misexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer, but their relationship during this process remains less clear. Here, we report that the expression of miR-483-3p is strongly enhanced in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to side normal tissues using a miRNA-array differential analysis. Furthermore, DPC4/Smad4 is identified as a target of miR-483-3p and their expression levels are inversely correlated in human clinical specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-483-3p significantly represses DPC4/Smad4 protein levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines, and simultaneously promotes cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Our findings identify miR-483-3p as a potent regulator of DPC4/Smad4, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DPC4/Smad4-driven pancreatic cancer. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Wang F.,University of Miami | Korotkova O.,University of Miami
Optics Letters | Year: 2016

The structure of the degree of coherence of wide-sense statistically stationary planar sources radiating far fields with intensity patterns with azimuthal dependence is determined, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. The Fourier series basis is used in decomposing arbitrary far-field intensity for obtaining the azimuthal modes, which are shown to correspond to the spatial frequency components of the source degree of coherence. The far fields with azimuthal structure can be produced experimentally with the help of spatial light modulators. © 2016 Optical Society of America. Source


Zeng X.,Soochow University of China | Beckers H.,University of Wuppertal | Willner H.,University of Wuppertal
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

The novel iminyl radical O2SN, a SO3 analogue, was produced by flash vacuum pyrolysis of gaseous alkyl sulfonyl azides RSO 2N3 (R=CF3, CH3) mixed with argon. Photoisomerization (λ>360 nm) of O2SN into planar syn-OSNO and anti-OSNO (see picture) was observed in solid noble-gas matrices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Gao Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Gao Y.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Hu G.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhong J.,Soochow University of China | And 6 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Thanks to nitrogen introduced into the layered carbon framework of graphite, the chemical reactivity of the carbon atoms was increased. N-doped graphitic catalysts generate reactive oxygen species and display excellent activity for hydrocarbon activation even at room temperature. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wang Y.,Fudan University | Nie J.,Soochow University of China | Chang B.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Yang W.,Fudan University
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2013

Poly(vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL)-based biodegradable microgels were prepared for the biomedical application as drug delivery system via precipitation polymerization, where N,N-bis(acryloyl) cystamine (BAC) served as cross-linker, methacrylic acid (MAA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) methyl ether methacrylate acted as comonomers. The microgels with excellent stability had distinct temperature sensitivity as largely observed in the case of PVCL-based particles and their volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) shifted to higher temperature with increasing MAA content and ambient pH. In the presence of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) or dithiothreitol (DTT), the microgels could be degraded into individual linear polymer chains by the cleavage of the disulfide linkages coming from the cross-linker BAC. The microgels could effectively encapsulate Doxorubicin (DOX) inside and presented stimuli-triggered drug release in acidic or reducing environment. The results of the cytotoxicity assays further demonstrated that the blank microgels were nontoxic to normal cells while DOX-loaded microgels presented efficient antitumor activity to HeLa cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Tree D.R.,University of Minnesota | Wang Y.,Soochow University of China | Dorfman K.D.,University of Minnesota
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The classic results of de Gennes and Odijk describe the mobility of a semiflexible chain confined in a nanochannel only in the limits of very weak and very strong confinement, respectively. Using Monte Carlo sampling of the Kirkwood diffusivity with full hydrodynamic interactions, we show that the mobility of a semiflexible chain exhibits a broad plateau as a function of extension before transitioning to an Odijk regime, and that the width of the plateau depends on the anisotropy of the monomers. For the particular case of DNA in a high ionic strength buffer, which has highly anisotropic monomers, we predict that this Rouse-like behavior will be observed over most of the measurable chain extensions seen in experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Li X.,Soochow University of China | Zhan Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) in lying configuration can have external quantum efficiency (EQE) over 100% but always in narrowbands with EQE peaks slightly exceeding unit. We presented a rectangular gallium arsenide (GaAs) SNSC, which provides light absorption efficiency (Qabs) and EQE far beyond 100% for both transverse electric and magnetic illuminations, by optimally engineering the nanowires and introducing an advanced nanoshell design. Electromagnetic and carrier transport calculations show that Q abs and EQE peaks of the designed SNSCs can both be over 200% with averaged EQE ∼ 150% in most of the active spectral band of GaAs. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source


Chen H.,Soochow University of China | Miao R.-X.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Miao R.-X.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Li M.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Optics Express | Year: 2010

We applied the transformation optics to mimic a black hole of Schwarzschild form. Similar properties of photon sphere were also found numerically for the metamaterial black hole. Several reduced versions of the black hole systems were proposed for easier implementations. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source


Li C.,Soochow University of China
Structural Engineering and Mechanics | Year: 2013

This work is concerned with transverse vibrations of axially traveling nanobeams including strain gradient and thermal effects. The strain gradient elasticity theory and the temperature field are taken into consideration. A new higher-order differential equation of motion is derived from the variational principle and the corresponding higher-order non-classical boundary conditions including simple, clamped, cantilevered supports and their higher-order "offspring" are established. Effects of strain gradient nanoscale parameter, temperature change, shape parameter and axial traction on the natural frequencies are presented and discussed through some numerical examples. It is concluded that the factors mentioned above significantly influence the dynamic behaviors of an axially traveling nanobeam. In particular, the strain gradient effect tends to induce higher vibration frequencies as compared to an axially traveling macro beams based on the classical vibration theory without strain gradient effect. Copyright © 2013 Techno-Press, Ltd. Source


Li J.,University of Western Ontario | Liu L.,Soochow University of China | Sham T.-K.,University of Western Ontario
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

Hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures with the nanograss at the top and the close-ended nanotube at the bottom were synthesized by an extended electrochemical anodization process. Upon thermal annealing, the hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures exhibit a morphology-dependent phase transformation behavior: the amorphous as-prepared nanotube layer undergoes an amorphous-anatase-rutile phase transformation upon annealing at 550 °C and 850 °C, respectively; the nanograss, on the other hand, remains in the anatase phase with an annealing temperature up to 850 °C and becomes anatase-dominant anatase-rutile-multiphase at 900 °C. In addition, the nanotube and nanograss exhibit intriguing light-emitting properties. A two-dimensional X-ray absorption near-edge structure - X-ray excited optical luminescence (2D XANES-XEOL) spectroscopy technique is used to investigate such phenomenon, which correlates the origin of the luminescence with the local chemical entrainment of the nanostructured TiO2. Implications of these observations are thoroughly discussed. These properties are desirable for the engineering of novel TiO2 nanoheterostructures for photocatalysis as well as optical and photonic devices, especially the fabrication of a stable high temperature anatase phase. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Gu Z.,Luzhi Peoples Hospital | Wang G.,Luzhi Peoples Hospital | Chen W.,Soochow University of China
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Genetic and epigenetic changes in the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) gene, according to multiple lines of evidence, might alter its expression and its downstream signaling thereby increasing the risk of developing prostate cancer. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether polymorphisms in two intronic restriction sites in the ER-α (PvuII and XbaI) gene contribute to prostate cancer. A literature search for eligible studies published before November 5, 2013 was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and CNKI databases. Pooled crude odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Eighteen case-control and cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total 4,884 prostate cancer cases and 10,134 healthy controls. Two common ER-α polymorphisms were examined: IVS1-397 C>T (a.k.a. the PvuII restriction site, rs2234693) and IVS1-351 A>G (a.k.a. the XbaI restriction site, rs9340799). Results from this meta-analysis showed that the PvuII polymorphism was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk in any of the racial subgroups, either by allelic or genotypic frequencies. However, this meta-analysis revealed that the G allele in the XbaI polymorphism was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer. In a stratified analysis based on ethnicity, the XbaI G allele remained significantly correlated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in Africans; this correlation, however, was not found in Caucasians or Asians. In summary, a positive association correlation was observed between frequencies of the XbaI (A>G) polymorphism and prostate cancer, especially in Africans, but not such correlation was found with regard to the frequency of the PvuII (C>T) polymorphism. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source


Zhang Y.L.,University of Toronto | Zhang Y.,University of Toronto | Ru C.,Soochow University of China | Chen B.K.,University of Toronto | Sun Y.,University of Toronto
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

This paper presents a nanomanipulation system for operation inside scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The system is compact, making it capable of being mounted onto and demounted from an SEM through the specimen-exchange chamber (load-lock) without breaking the high vacuum of the SEM. This advance avoids frequent opening of the high-vacuum chamber, thus, incurs less contamination to the SEM, avoids lengthy pumping, and significantly eases the exchange of end effectors (e.g., nanoprobes and nanogrippers). The system consists of two independent 3-DOF Cartesian nanomanipulators driven by piezomotors and piezoactuators. High-resolution optical encoders are integrated into the nanomanipulators to provide position feedback for closed-loop control. The system is characterized, yielding the encoders resolution of 2 nm and the piezoactuators resolution of 0.7 nm. A look-then-move control system and a contact-detection algorithm are implemented for horizontal and vertical nanopositioning. © 1996-2012 IEEE. Source


Xu Z.-Y.,Soochow University of China
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2016

We construct a general measure for detecting the quantum speedup in both closed and open systems. The speed measure is based on the changing rate of the position of quantum states on a manifold with appropriate monotone Riemannian metrics. Any increase in speed is a clear signature of dynamical speedup. To clarify the mechanisms for quantum speedup, we first introduce the concept of longitudinal and transverse types of speedup: the former stems from the time evolution process itself with fixed initial conditions, while the latter is a result of adjusting initial conditions. We then apply the proposed measure to several typical closed and open quantum systems, illustrating that quantum coherence (or entanglement) and the memory effect of the environment together can become resources for longitudinally or transversely accelerating dynamical evolution under specific conditions and assumptions. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Source


He S.B.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2010

To investigate if granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-modified dendritic cells (DC) enhance antitumor immunity in vitro. Mice were injected with chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) via the tail vein. Fresh B220(-)CD11c(+) cells were sorted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cultured into DCs by cytokines.DCs were transfected with AdGM-CSF gene at different ratios of multiplicity of infection (MOI) to determine the optimal gene transfection conditions, and the expression of GM-CSF was detected after transfection. The variation of GM-CSF gene-modifiedDCs were analyzed by morphological examination, phenotype analysis, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).DCs were loaded with gastric cancer antigen obtained by freezing and thawing method. The killing effect of DCs vaccine-stimulated T lymphocytes on gastric cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. INF-gamma production was determined with the INF-gamma ELISA kit. B220(-)CD11c(+) cells increased obviously after CCL3 injection. The ELISA results showed that after GM-CSF gene modification, DCs could produce high level of GM-CSF. When DCs were transfected with AdGM-CSF gene at MOI equal to 100, the GM-CSF level in culture supernatants reached saturation [(130.00 +/- 12.61) pg/ml]. After GM-CSF gene-modification, DCs tend to be more maturated as detected by morphological observation and phenotype analysis. At the same time, the capacity of activating the proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes was enhanced greatly. T lymphocytes stimulated by DCs transfected with GM-CSF gene showed a specific killing effect on gastric carcinoma cells and produced high level of INF-gamma [(1245.00 +/- 13.75) pg/ml]. After GM-CSF gene modification, DCs can produce high level of GM-CSF, which tend to be more maturated, and the capacity of activating the proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes is enhanced greatly. GM-CSF gene modified DCs can induce specific CTL to target tumor cells in vitro. Source


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2010

The size of silicon grain in silicon thin-film transistors (TFTs) and the dependence of the gate-leakage current have been theoretically investigated after the effect of the silicon-grain size on the surface potential is considered. After the crystal-size effect has been included, the gate-leakage current of nanocrystalline silicon TFTs strongly depends on the silicon-grain size when the silicon-grain size is in the regime of nanoscale. Such a strong dependent relation results from the large changes in the band gap and dielectric constant due to size effects. The numerical calculations also demonstrate that the effect of the silicon-grain size on the gate-leakage current is independent (or weakly dependent) on the device temperature, the gate voltage, and the active-dopant density. © 2010 American Vacuum Society. Source


A novel colorimetric and fluorescence anion sensor based on 8-nitroquinolyl-2-aldehyde phenyl-thiosemicarbazone (1) was designed and synthesized according to the approach that the binding sites were covalently linked to the signaling units. In DMSO, sensor 1 exhibited a naked-eye color change from colorless to yellow upon complexation with acetate. The association constant of 1 for acetate ion was determined to be 1.20 × 10 3M -1 by nonlinear fitting analyses of the titration curves. The strong interactions of compound 1 with acetate ion could be rationalized on basis of not only the guest basicity but also shape complementarity between 1 and acetate. In addition, the fluorescence emission of 1 was effectively quenched upon addition of acetate ions owing to the fact that the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) was enhanced. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Wang Y.,Fudan University | Gao B.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Fudan University | Xiong S.,Soochow University of China
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2014

Viral myocarditis, which is most prevalently caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, is a serious clinical condition characterized by cardiac inflammation. Inflammasome plays an essential role in the regulation of diverse inflammatory responses by serving as a platform for caspase-1 activation and caspase-1-dependent proteolytic maturation and secretion of IL-1β. Although inflammasome has been reported to be crucial for the development of many inflammatory diseases, its role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis is still elusive. The present study aims to investigate whether CVB3 infection activates inflammasome and whether the activation of inflammasome contributes to CVB3-induced myocarditis. Our results showed that CVB3 infection induced inflammasome activation both in vitro and in vivo. With the inhibition of inflammasome activation, the severity of CVB3-induced myocarditis was significantly alleviated as evidenced by less weight loss, decreased serological indexes of creatine kinase and creatinekinase-MB activities, as well as less severe myocardial injury. Of importance, echocardiography results showed that inhibition of inflammasome activation also efficiently improved cardiac function as revealed by enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening. Despite that CVB3 infection significantly increased the expression of both retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in cardiac myocytes, CVB3-induced inflammasome activation was NLRP3-, but not retinoic acid-inducible gene 1, dependent. Further study showed that reactive oxygen species production and K+ efflux were critical for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome upon CVB3 infection. Collectively, our study demonstrated a crucial role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, and modulation of inflammasome activation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for viral myocarditis. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source


Wang D.,Soochow University of China | Wang D.,Montclair State University
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2012

The crossed cube is a prominent variant of the well known, highly regular-structured hypercube. In [24], it is shown that due to the loss of regularity in link topology, generating Hamiltonian cycles, even in a healthy crossed cube, is a more complicated procedure than in the hypercube, and fewer Hamiltonian cycles can be generated in the crossed cube. Because of the importance of fault-tolerance in interconnection networks, in this paper, we treat the problem of embedding Hamiltonian cycles into a crossed cube with failed links. We establish a relationship between the faulty link distribution and the crossed cube's tolerability. A succinct algorithm is proposed to find a Hamiltonian cycle in a CQ n tolerating up to n-2 failed links. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Ni J.,Soochow University of China
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2015

The diffusion subband adaptive filtering algorithm has faster convergence rate than the diffusion least mean square algorithm. In the case where the measurement noise includes impulsive interferences, however, this algorithm may suffer from bad convergence performance. This letter proposes a diffusion sign subband adaptive filtering algorithm, which is derived based on the method of minimization of the {\ell -1}-norm of the intermediate subband a posteriori error vector subject to a constraint on the intermediate estimate of the unknown vector at each agent in the network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust against impulsive interferences. © 1994-2012 IEEE. Source


Zhang X.,Soochow University of China | Douglas J.F.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Jones R.L.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Soft Matter | Year: 2012

We study the orientation of the cylinder phase of the block copolymer (BCP) poly(styrene-block-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) in thin spun-cast films having a range of film thicknesses and temperatures and compare to our earlier observations on flow-coated films of the same BCP under similar thermodynamic conditions. As in our former measurements on flow-coated films, morphology maps of our spun-cast BCP films reveal distinct ordering regimes where the cylinders orient predominantly perpendicular or parallel to the interface and an 'intermediate' regime where these morphologies are mixed. However, we find that the locations of these morphology lines in the temperature-film thickness plane are greatly influenced by the method of film formation. We hypothesize that the slow solvent evaporation of the flow-coated films leads to films having higher residual stresses than spun-cast films because of a relatively inhibited transport of the solvent out of the film during drying, and annealing measurements on both types of cast films provide supporting evidence that the BCP surface morphology change is associated with residual stresses within the films. Contrary to our initial expectations, spun-cast films showed little sensitivity to film casting speed so that residual stress effects associated with the comparatively violent fluid flow conditions of spin-casting appear to be small. Instead, residual stresses arising from slow film evaporation appear to be implicated. Residual stress effects arising during the course of film casting and drying are relevant to other fabrications involving cast polymer films, such as in organic photovoltaic devices where flow-coating or similar industrial film casting method is normally employed for film formation. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Li L.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules of about 22-24 nucleotides in length that repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. MiR-34a plays an important role in the initiation, progression, and therapy of cancer. In addition, the miR-34a expression has also been identified as a diagnostic and prognostic cancer signature. This article introduces the roles of miR-34a in cancer development, metastasis as well as its mechanism of actions on target genes and the functional outcomes of its actions on radio-sensitivity. The paper ends with a brief perspective to the future of miR-34a. Source


Zhang Z.-G.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2015

In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted great attention in the application as photovoltaic donor materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Broad absorption, lower-energy bandgap, higher hole mobility, relatively lower HOMO energy levels, and higher solubility are important for the conjugated polymer donor materials to achieve high photovoltaic performance. Side-chain engineering plays a very important role in optimizing the physicochemical properties of the conjugated polymers. In this article, we review recent progress on the side-chain engineering of conjugated polymer donor materials, including the optimization of flexible side-chains for balancing solubility and intermolecular packing (aggregation), electron-withdrawing substituents for lowering HOMO energy levels, and two-dimension (2D)-conjugated polymers with conjugated side-chains for broadening absorption and enhancing hole mobility. After the molecular structural optimization by side-chain engineering, the 2D-conjugated polymers based on benzodithiophene units demonstrated the best photovoltaic performance, with power-conversion efficiency higher than 9%. © 2014 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Wang F.,Soochow University of China | Wang F.,University of Miami | Korotkova O.,University of Miami
Optics Letters | Year: 2016

A simple formula is derived for predicting transverse intensity distribution of coherent and partially coherent (Schell-model) scalar beams propagating in extended linear isotropic, homogeneous media with given power spectra of refractive index. The examples illustrate how the formula can be applied to different beams propagating in atmospheric and oceanic turbulence. Our result provides deep insight into the light-media interaction process and serves as a convenient analytical and/or numerical tool for analyzing beam propagation problems without performing lengthy evaluations. © 2016 Optical Society of America. Source


Yang C.,University of South Carolina | Yang Z.,University of South Carolina | Yang Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | Jin C.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

A novel composite anode material consisting of K 2NiF 4-type structured Pr 0.8Sr 1.2(Co,Fe) 0.8Nb 0.2O 4+δ (K-PSCFN) matrix with homogenously dispersed nano-sized Co-Fe alloy (CFA) has been obtained by annealing perovskite Pr 0.4Sr 0.6Co 0.2Fe 0.7Nb 0.1O 3-δ (P-PSCFN) in H 2 at 900 °C. The K-PSCFN-CFA composite anode is redox-reversible and has demonstrated similar catalytic activity to Ni-based cermet anode, excellent sulfur tolerance, remarkable coking resistance and robust redox cyclability. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Su C.,Peking University | Jiang H.,Peking University | Jiang H.,Soochow University of China | Feng J.,Peking University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

Two two-dimensional carbon allotropes comprised of octagons and pentagons are proposed based on the first-principles calculations. The two carbon allotropes, named OPG-L and OPG-Z, are found to have distinct properties. OPG-L is metallic, while OPG-Z is a gapless semimetal. Remarkably, OPG-Z exhibits pronounced electronic anisotropy with highly anisotropic Dirac points at the Fermi level. A tight-binding model is suggested to describe the low-energy quasiparticles, which clarifies the origin of the anisotropic Dirac points. The electronic anisotropy of OPG-Z is expected to have interesting potential applications in electronic devices. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Jia J.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Q.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

In cognitive radio networks, secondary users need to first discover neighbours and form communication links, referred to as the rendezvous process. Rendezvous between any two secondary users can only be achieved on the same channel. However, spectrum heterogeneity in cognitive radio networks complicates the rendezvous process. While most of the existing works study pair-wise rendezvous and design channel hopping sequence, in this paper we focus on the general rendezvous problem for multiple users where each user needs to discover all of its neighbours. We propose to maintain and exchange rendezvous information among encountered users, and leverage rendezvous information spread within the network to accelerate the rendezvous process. With such an idea, we propose a general message passing based framework for rendezvous protocol design, which is flexible to incorporate the existing sequence generation algorithms. For the framework, we formulate rendezvous problems from the perspective of individual user, prove the NP-completeness, and propose an efficient greedy channel switching algorithm. Based on the framework, we design several rendezvous protocols for single-hop and multi-hop networks. When channel hopping sequence generation algorithms with guaranteed rendezvous between any two users are used, the rendezvous with the proposed protocols can still be guaranteed. Simulations demonstrate that the rendezvous performance is greatly improved. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Ge X.,Soochow University of China | Ge X.,Jiangsu University of Science and Technology
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2010

Based on the Pawlak rough set theory, this paper investigates separations in covering approximation spaces, give some characterizations of these separations and some relations among these separations. As an application of these results, investigations on network security are converted into investigations on separations in covering approximation spaces by taking covering approximation spaces as mathematical models of networks. Results of this paper give further applications of the Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence, which makes it possible to research network security by logical methods and mathematical methods in computer science. This contributes to giving risk assessments of securities and to raise grades of securities for networks. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Peng L.,Soochow University of China | Youn C.-H.,KAIST | Tang W.,South-Central University for Nationalities | Qiao C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose to apply a novel paradigm called labeled optical burst switching with home circuit (LOBS-HC) for intradatacenter networking to provide a high bisection bandwidth and significantly reduce the cost and energy consumption associated with electronic packet switching. The unique features of LOBS-HC that make it more suitable than either optical circuit switching (OCS) or optical packet/burst switching are exploited to enable all-to-all communications with a guaranteed lossless transmission bandwidth between any given pair of pods, while also supporting bursty transmissions through wavelength-sharing among home circuits (HCs) and statistical multiplexing. As a case study, hypercube-like topologies are considered for the interconnection among the pods within a datacenter. In particular, we first propose a simple but efficient HC assignment scheme called complementary HC for 2-D cube or ring, and then extend our works to n-cube and generalized hypercube by applying the concept of spanning balanced tree (SBT) for their HC assignment. Our analysis results show that with such datacenters, the minimum number of wavelengths needed in each case is significantly reduced from that needed with OCS and also, the network cost in terms of wires and transceivers needed is considerably reduced from that incurs with datacenters using electronic packet switching. We then evaluate the traffic performance of such hypercube-based datacenters using LOBS-HC through simulation experiments via the OPNET simulator. The performance results obtained for a variety of communication patterns and traffic models within a datacenter demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Song E.,Soochow University of China
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To assess the association between smoking and pterygium among elderly adults by applying a propensity score matching (PSM) approach and to examine a potential dose-response relationship. METHODS: The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years or older in China. Anterior segment examination was performed without pupil dilation using a slitlamp. Pterygium was defined as a raised fleshy triangular fibrovascular tissue growth of the conjunctiva encroaching onto the clear cornea. Information regarding smoking history was collected via a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The propensity scores for myopia were formulated using seven potential confounders. We matched the propensity scores for smokers and nonsmokers within a caliper of 0.01 of logit function of propensity scores. RESULTS: Slitlamp examination was successfully performed in 4567 adults. The odds ratio of pterygium for cigarette smoking before matching was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.75; p < 0.001). There were significant covariate imbalances between comparison groups, and after PSM, covariate imbalances were significantly reduced. After PSM, the magnitude of association was slightly reduced (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.89; p = 0.004). Adults with more daily cigarette consumption were less likely to be affected by pterygium in multivariate analysis (p for trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Smokers were less likely to be affected by pterygium. The PSM approach may be a useful method to address selection bias in observational studies when randomized trials cannot ethically be conducted. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Ji W.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To study the epidemiological characteristics of respiratory virus infection and its relations to climatic factors in Suzhou. From 2006 to 2009, viral etiology surveillance was conducted among 6655 children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs). Direct immunofluorescence method was used to test respiratory secretion samples for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses A and B (Inf-A, Inf-B), parainfluenza virus types I, II, and III (Pinf-I, Pinf-II, Pinf-III) and adenovirus. Samples were tested for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Samples from Jan 2006 to Dec 2009 were also tested for human bocavirus (HBoV). Climatic factors, including mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall amount, sum of sunshine and mean wind velocity were collected monthly. The relationship between activity of each virus and climatic factors were analyzed by linear regression and stepwise regression analysis. From 2006 to 2009, in the total virus detection rate was 32.2% (2142/6655) in Suzhou. RSV was the most common virus and the average detection rate was 15.7% (1048/6655), followed by hMPV 8.9% (596/6655), HBoV 7.8% (148/1883), Pinf-III 2.7% (183/6655), Inf-A 2.4% (161/6655), ADV 1.3% (89/6655), Pinf-I 0.4% (29/6655), Inf-B 0.37% (25/6655) and Pinf-II 0.16% (11/6655). The positive rates of RSV, hMPV and ADV were significantly different in four years (χ(2) = 17.71, 33.23, 8.42, all P values < 0.05). Different virus has different epidemiological characteristics and distinct seasonality. The detection rate of RSV, hMPV, Inf-A were higher in Winter as 37.2%, 13.2%, 4.4%, respectively. ADV and Pinf-III were higher in summer as 2.3% and 4.6% respectively. The peak of HBoV existed in Autumn as 3.3%. The total virus detection rate showed significant inverse correlation with month average temperature (r = -0.732, P < 0.001) and a weak inverse correlation with average wind velocity was also found (r = -0.36, 0.01 < P < 0.05). The highest month total virus detection rate was from 47.6% to 84.4% when average temperature was from 3.2°C to 9.4°C and mean wind velocity was from 1.2 - 1.9 m/s. The associations of average temperature, sum of sunshine and wind velocity with RSV activity were statistical significant (r = -0.88, P < 0.001; r = -0.43, P < 0.01; r = -0.47, P < 0.01). The highest rate was from 24.3% to 58.2%, when mean temperature was from 5.3°C to 19.9°C, mean wind velocity was from 1.3 - 2.4 m/s and sum of sunshine was 61.0 to 153.4 hours. hMPV detection rate was inversely correlated with mean temperature and rain account (r = -0.43, P < 0.01; r = -0.29, P < 0.05). The rate was highest from 11.7% to 31.6% when mean temperature was from 5.3°C to 21.9°C and rain account was from 27.5 millimeter to 150.9 millimeter. Only mean temperature was positively correlated with Pinf-III (r = 0.53, P < 0.001). The rate was from 2.8% to 7.2% when mean temperature was between 11.9°C and 30.4°C. ADV detection rate was positively correlated with mean temperature and sum of sunshine, but negatively correlated with wind velocity (r = 0.35, P < 0.05; r = 0.30, P < 0.05; r = -0.32, P < 0.05). The rate was from 2.2% to 6.6% when mean temperature was between 15.9°C and 30.4°C, and sum of sunshine between 93 hours to 240.7 hours and mean wind velocity was from 1.1 - 2.8 m/s. Average temperature and relative humidity showed interactions on the detection rate of ADV (r = 0.36, P = 0.0093; r = -0.34, P = 0.016), but temperature showed higher effect on ADV detection rate. ADV detection rate was high at higher temperature (15.9 - 30.4°C) and low humidity (56% - 71%). RSV was one of the most common viruses among hospitalized children in Suzhou, and hMPV and HBoV also played an important role in respiratory tract infection of children. Different virus has different cycle and seasonality. Climatic factors, especially mean temperature, was the main factor affecting the virus prevalence. Source


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2011

This Letter compares the classical variational iteration method with the fractional variational iteration method. The fractional complex transform is introduced to convert a fractional differential equation to its differential partner, so that its variational iteration algorithm can be simply constructed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Chen X.D.,Soochow University of China
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2016

Biology is a rich source of great ideas that can inspire us to find successful ways to solve the challenging problems in engineering practices including those in the chemical industry. Bio-inspired chemical engineering (BioChE) may be recognized as a significant branch of chemical engineering. It may consist of, but not limited to, the following three aspects: 1) Chemical engineering principles and unit operations in biological systems; 2) Process engineering principles for producing existing or developing new chemical products through living 'devices'; and 3) Chemical engineering processes and equipment that are designed and constructed through mimicking (does not have to reproduce one hundred percent) the biological systems including their physical-chemical and mechanical structures to deliver uniquely beneficial performances. This may also include the bio-inspired sensors for process monitoring. In this paper, the above aspects are defined and discussed which establishes the scope of BioChE. © 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved. Source


Chen Y.,University of South Carolina | Bunch J.,University of South Carolina | Jin C.,Soochow University of China | Yang C.,University of South Carolina | Chen F.,University of South Carolina
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

Mo 0.1Ce 0.9O 2+δ (MDC) impregnated nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) has been fabricated and evaluated in both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) modes. The optimal electrode performance has been obtained by MDC modified Ni-YSZ with MDC loading of about 294 mg cm -3 resulted from 7 repeated impregnation cycles. Single cells with the configuration of MDC modified Ni-YSZ as the hydrogen electrode, YSZ as the electrolyte and (La 0.75Sr 0.25) 0.95MnO 3-YSZ as the oxygen electrode show a power density of 837 mW cm -2 and a polarization resistance of 0.15 Ω cm 2 (under open circuit condition) at 800 °C when using hydrogen as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant in the SOFC mode. Such cells show current densities of 1.14 A cm -2 and 1.60 A cm -2 with 30 vol.% and 70 vol.% absolute humidity (AH), respectively at 800 °C with an applied voltage of 1.6 V in the SOEC mode. The cells with MDC modified Ni-YSZ as the anode also show very good sulfur tolerance and coking resistance. Power densities of 440 mW cm -2 and 420 mW cm -2 can be obtained when using H 2 with 50 ppm H 2S and methane as the fuel, respectively under a current density of 0.60 A cm -2 at 750 °C. It has been revealed that MDC enhances the electrical conductivity and improves the triple phase boundary (TPB) length, resulting in significant enhancement of the cell performance when using the MDC modified Ni-YSZ electrode. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang J.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Chen X.-F.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Chen X.-F.,Soochow University of China | Wei H.-B.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Wan X.-H.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

This review covers the recent progress in the research field of rod-coil block copolymers (BCPs) containing rigid rod-like blocks and flexible coil-like blocks. Their assembly behaviors are fundamentally different from coil-coil BCPs in morphology because of the geometric disparity between the rod and coil segments and anisotropic interactions between rod blocks to form liquid crystalline or crystalline structures. Rod-coil BCPs can self-assemble into diverse nanostructures in selective solvents, such as micelles, cylinders, vesicles, tubules, belts, and rings. This review highlights valuable contributions in the past six years on the self-assembly behavior of rod-coil BCPs controlled by the volume fraction and the composition of the blocks from both the experimental and theoretical perspectives, and their tunable self-assembled nanostructures triggered by external stimuli, such as solvent, pH, temperature, light, and chemical additives. We also briefly introduce emerging applications of rod-coil nanoparticles in the biological field. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Xu H.,Ludong University | Xu H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Nanomaterials with unique optical properties have shown great promise as probes for cellular imaging. Based on these properties, a wide range of plasmonic, fluorescent and Raman probes have been designed and prepared. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes have also been functionalized with various types of biomolecules, such as antibodies, DNA or RNA, which are actively exploited to realize targeted imaging. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in using functional nanomaterials for imaging, primarily cellular imaging. These nanomaterials are categorized based on their conducting properties, i.e. conductors, semiconductors and insulators. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Carbone D.P.,Ohio State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2015

Sustained angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer. Because of the primary role of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors in angiogenesis, VEGF-targeted agents have been developed to inhibit these signaling processes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the clinical benefits are transient and resistance often rapidly develops. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of resistance would help to develop novel strategies to improve the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapies. This review discusses the mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy and the postulated strategies to optimize antiangiogenic therapy. A number of multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently in phase III clinical development for NSCLC are summarized. The emerging combination of antiangiogenic therapy with tumor immunotherapy is also discussed. © 2015. Source


Zhang Z.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.,Rhodia | Yunker P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Habdas P.,Saint Josephs University | Yodh A.G.,University of Pennsylvania
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Water-lutidine mixtures permit the interparticle potentials of colloidal particles suspended therein to be tuned, in situ, from repulsive to attractive. We employ these systems to directly elucidate the effects of interparticle potential on glass dynamics in experimental samples composed of the same particles at the same packing fractions. Cooperative rearrangement regions (CRRs) and heterogeneous dynamics are observed in both types of glasses. Compared to repulsive glasses, the attractive glass dynamics are found to be heterogeneous over a wider range of time and length scales, and its CRRs involve more particles. Additionally, the CRRs are observed to be stringlike structures in repulsive glasses and compact structures in attractive glasses. Thus, the experiments demonstrate explicitly that glassy dynamics can depend on the sign of the interparticle interaction. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Li C.,Soochow University of China
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2014

In recent years, people were puzzled about two reverse nonlocal models in studying transverse bending of nanobeams. Following the ideologies of both nonlocal models, two kinds of torsional models were constructed to investigate the nonlocal torsional vibration of carbon nanotubes, respectively. Just like the transverse bending of nanobeams, it is strange to observe two opposite size-dependent performances. The first nonlocal continuum model (weakened model) was based on equilibrium equations and nonlocal torsional shear stress relation. Natural frequency decreases with an increase in nonlocal nanoscale parameter, or it increases with increasing length of the carbon nanotube. Thus the torsional stiffness of carbon nanotubes is weakened. On the other hand, the second nonlocal model (enhanced model) was developed from the strain energy variational principle. Natural frequency increases (or decreases) with increasing nonlocal nanoscale parameter (or length of the carbon nanotube), or the nanostructural stiffness is strengthened. For judgment, a torsional semi-continuum model with discrete atomic layers in the cross section of a carbon nanotube was proposed. The relaxation effects on surface atoms were considered in the torsional semi-continuum model. It is concluded that the relaxation type (attractive or repulsive) of surface atoms results in two different nonlocal results. Consequently, both the existing reverse models are proved to be valid. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yunker P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Chen K.,University of Pennsylvania | Zhang Z.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.,Rhodia | Yodh A.G.,University of Pennsylvania
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We investigate the influence of morphology and size on the vibrational properties of disordered clusters of colloidal particles with attractive interactions. Spectral features of the vibrational modes are found to depend strongly on the average number of nearest neighbors, NN̄, but only weakly on the number of particles in each glassy cluster. In particular, the median phonon frequency, ωmed, is constant for NN̄<2 and then grows linearly with NN̄ for NN̄>2. This behavior parallels concurrent observations about local isostatic structures, which are absent in clusters with NN̄<2 and then grow linearly in number for NN̄>2. Thus, cluster vibrational properties appear to be strongly connected to cluster mechanical stability, and the scaling of ωmed with NN̄ is reminiscent of the jamming transition. Simulations of random networks of springs corroborate observations. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Zhang C.,Soochow University of China
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2012

Although natural silk fibers have excellent strength and flexibility, the regenerated silk materials generally become brittle in the dry state. How to reconstruct the flexibility for silk fibroin has bewildered scientists for many years. In the present study, the flexible regenerated silk fibroin films were achieved by simulating the natural forming and spinning process. Silk fibroin films composed of silk I structure were first prepared by slow drying process. Then, the silk fibroin films were stretched in the wet state, following the structural transition from silk I to silk II. The difference between the flexible film and different brittle regenerated films was investigated to reveal the critical factors in regulating the flexibility of regenerated silk materials. Compared with the methanol-treated silk films, although having similar silk II structure and water content, the flexible silk films contained more bound water rather than free water, implying the great influence of bound water on the flexibility. Then, further studies revealed that the distribution of bound water was also a critical factor in improving silk flexibility in the dry state, which could be regulated by the nanoassembly of silk fibroin. Importantly, the results further elucidate the relation between mechanical properties and silk fibroin structures, pointing to a new mode of generating new types of silk materials with enhanced mechanical properties in the dry state, which would facilitate the fabrication and application of regenerated silk fibroin materials in different fields. Source


Cui C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Cui C.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Wong W.-Y.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Wong W.-Y.,Shenzhen University | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Low bandgap and two-dimensional (2D)-conjugated copolymers based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene with conjugated thiophene side chains (BDTT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene with electron-withdrawing substituents (TT) are attractive high efficiency polymer donor materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we introduced an alkylthio substituent on the thiophene side chain in the polymer and synthesized a new low bandgap 2D-conjugated polymer PBDTT-S-TT. The alkylthio substituent increased the hole mobility of the polymer to 4.08 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s -1 and down-shifted the HOMO energy level of the polymer by 0.11 eV with absorption of the polymer film red-shifted slightly. The PSCs based on PBDTT-S-TT as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as an acceptor without solvent additive treatment demonstrated a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.84 V, leading to a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.42%, under the illumination of AM 1.5 G 100 mW cm-2. For comparison, the Voc and PCE of the devices based on the corresponding parent polymer PBDTT-TT with the device optimization of 3% DIO additive treatment are 0.77 V and 7.38%, respectively. The enhanced Voc value of 0.84 V for the PSC based on PBDTT-S-TT should be benefited from the down-shifted HOMO energy level of the polymer. The results indicate that the alkylthio substitution is an effective way to further improve the photovoltaic performance of the 2D-conjugated polymer donor materials in PSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014. Source


Zhan Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Li X.,Soochow University of China | Li Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

Single nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) are typical nanoscale optoelectronic devices with unique photonic and electronic properties, which require precise designs in terms of a comprehensive simulation technique. We present a coupled model for silicon-based SNSCs which solves both Maxwell and semiconductor equations self-consistently using the finite-element method. The light-trapping behavior (e.g., leaky-mode resonances) and carrier generation/recombination inside the nanowire cavity are simulated and analyzed especially by addressing the effects of semiconductor doping, surface recombination, and device dimension on the performance of the solar cells. The absorption efficiency, external quantum efficiency, and current-voltage characteristics have been obtained for a complete evaluation of SNSCs. © 1995-2012 IEEE. Source


He J.,Guangdong University of Technology | He J.,City University of Hong Kong | Zha M.,City University of Hong Kong | Cui J.,City University of Hong Kong | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A highly specific, distinct color change in the crystals of a metal-organic framework with pendant allyl thioether units in response to Pd species was discovered. The color change (from light yellow to orange/brick red) can be triggered by Pd species at concentrations of a few parts per million and points to the potential use of these crystals in colorimetric detection and quantification of Pd(II) ions. The swift color change is likely due to the combined effects of the multiple functions built into the porous framework: the carboxyl groups for bonding with Zn(II) ions to assemble the host network and the thioether and alkene functions for effective uptake of the Pd(II) analytes (e.g., via the alkene-Pd interaction). The resultant loading of Pd (and other noble metal) species into the porous solid also offers rich potential for catalysis applications, and the alkene side chains are amenable to wide-ranging chemical transformations (e.g., bromination and polymerization), enabling further functionalization of the porous networks. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Xu X.-P.,Soochow University of China
European Physical Journal B | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study discrete-time quantum walks on one-dimensional lattices. We find that the coherent dynamics depends on the initial states and coin parameters. For infinite size of lattices, we derive an explicit expression for the return probability, which shows scaling behavior P(0, t) ∼ t-1 and does not depends on the initial states of the walk. In the long-time limit, the probability distribution shows various patterns, depending on the initial states, coin parameters and the lattice size. The time-averaged probability mixes to the limiting probability distribution in linear time, i.e., the mixing time Mε is a linear function of N (size of the lattices) for large values of thresholds ε. Finally, we introduce another kind of quantum walk on infinite or even-numbered size of lattices, and show that by the method of mathematical induction, the walk is equivalent to the traditional quantum walk with symmetrical initial state and coin parameter. © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2013

Based on the analysis of Poisson equation, an analytical surface potential model including interface charge density for nanocrystalline (NC) germanium (Ge) memory devices with p-type silicon substrate has been proposed. Thus, the effects of Pb defects at Si(110)/SiO2, Si(111)/SiO2, and Si(100)/SiO2 interfaces on the retention time have been calculated after quantum size effects have been considered. The results show that the interface trap density has a large effect on the electric field across the tunneling oxide layer and leakage current. This letter demonstrates that the retention time firstly increases with the decrease in diameter of NC Ge and then rapidly decreases with the diameter when it is a few nanometers. This implies that the interface defects, its energy distribution, and the NC size should be seriously considered in the aim to improve the retention time from different technological processes. The experimental data reported in the literature support the theoretical expectation. © 2013 Mao; licensee Springer. Source


GuangLie C.,Soochow University of China
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

We evaluated the effect of Paris saponin on inhibition of cervical cancer in mice and on immune regulation in tumor-bearing mice. MTT assay was used to examine the effect of Paris saponin on U14 cell proliferatiosn in vitro; the ascites tumor model of U14 cervical cancer was established to observe the effect of Paris saponin on inhibition of the tumor and on survival time of mice; and serum IL-4 and IFN-γ levels in tumor-bearing mice were detected. The Paris saponin showed significant inhibitory effect on growth of cervical cancer U14 cells both in vitro and in vivo, prolonged the survival time of mice, increased the serum IFN-γ level of tumor-bearing mice, and reduced the serum IL-4 level. The Paris saponin can inhibit U14 cell growth and prolong survival time of mice; it is speculated that the Paris saponin may express its anti-tumor activity by improving the body's immune system. Source


Gu Z.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Yan L.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Tian G.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Li S.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

Lanthanide (Ln) doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted enormous attention in the recent years due to their unique upconversion luminescent properties that enable the conversion of low-energy photons (near infrared photons) into high-energy photons (visible to ultraviolet photons) via the multiphoton processes. This feature makes them ideal for bioimaging applications with attractive advantages such as no autofluorescence from biotissues and a large penetration depth. In addition, by incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality imaging and therapeutic delivery, the application of UCNPs has been dramatically expanded. In this review, we first summarize the recent developments in the fabrication strategies of UCNPs with the desired size, enhanced and tunable upconversion luminescence, as well as the combined multifunctionality. We then discuss the chemical methods applied for UCNPs surface functionalization to make these UCNPs biocompatible and water-soluble, and further highlight some representative examples of using UCNPs for in vivo bioimaging, NIR-triggered drug/gene delivery applications and photodynamic therapy. In the perspectives, we discuss the need of systematically nanotoxicology data for rational designs of UCNPs materials, their surface chemistry in safer biomedical applications. The UCNPs can actually provide an ideal multifunctionalized platform for solutions to many key issues in the front of medical sciences such as theranostics, individualized therapeutics, multimodality medicine, etc. This review discusses the recent advances in the fabrication and surface functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with the desired size, enhanced upconversion luminescence and combined multifunctions, which is to create a powerful theranostic platform of in vivo multicolor/multimodal bioimaging with NIR-triggered drug/gene delivery and photodynamic therapy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Mao L.-F.,Soochow University of China
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2010

The impact of the grain size of nc-Si (nanocrystalline silicon) on the surface potential of doped nc-Si TFTs (thin film transistors) is discussed. Quantum size effects cause the change in both band gap and dielectric constant of nc-Si. Numerical calculation of the surface potential in nc-Si TFTs shows that the diameter of nc-Si has a larger effect on the surface potential of nc-Si TFTs. The results demonstrate that, for medium size (7 - 50 nm), the change in the band gap of nc-Si should be considered, whereas, for small size (< 7 nm), the change in the dielectric constant of nc-Si should be considered. A simplified surface potential equation for nc-Si TFTs under strong inversion condition is proposed, and shows good agreement with the original equation via numerical calculation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ding H.-M.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Nanjing University | Ma Y.-Q.,Soochow University of China
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Understanding how nanovectors transport DNA molecules through cell membranes is of great importance in gene therapy. In this paper, we systematically investigate the mechanism of cellular uptake of cationic polymeric nanovectors containing DNA molecules through dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Our results show that the property of polyelectrolyte chains grafted to nanovector and DNA molecules can have important impacts on the endocytosis. Interestingly, it is found that the nanovector can be fully taken up with proper number of DNA molecules on its surface. On the contrary, in the absence of DNA it may become harder to be totally engulfed. Since the adsorption number of DNA is related to external pH, the cellular uptake could exhibit pH-responsive behavior. Further, we also provide insights into the comparison of uptake behaviors between cancer and normal cells, and importantly, we find that the enhanced uptake of gene nanovectors may be an inherent property of cancer cells. The present study may give some significant suggestions on future nanovector design for gene delivery. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Shi P.,Soochow University of China
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper deals with seismic wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines. A finite element model is developed for estimating the axial pipe strain and relative joint displacement of segmented pipelines. The model accounts for the effects of peak ground strain, shear transfer between soil and pipeline, axial stiffness of the pipeline, joint characteristics of the pipeline, and variability of the joint capacity and stiffness. For engineering applications, simplified analytical equations are developed for estimating the maximum pipe strain and relative joint displacement. The finite element and analytical solutions show that the segmented pipeline is relatively flexible with respect to ground deformation induced by seismic waves and deforms together with the ground. The ground strain within each pipe segmental length is shared by the joint displacement and pipe barrel strain. When the maximum ground strain is higher than 0.001, the pipe barrel strain is relatively small and can be ignored. The relative joint displacement of the segmented pipeline is mainly affected by the variability of the joint pullout capacity and accumulates at locally weak joints. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Chen S.,Soochow University of China
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2016

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of early myeloid progenitors, which possess strong immunosuppressive functions. MDSCs are found in increased numbers in infectious and inflammatory pathological conditions. However, whether microRNAs have a role in the expansion remains unclear. Here in our study, we found that overexpression of miR-34a could induce the expansion of MDSCs in the bone marrow and spleen both in chimera and transgenic mice. And further experiments demonstrated that miR-34a inhibited the apoptosis through reduced translation of N-myc without affecting the proliferation. Luciferase assay and western blotting experiments implied that N-myc is the direct target of miR-34a in MDSCs. Overexpressed mir-34a changes the cytokine expression profile in MDSCs and skewed the MDSCs to M1 phenotype. And miR-34a-overexpressed MDSCs significantly slowed down the tumor growth. Taken together, miR-34a contributes to the expansion of MDSCs by inhibiting the apoptosis via suppressing the expression of N-myc.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 23 February 2016; doi:10.1038/icb.2016.11. © 2016 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. Source


Qian X.,University of Vermont | Ba Y.,University of Vermont | Zhuang Q.,Soochow University of China | Zhong G.,Shanghai Ocean University
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2014

High-throughput sequencing technologies, also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, have revolutionized the way that genomic research is advancing. In addition to the static genome, these state-of-art technologies have been recently exploited to analyze the dynamic transcriptome, and the resulting technology is termed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq is free from many limitations of other transcriptomic approaches, such as microarray and tag-based sequencing method. Although RNA-seq has only been available for a short time, studies using this method have completely changed our perspective of the breadth and depth of eukaryotic transcriptomes. In terms of the transcriptomics of teleost fishes, both model and non-model species have benefited from the RNA-seq approach and have undergone tremendous advances in the past several years. RNA-seq has helped not only in mapping and annotating fish transcriptome but also in our understanding of many biological processes in fish, such as development, adaptive evolution, host immune response, and stress response. In this review, we first provide an overview of each step of RNA-seq from library construction to the bioinformatic analysis of the data. We then summarize and discuss the recent biological insights obtained from the RNA-seq studies in a variety of fish species. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source


To explore the predictive values of platinum-related genes in gastric cancer patients on oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 126 gastric cancer patients received at least 6 cycles of modified FOLFOX4 adjuvant chemotherapy. Single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERCC1 Asp118Asp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XPD Lys751Gln and GSTP1 Ile105Val were assessed with 5' nuclease allelic discrimination assay (TaqMan) by real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. The genotypes were tested for an association with survivals in gastric cancer patients on an oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. The genotypic analysis of all patients indicated the frequencies for the homozygous wild-type allele, heterozygous and homozygous polymorphic variant: 64.29%, 28.57% and 7.14% for ERCC1-118; 56.35%, 38.89% and 4.76% for XRCC1-399; 84.92%, 15.08% and 0 for XPD-751; and 68.25%, 30.60% and 3.97% for GSTP1-105. Univariate analysis indicated that the ERCC1-118, the XRCC1-399 and the GSTP1-105 SNPs showed the predictive values for RFS (relapse-free survival) (P<0.001, P=0.001 and P<0.001 respectively) and OS (overall survival) (P<0.001, P=0.001 and P=0.019 respectively). A multivariable analysis of Cox proportional hazard regression model suggested that ERCC1-118 had a significant predictive value for RFS (P<0.001, HR=2.362; 95%CI: 1.458-3.827) and OS (P=0.001; HR=2.388; 95%CI: 1.448-3.937) and XRCC1-399 had only a significant predictive value for RFS. And XRCC1-399 (A/A+A/G) genotype could significantly decrease the recurrence risk of patients (P<0.001, HR=0.569; 95%CI: 0.341-0.949). Gastric cancer patients with ERCC1-118 C/C genotype and XRCC1-399A/G or A/A genotype may benefit from an oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Source


Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Wu Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Huang X.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Hang Z.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

A zero-refractive-index metamaterial is one in which waves do not experience any spatial phase change, and such a peculiar material has many interesting wave-manipulating properties. These materials can in principle be realized using man-made composites comprising metallic resonators or chiral inclusions, but metallic components have losses that compromise functionality at high frequencies. It would be highly desirable if we could achieve a zero refractive index using dielectrics alone. Here, we show that by employing accidental degeneracy, dielectric photonic crystals can be designed and fabricated that exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at the centre of the Brillouin zone at a finite frequency. In addition to many interesting properties intrinsic to a Dirac cone dispersion, we can use effective medium theory to relate the photonic crystal to a material with effectively zero permittivity and permeability. We then numerically and experimentally demonstrate in the microwave regime that such dielectric photonic crystals with reasonable dielectric constants manipulate waves as if they had near-zero refractive indices at and near the Dirac point frequency. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Wang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hou T.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2012

It is of great interest in modern drug design to accurately calculate the free energies of protein-ligand or nucleic acid-ligand binding. MM-PBSA (molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area) and MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area) have gained popularity in this field. For both methods, the conformational entropy, which is usually calculated through normal-mode analysis (NMA), is needed to calculate the absolute binding free energies. Unfortunately, NMA is computationally demanding and becomes a bottleneck of the MM-PB/GBSA-NMA methods. In this work, we have developed a fast approach to estimate the conformational entropy based upon solvent accessible surface area calculations. In our approach, the conformational entropy of a molecule, S, can be obtained by summing up the contributions of all atoms, no matter they are buried or exposed. Each atom has two types of surface areas, solvent accessible surface area (SAS) and buried SAS (BSAS). The two types of surface areas are weighted to estimate the contribution of an atom to S. Atoms having the same atom type share the same weight and a general parameter k is applied to balance the contributions of the two types of surface areas. This entropy model was parametrized using a large set of small molecules for which their conformational entropies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level taking the solvent effect into account. The weighted solvent accessible surface area (WSAS) model was extensively evaluated in three tests. For convenience, TS values, the product of temperature T and conformational entropy S, were calculated in those tests. T was always set to 298.15 K through the text. First of all, good correlations were achieved between WSAS TS and NMA TS for 44 protein or nucleic acid systems sampled with molecular dynamics simulations (10 snapshots were collected for postentropy calculations): the mean correlation coefficient squares (R 2) was 0.56. As to the 20 complexes, the TS changes upon binding; TΔS values were also calculated, and the mean R 2 was 0.67 between NMA and WSAS. In the second test, TS values were calculated for 12 proteins decoy sets (each set has 31 conformations) generated by the Rosetta software package. Again, good correlations were achieved for all decoy sets: the mean, maximum, and minimum of R 2 were 0.73, 0.89, and 0.55, respectively. Finally, binding free energies were calculated for 6 protein systems (the numbers of inhibitors range from 4 to 18) using four scoring functions. Compared to the measured binding free energies, the mean R 2 of the six protein systems were 0.51, 0.47, 0.40, and 0.43 for MM-GBSA-WSAS, MM-GBSA-NMA, MM-PBSA-WSAS, and MM-PBSA-NMA, respectively. The mean rms errors of prediction were 1.19, 1.24, 1.41, 1.29 kcal/mol for the four scoring functions, correspondingly. Therefore, the two scoring functions employing WSAS achieved a comparable prediction performance to that of the scoring functions using NMA. It should be emphasized that no minimization was performed prior to the WSAS calculation in the last test. Although WSAS is not as rigorous as physical models such as quasi-harmonic analysis and thermodynamic integration (TI), it is computationally very efficient as only surface area calculation is involved and no structural minimization is required. Moreover, WSAS has achieved a comparable performance to normal-mode analysis. We expect that this model could find its applications in the fields like high throughput screening (HTS), molecular docking, and rational protein design. In those fields, efficiency is crucial since there are a large number of compounds, docking poses, or protein models to be evaluated. A list of acronyms and abbreviations used in this work is provided for quick reference. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Agarwalla B.K.,University of Toronto | Jiang J.-H.,Soochow University of China | Segal D.,University of Toronto
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

We study charge and energy transfer in two-site molecular electronic junctions in which electron transport is assisted by a vibrational mode. To understand the role of mode harmonicity/anharmonicity in transport behavior, we consider two limiting situations: (i) the mode is assumed harmonic, (ii) we truncate the mode spectrum to include only two levels, to represent an anharmonic mode. Based on the cumulant generating functions of the models, we analyze the linear-response and nonlinear performance of these junctions and demonstrate that while the electrical and thermal conductances are sensitive to whether the mode is harmonic/anharmonic, the Seebeck coefficient, the thermoelectric figure-of-merit, and the thermoelectric efficiency beyond linear response, conceal this information. © 2015 Agarwalla et al. Source


Pu W.-Y.,Soochow University of China
Cancer Research and Clinic | Year: 2013

Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world. The development and progression of gastric cancer is attributed to a number of genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogene and tumor suppress gene. Source


Eyyuboglu H.T.,Cankaya University | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Communications | Year: 2012

We study propagation characteristics of hypergeometric Gaussian beam in turbulence. In this context, we formulate the receiver plane intensity using extended Huygens-Fresnel integral. From the graphical results, it is seen that, after propagation, hypergeometric Gaussian will in general assume the shape of a dark hollow beam at topological charges other than zero. Increasing values of topological charge will make the beam broader with steeper walls. On the other hand, higher values of hollowness parameter will contract into a narrower shape. Raising the topological charge or the hollowness parameter individually will cause outer rings to appear. Both increased levels of turbulence and longer propagation distances will accelerate the beam evolution and help reach the final Gaussian shape sooner. At lower wavelengths, there will be less beam spreading. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Huang Y.,Soochow University of China | Seo H.J.,Pukyong National University
Materials Letters | Year: 2015

Red-emitting phosphor of Eu3+-activated BaY6(Si3B6O24)F2 was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction. The phase purity was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Luminescent properties were characterized by photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra, decay curves, and absolute quantum efficiency. The optimal doping concentration of Eu3+ in BaY6(Si3B6O24)F2: is about 30 mol%. This phosphor can be efficiently excited by near-ultraviolet light to realize reddish-orange color from the dominated 5D0→7F1 transition. In addition, the thermal stability was investigated according to the temperature-dependent PL spectra. Eu3+-doped BaY6(Si3B6O24)F2 has higher brightness and thermal stability, and shows a great potential for its application in LEDs as a suitable red-emitting phosphor. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


He J.-H.,Soochow University of China
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Sevimlican suggested an effective algorithm for space and time fractional telegraph equations by the variational iteration method. This paper shows that algorithm can be updated by either variational iteration algorithm-II or the fractional variational iteration method. © 2012 Ji-Huan He. Source


Chen C.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Li Y.-F.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Qu Y.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Chai Z.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Manufactured nanomaterials with novel physicochemical properties are an important basis for nanosciences and related technologies. Nanotoxicology, aiming to understand the principles of interactions at the nano-bio interface and the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and their toxicological profiles, has become a new frontier in nanoscience. Nearly one decade of nanotoxicology research has shown that the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins, cells, animals, humans and the environment as well as the underlying mechanisms of toxicity for nanomaterials are remarkably complicated, requiring dedicated analytical methodology and tools. Because of their advantages of absolute quantification, high sensitivity, excellent accuracy and precision, low matrix effects and non-destructiveness, nuclear analytical techniques have been playing important roles in the study of nanotoxicology. A systematic summary and comprehensive review of the advanced nuclear analytical and related techniques in nanotoxicology is greatly needed. In this review article, we present a comprehensive overview of nuclear analytical techniques applied to the physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials, structural analysis of bio-nano interactions, visualization of nanomaterials in vitro, quantification of bio-distribution, bio-accumulation, and transformation of nanomaterials in vivo. As important complementary tools, optical imaging technologies are also highlighted. Future directions regarding advanced nuclear analytical approaches for nanotoxicology are also discussed. The rapid development of advanced light source-based techniques will enable new high-throughput screening techniques and provide high sensitivity with low detection limits, which are required for the distribution, imaging, and structural analysis of nanomaterials, and the molecular information of biomarkers for all aspects of nanotoxicology. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source


Li R.N.,Boston University | Clough A.,Boston University | Yang Z.,Boston University | Yang Z.,Soochow University of China | Tsui O.K.C.,Boston University
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

We study the effect of film preparation on the equilibration and viscoelastic properties of polymer films. Polystyrene films with a thickness of 14 nm are spun-cast from decalin solutions at different temperatures near the theta temperature to produce films with different chain conformations. We find that the equilibration time of the films increases significantly near the theta temperature. We attribute this to the onset of a rapid collapse in the polymer coil size at the theta condition, along with an increase in the solvent concentration in the films and thereby interchain separation at the time of vitrification. We find that these effects also cause the plateau modulus and equilibrium viscosity of the films to decrease. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Eyyuboglu H.T.,Cankaya University | Cai Y.,Soochow University of China
Optics Communications | Year: 2012

The scintillation aspects of dark hollow (DH) and flat topped (FT) beams propagating in the turbulent atmosphere containing the non-Kolmogorov power spectrum are investigated. It is found that low scintillations will occur when the exponent of the power spectrum is just above the numeric value of 3. Initially, the rises in scintillations will take place as the exponent becomes larger, but later the scintillation reductions will be experienced as the exponent grows further, eventually minimum scintillations will be seen when the exponent has reached the value of 4. This will be the case, for scintillation variations against propagation distance, source size, wavelength, inner and outer scales of turbulence. Furthermore, it is found that at the small source sizes, DH beams will offer less scintillation than FT beams, while at the large source sizes, the reverse will be applicable. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang K.,Hangzhou Normal University | Zhao C.,Soochow University of China
Optics and Laser Technology | Year: 2012

Based on the fact that a hard aperture function can be expanded into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, the approximate analytical expressions for the output field distribution of an anomalous hollow beam (AHB) passing through an apertured fractional Fourier transform (FRT) system are derived. By using the approximate analytical formulae and diffraction integral formulae, the propagation properties of an AHB in circular and rectangular apertured FRT system are studied numerically. The results show that this method provides a convenient tool for studying the propagation properties of an AHB passing through apertured FRT system, and the apertured FRT system can be applied to laser beam shaping conveniently. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Pan C.-W.,Soochow University of China | Pan C.-W.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | Lin Y.,Ghent University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To examine the longitudinal association of overweight/obesity with age-related cataract. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Embase from their inception until June 2013 for prospective data on body mass index categories identical or similar to the World Health Organization-recommended classifications of body weight and age-related cataract including nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models with results reported as adjusted relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: A total of 163,013 subjects aged 40 to 84 years from six prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Obesity was associated with an increasing risk of nuclear cataract (pooled RR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25), cortical cataract (pooled RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.66), and PSC cataract (pooled RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.77). Overweight was only associated with an increasing risk of PSC cataract (pooled RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: The longitudinal associations of obesity with incident age-related cataract are confirmed by the findings in this six-study meta-analysis. The association of obesity with PSC cataract is stronger than that with nuclear or cortical cataract. Randomized control trials are warranted to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of weight reduction in obese populations to decrease the risk of age-related cataract. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry. Source


Smith B.R.,Stanford University | Kempen P.,Stanford University | Bouley D.,Stanford University | Xu A.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Delivery is one of the most critical obstacles confronting nanoparticle use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. For most oncological applications, nanoparticles must extravasate in order to reach tumor cells and perform their designated task. However, little understanding exists regarding the effect of nanoparticle shape on extravasation. Herein we use real-time intravital microscopic imaging to meticulously examine how two different nanoparticles behave across three different murine tumor models. The study quantitatively demonstrates that high-aspect ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) display extravasational behavior surprisingly different from, and counterintuitive to, spherical nanoparticles although the nanoparticles have similar surface coatings, area, and charge. This work quantitatively indicates that nanoscale extravasational competence is highly dependent on nanoparticle geometry and is heterogeneous. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Zheng Y.M.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

This study was to investigate the association between serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). A hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted.Sixty-two patients with unexplained recurrent abortion were included and matched with 2 normal controls by factors as age (± 2 years), living in the same district and the same gestational age.The levels of BPA in serum for 62 cases and 108 controls were detected under high performance liquid chromatography after fluorescent derivatization. Levels of serum BPA in each case was compared with that in control of age, BMI, education levels, occupation, exposure for passive smoking. The values of serum BPA in cases and controls were (0.009 ± 0.002) and (0.004 ± 0.012) μg/ml, respectively. The levels of serum BPA in cases was significantly higher than in controls (Z = 3.506, P = 0.0005). After adjusted by age, BMI, education levels, occupation, passive smoking history and other factors, when compared to BPA below 0.004 μg/ml. The adjusted ORs were 4.39 (1.15 - 16.71) for BPA levels between 0.004 μg/ml and 0.012 μg/ml, and 4.95 (1.77 - 13.82) for BPA over 0.012 μg/ml. The risk of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion increased progressively with the growth of serum BPA levels (χ(2) = 9.179, trend test P = 0.0024). There were significant differences on BPA among controls that with histories of two, three or more abortions (the levels were 0.004, 0.008, 0.018 μg/ml, respectively, F = 8.92, P = 0.0002). High BPA level might be associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Source


Zhang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Han Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhu F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang J.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems | Year: 2013

This paper investigates stability and stabilization of positive switched systems with mode-dependent average dwell time, which permits to each subsystem in the underlying systems to have its own average dwell time. First, by using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function, the stability analysis of continuous-time systems in the autonomous form is addressed based on the mode-dependent average dwell time switching strategy. Then, the stabilization of non-autonomous systems is considered. State-feedback controllers are constructed, and all the proposed conditions are solvable in terms of linear programming. The obtained results are also extended to discrete-time systems. Finally, the simulation examples are given to illustrate the correctness of the design. The switching strategy used in the paper seems to be more effective than the average dwell time switching by some comparisons. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wu C.-H.,Brown University | Cao C.,Brown University | Cao C.,Seoul National University | Kim J.H.,Brown University | And 6 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

A major challenge to nanomaterial-based medicine is the ability to release drugs on-command. Here, we describe an innovative drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which compounds can be released inside cells from within the nanotube "on-command" by inductive heating with an external alternating current or pulsed magnetic field. Without inductive heating the drug remains safely inside the CNTs, showing no toxicity in cell viability tests. Similar to the "Trojan-Horse" in function, we demonstrate the delivery of a combination of chemotherapeutic agents with low aqueous solubility, paclitaxel (Taxol), and C6-ceramide, to multidrug resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Nanotube encapsulation permitted the drugs to be used at a 100-fold lower concentration compared to exogenous treatment yet achieve a comparable ∼70% cancer kill rate. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhang X.L.,Soochow University of China
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and early clinical outcome among patients with acute stroke. A total of 3231 acute stroke patients were included in the present study. Data on demographic characteristics, life style risk factors, history of disease, admission SUA and clinical outcome at discharge were collected for all participants. Poor clinical outcome was defined as neurologic deficiency (NIHSS≥10) at discharge or death during hospitalization. Increased SUA level was associated with decreased risk of poor outcome among ischemic stroke patients. After adjustment for multivariate, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of poor outcome for every increased unit was 0.856 (0.795-0.898) among ischemic stroke patients. Logistic analysis was conducted according to quintile of SUA level, after adjustment for multi-variates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of poor clinical outcome appeared to be associated with SUA of 197-241 μmol/L, 242-285 μmol/L, 286-346 μmol/L and ≥347 μmol/L, but were 0.552 (0.354-0.861), 0.417 (0.263-0.661), 0.390 (0.241-0.630) and 0.352 (0.213-0.581), respectively in those acute ischemic stroke patients, when compared to those with SUA<197 μmol/L. Among acute hemorrhagic stroke patients, after adjustment for multivariate, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of poor outcome for every increased unit was not significant among hemorrhagic stroke patients. According to the quintile of SUA level, when compared to those with SUA<150 μmol/L, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of poor clinical outcomes associated with SUA of 150-185 μmol/L, 186-230 μmol/L, 231-297 μmol/L and ≥298 μmol/L, were also not significant among those hemorrhagic stroke patients. Elevated SUA seemed to be an independent predictor for short-term good clinical outcome among acute ischemic stroke patients. Source


Li M.,Soochow University of China
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology | Year: 2013

To investigate the expression of endoglin (ENG) in human non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, cancer and adjacent non-cancer tissues, and its role in NSCLC development, progression, metastasis and recurrence. Five strains of NSCLC cells and one strain of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were cultured in vitro. Human NSCLC tissues and their corresponding adjacent lung tissues were taken from 22 NSCLC cases to detect the mRNA and protein levels of ENG using real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlations between the ENG expression and clinical data. The mRNA and protein levels of ENG were up-regulated in 3 NSCLC cell strains of high metastasis. However, the expression of ENG was missing in the other low-metastatic NSCLC cell strains and the HBE cell strain. Besides, the mRNA and protein levels of ENG were up-regulated in the 19 out of 22 lung cancer tissues (86.36%), which were significantly higher than those in the adjacent non-cancer tissues (P<0.01). The over-expression of ENG was significantly correlated positively with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01), but not with age, sex, tumor size, clinical stage, pathological grade or histopathological type. The expression of ENG in NSCLC is significantly correlated positively with lymph node metastasis, and it might be a biomarker for the metastasis and prognosis of NSCLC. Source


Cheng Y.,Soochow University of China
Orthopaedic surgery | Year: 2012

Rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, known as "tennis leg", typically occurs when the muscle has been overstretched by dorsiflexion of the ankle with full knee extension. The classic clinical presentation is a middle-aged person who complains of sports-related acute pain in the mid portion of the calf, associated with a snapping sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound is often required to evaluate patients with this condition. This injury is usually managed non-operatively, surgical treatment rarely being indicated according to published reports. One case of longstanding and one of recent rupture of the musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius that were successfully treated by surgical repair are presented here and the MRI characteristics and indications for surgery are discussed. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Sun D.L.,Soochow University of China
Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale | Year: 2013

Hemostasis in thyroid surgery is of utmost importance for a successful surgery and an uneventful postoperative course. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FOCUS Harmonic Scalpel in patients undergoing open total thyroidectomy. In this study, 778 patients were randomized into 2 groups based on the surgical technique used: group I comprised the conventional clamp-and-tie technique, group II comprised patients in whom the FOCUS Harmonic Scalpel was used exclusively. The groups were compared in regard to surgical time, complications, and hospital stay. Surgical time was significantly lower in group II compared with group I (79 ± 21.5 min vs.125 ± 30.4, respectively, P < 0.001). Twenty-seven patients (6.94%) in group I experienced symptomatic hypocalcemia requiring calcium and/or vitamin D therapy versus 14 patients (3.6%) in group II, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Mean post-operative hospital stay was significantly lower in group II compared with group I (2.6 ± 0.9 vs. 2.9 ± 1.0; P < 0.001). The FOCUS Harmonic Scalpel can shorten operative time and hospital stay, reduce incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia but not transient hypoparathyroidism, and show no significance on recurrent nerve injury. FOCUS Harmonic Scalpel is supposed to be a more reliable and safe instrument that can take place of the clamp-and-tie technique in total thyroidectomy. Source


Zhang W.,Nanyang Technological University | Lu G.,Soochow University of China | Cui C.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu Y.,Nanyang Technological University | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

The encapsulation of noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs) in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with carboxylic acid ligands, the most extensive branch of the MOF family, gives NP/MOF composites that exhibit excellent shape-selective catalytic performance in olefin hydrogenation, aqueous reaction in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, and faster molecular diffusion in CO oxidation. The strategy of using functionalized cavities of MOFs as hosts for different metal NPs looks promising for the development of high-performance heterogeneous catalysts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


PURPOSE:: An ovariectomized mouse model was constructed to observe the dynamic effects of hormone changes on the expression of interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-23 in the lacrimal glands. METHODS:: The ovariectomized mouse model was constructed by bilateral ovary removal. The concentrations of serum estradiol and testosterone in mouse cardiac blood were detected by radioimmunoassay. Mice in both groups underwent the phenol red cotton thread test and corneal fluorescein staining to assess the ocular surface, whereas Th17 cells in blood and spleen were detected by flow cytometry. IL-17A and IL-23 expression in the lacrimal glands was detected by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:: Serum estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the ovariectomized group compared with those in the control group. There was lymphocytic infiltration in the lacrimal gland of the ovariectomized group mice. At 6 months after the surgery, aqueous tear production was significantly lower, and statistically significant corneal fluorescein staining was found in the ovariectomized group, compared with that in the control group. In the ovariectomized group, IL-17A and the IL-23 expression in the lacrimal glands and the Th17 expression in the blood and spleen were significantly higher than in the control group. CONCLUSION:: The hormone levels are significantly reduced and lymphocytic infiltration in the lacrimal gland in ovariectomized mice, whereas the frequency of Th17 cells in the blood and spleen and IL-17A and IL-23 expression in the lacrimal glands are increased, leading to reduced tear production and positive fluorescein staining in the cornea. © 2016 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc. Source


Wang Y.,Soochow University of China
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

We establish a blowup criterion for the two-dimensional (2D) full compressible Navier-Stokes system. The criterion is given in terms of the divergence of the velocity field only, and is independent of the temperature. The criterion tells that once the strong solution blows up, the L∞-norm for the divergence of velocity blows up. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang H.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Wang Q.,Soochow University of China | Mortimer S.R.,University of Reading
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Converting waste cooking oil into biofuel represents a three-win solution, dealing simultaneously with food security, pollution, and energy security. In this paper, we encode the policy documents of waste cooking oil refining biofuel in China based on content analysis, and explore the related policies from the two dimensions as basic policy tools and enterprises supply chain. Research indicates the weak institution coordination of policy issuing entities. Also, the findings show that tools of regulatory control and goal planning are overused. Policies of government procurement, outsourcing and biofuel consumption are relatively scarce. Generally, government focuses more on formulating policies from the strategic, administrative and regulatory aspects, while less on market-oriented initiatives as funding input and financial support. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


England D.,Eastern Michigan University | Yan F.,Eastern Michigan University | Yan F.,Soochow University of China | Texter J.,Eastern Michigan University
Langmuir | Year: 2013

A polymerizable ionic liquid surfactant, 1-(11-acryloyloxyundecyl)-3- methylimidiazolium bromide (ILBr), was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in aqueous microemulsions at 30% (ILBr w/w) and various water to MMA ratios. The ternary phase diagram of the ILBr/MMA/water system was constructed at 25 and 60 C. Homopolymers and copolymers of ILBr and MMA were produced by thermally initiated chain radical microemulsion polymerization at various compositions in bicontinuous and reverse microemulsion subdomains. Microemulsion polymerization reaction products varied from being gel-like to solid, and these materials were analyzed by thermal and scanning electron microscopy methods. Microemulsion polymerized materials were insoluble in all solvents tested, consistent with light cross-linking. Ion exchange between Br- and PF6 - in these copolymeric materials resulted in the formation of open-cell porous structures in some of these materials, as was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several compositions illustrate the capture of prepolymerization nanoscale structure by thermally initiated polymerization, expanding the domain of compositions exhibiting this feat and yet to be demonstrated in any other system. Regular cylindrical pores in interpenetrating ILBr-co-MMA and PMMA networks are produced by anion exchange in the absence of templates. A percolating cluster/bicontinuous transition is "captured" by SEM after using anion exchange to visualize the mixed cluster/pore morphology. Some design principles for achieving this capture and for obtaining stimuli responsive solvogels are articulated, and the importance of producing solvogels in capturing the nanoscale is highlighted. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Hong D.,Soochow University of China
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2016

A survey of the clinical data on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over the past 10 years in the treatment center of Children’s Hospital was presented. The aim of the study was to identify the factors influencing the treatment abandonment rate (AR) of AML. Of the 474 AML cases examined, 264 were abandoned (55.7%). The most important factor affecting AR appeared to be the AML subtype—that is, the M3 versus non-M3 (42% vs. 60%). Patient age was observed to be closely related to AR—the older the patients, the lower the AR—and infants had the highest prevalence of abandonment (84.2%). The patient’s residential location was markedly correlated to AR, which was almost inversely proportional to the size of the township where the patient came from. From large cities, intermediate and small towns to countryside villages, the AR increased linearly. So was the correlation with health insurance coverage, which decreased in the same way. Sex and karyotypes did not affect AR. In conclusion, the patients’ financial burden and the perceived incurability of AML were the 2 leading factors dominating the decision for abandonment in parents and caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Liu C.,Soochow University of China | Liu C.,Muroran Institute of Technology | Li Y.,Huaiyin High School
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

The integrability of a class of cubic Lotka-Volterra systems x =x(1- a0x2-a1xy-a2y2),y =y(-λ+b0x2+b1xy+b2 y2), is studied. For odd λ satisfying λ ≥ 3, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrabilities of the above systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wen W.,Soochow University of China | Wen W.,Huaihua University | Chu X.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2014

Beam wander of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence is investigated. Using the Wigner distribution function, analytical expressions for the second-order moments and second central moments of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence are derived. A general expression of the beam wander for an Airy beam with a spiral phase is obtained. Based on the derived formula, various factors that impact on the beam wander are illustrated numerically. The results show that increasing the topological charge and the characteristic scale, or decreasing the exponential truncation factor, can be used to decrease the beam wander. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source


Wu Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Lai Y.,Soochow University of China | Zhang Z.-Q.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Tong X.,Soochow University of China
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2011

To investigate the effects of whey protein on insulin resistance in model rats. Insulin resistance model rats were established by feeding high-fat diet in Wistar rats. Model rats were then randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and fed on 0% whey protein (WP), 5% WP and 15% WP. After 8 weeks, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FINS) were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and glucose area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Also, plasma total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. Whey protein intake did not affected FBG and glucose AUC. FINS and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly lower in 15% WP group than in 0% WP group. For antioxidant index,plasma level of T-AOC, SOD and GSH were significantly higher in 15% WP group than in 0% WP group (T-AOC : P < 0.01; SOD, GSH : P < 0.05); however, MDA was significantly lower in 15% WP group than in 0% WP group (P < 0.05). Whey protein improves insulin resistance. This effect is related to the increase of antioxidant capacity in insulin resistance model rats. Source


Li Y.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Li Y.,Soochow University of China
Chemistry - An Asian Journal | Year: 2013

Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have drawn great attention in recent years for their simple device structure, light weight, and low-cost fabrication in comparison with inorganic semiconductor solar cells. However, the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs needs to be increased for their future application. The key issue for improving the PCE of PSCs is the design and synthesis of high-efficiency conjugated polymer donors and fullerene acceptors for the photovoltaic materials. For the acceptor materials, several fullerene-bisadduct acceptors with high LUMO energy levels have demonstrated excellent photovoltaic performance in PSCs with P3HT as a donor. In this Focus Review, recent progress in high-efficiency fullerene-bisadduct acceptors is discussed, including the bisadduct of PCBM, indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA), indene-C70 bisadduct (IC70BA), DMPCBA, NCBA, and bisTOQC. The LUMO levels and photovoltaic performance of these bisadduct acceptors with P3HT as a donor are summarized and compared. In addition, the applications of an ICBA acceptor in new device structures and with other conjugated polymer donors than P3HT are also introduced and discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Shang X.,Zhejiang University | Chen W.,Zhejiang University | Yao Y.,Soochow University of China
Synlett | Year: 2013

A simple and efficient protocol promoted by BF3·OEt 2 for synthesizing functionalized dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) has been demonstrated. The annulation condition can tolerate a variety of functional groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York. Source


Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are strongly immunosuppressive via producing nitric oxide (NO) and known to migrate into tumor sites to promote tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we found that interferon alpha (IFNα)-secreting MSCs showed more dramatic inhibition effect on tumor progression than that of IFNα alone. Interestingly, IFNα-primed MSCs could also effectively suppress tumor growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that both IFNα and IFNβ (type I IFNs) reversed the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on splenocyte proliferation. This effect of type I IFNs was exerted through inhibiting inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in IFNγ and TNFα-stimulated MSCs. Notably, only NO production was inhibited by IFNα; production of other cytokines or chemokines tested was not suppressed. Furthermore, IFNα promoted the switch from signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) homodimers to Stat1-Stat2 heterodimers. Studies using the luciferase reporter system and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that IFNα suppressed iNOS transcription through inhibiting the binding of Stat1 to iNOS promoter. Therefore, the synergistic anti-tumor effects of type I IFNs and MSCs were achieved by inhibiting NO production. This study provides essential information for understanding the mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunosuppression and for the development of better clinical strategies using IFNs and MSCs for cancer immunotherapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 25 April 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.128. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Ni J.,Soochow University of China | Wang Y.,Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Defense