Sonoma County Water Agency

Sonoma, United States

Sonoma County Water Agency

Sonoma, United States

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Hidaka C.E.,IBM | Jasperse J.,Sonoma County Water Agency | Kolar H.R.,IBM | Williams R.P.,Green Innovations
IBM Journal of Research and Development | Year: 2011

Water resource management, delivery, and research are inhibited by fragmented data sources. It is nearly impossible for public officials to make informed planning decisions that benefit water wholesalers, retailers, and consumers or to efficiently operate water systems beyond their physical and organizational boundaries. Organizations operate water systems within their service areas in ways that may be suboptimal for the sustainable management of the resource as a whole. The organizations make decisions on the basis of available data, which may be incomplete or in the wrong spatial or temporal scale. Data is not shared with other organizations whose decisions and conclusions could be improved with more complete information. This can lead to more complex and fragmented water management decision-making processes that do not address the entire water resource. Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA) in California and the SmartBay project in Ireland use advanced information technology to create collaboration platforms enabling multi-organizational management of water resources, based on information availability and sharing. While SCWA is deploying such a platform for pilot testing in early 2011 and SmartBay has been operating since late 2008, both projects provide the opportunity to overview the core components and technologies of collaboration platforms and the qualitative benefits (environmental, economic, financial, and political) that can result for water resource management. © 2011 by International Business Machines Corporation.


Horton G.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Letcher B.H.,U.S. Geological Survey | Kendall W.L.,Sonoma County Water Agency
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2011

Robust estimates of survival and movement are important for informing the recovery of fish populations as well as for the study of life history, behavior, and population ecology. We present a multistate capture-recapture model that allows separate and simultaneous estimation of true survival and fidelity to the study reach in the presence of imperfect recapture and detection probabilities. The key study design element that permitted this separation was the use of a multiple-antenna array to detect passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged individuals as they emigrated from the study area. The modeling approach incorporated live recapture data during discrete sampling occasions with observational data on antenna detections of tagged individuals as they exited the study area between sampling occasions. The multistate emigration model was applied to empirical data from a stream-dwelling, PIT-tagged cohort of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar for which emigration was continuously monitored by using a pair of stationary PIT tag antennas. The study design we outline presents a way to inform key management, recovery, and ecological questions. Our analysis showed how estimates of the joint probability of surviving and remaining faithful to the study reach (apparent survival) that were based solely on live recapture data (e.g., fromthe Cormack-Jolly-Seber model) masked the patterns that were revealed when true survival and emigration were separately estimated with the multistate emigration model. Use of the multistate model also allowed us to consider size dependence in survival and emigration in a straightforward way; the estimated size-dependent functions support hypotheses regarding the mechanisms leading to survival or emigration responses of Atlantic salmon and other stream-dwelling salmonids. © American Fisheries Society 2011.


Ulrich C.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Hubbard S.S.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Florsheim J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Rosenberry D.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

An experimental field study was performed to investigate riverbed clogging processes and associated monitoring approaches near a dam-controlled riverbank filtration facility in Northern California. Motivated by previous studies at the site that indicated riverbed clogging plays an important role in the performance of the riverbank filtration system, we investigated the spatiotemporal variability and nature of the clogging. In particular, we investigated whether the clogging was due to abiotic or biotic mechanisms. A secondary aspect of the study was the testing of different methods to monitor riverbed clogging and related processes, such as seepage. Monitoring was conducted using both point-based approaches and spatially extensive geophysical approaches, including: grain-size analysis, temperature sensing, electrical resistivity tomography, seepage meters, microbial analysis, and cryocoring, along two transects. The point monitoring measurements suggested a substantial increase in riverbed biomass (2 orders of magnitude) after the dam was raised compared to the small increase (~2%) in fine-grained sediment. These changes were concomitant with decreased seepage. The decreased seepage eventually led to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed, which further decreased infiltration capacity. Comparison of our time-lapse grain-size and biomass datasets suggested that biotic processes played a greater role in clogging than did abiotic processes. Cryocoring and autonomous temperature loggers were most useful for locally monitoring clogging agents, while electrical resistivity data were useful for interpreting the spatial extent of a pumping-induced unsaturated zone that developed beneath the riverbed after riverbed clogging was initiated. The improved understanding of spatiotemporally variable riverbed clogging and monitoring approaches is expected to be useful for optimizing the riverbank filtration system operations. © 2015.


Jasperse J.,Sonoma County Water Agency
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2011

The Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA) has operated water supply facilities along the Russian River in California to deliver potable water since the late 1950s. These facilities, consisting of radial collector and vertical wells, utilize natural filtration processes within the alluvial aquifer surrounding the Russian River to remove impurities from the water and provide a source of high quality drinking water. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Harvey R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Metge D.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | LeBlanc D.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | Underwood J.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2015

This study focused on the importance of the colmation layer in the removal of cyanobacteria, viruses, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during natural bank filtration. Injection-andrecovery studies were performed at two shallow (0.5 m deep), sandy, near-shore sites at the southern end of Ashumet Pond, a waste-impacted, kettle pond on Cape Cod, MA, that is subject to periodic blooms of cyanobacteria and continuously recharges a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The experiment involved assessing the transport behaviors of bromide (conservative tracer), Synechococcus sp. IU625 (cyanobacterium, 2.6 ± 0.2 μm), AS-1 (tailed cyanophage, 110 nm long), MS2 (coliphage, 26 nm diameter), and carboxylate-modified microspheres (1.7 μm diameter) introduced to the colmation layer using a bagand- barrel (Lee-type) seepage meter. The injectate constituents were tracked as they were advected across the pond water- groundwater interface and through the underlying aquifer sediments under natural-gradient conditions past push-point samplers placed at ~30-cm intervals along a 1.2-m-long, diagonally downward flow path. More than 99% of the microspheres, IU625, MS2, AS-1, and ~44% of the pond DOC were removed in the colmation layer (upper 25 cm of poorly sorted bottom sediments) at two test locations characterized by dissimilar seepage rates (1.7 vs. 0.26 m d-1). Retention profiles in recovered core material indicated that >82% of the attached IU625 were in the top 3 cm of bottom sediments. The colmation layer was also responsible for rapid changes in the character of the DOC and was more effective (by three orders of magnitude) at removing microspheres than was the underlying 20-cm-thick segment of sediment. © 2015 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.


Metge D.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Harvey R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Aiken G.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | Anders R.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010

This study assessed the efficacy for removing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts of poorly sorted, Fe- and Al-rich, subsurface sediments collected from 0.9 to 4.9 and 1.7-13.9 m below land surface at an operating riverbank filtration (RBF) site (Russian River, Sonoma County, CA). Both formaldehyde-killed oocysts and oocyst-sized (3 μm) microspheres were employed in sediment-packed flow-through and static columns. The degree of surface coverage of metal oxides on sediment grain surfaces correlated strongly with the degrees of oocyst and microsphere removals. In contrast, average grain size (D50) was not a good indicator of either microsphere or oocyst removal, suggesting that the primary mechanism of immobilization within these sediments is sorptive filtration rather than physical straining. A low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) for organic matter isolated from the Russian River, suggested that the modest concentration of the SUVA component (0.8 mg L-1) of the 2.2 mg L-1 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is relatively unreactive. Nevertheless, an amendment of 2.2 mg L-1 of isolated river DOC to column sediments resulted in up to a 35.7% decrease in sorption of oocysts and (or) oocyst-sized microspheres. Amendments (3.2 μM) of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) also caused substantive decreases (up to 31.9 times) in colloid filtration. Although the grain-surface metal oxides were found to have a high colloid-removal capacity, our study suggested that any major changes within the watershed that would result in long-term alterations in either the quantity and (or) the character of the river's DOC could alter the effectiveness of pathogen removal during RBF operations.


Cook D.G.,Sonoma County Water Agency | Chase S.D.,Sonoma County Water Agency | Manning D.J.,Sonoma County Water Agency
California Fish and Game | Year: 2010

The Russian River is a coastal stream located north of the San Francisco Bay drainage, California, and has a fish fauna derived from the Sacramento River system. Although the Russian River tule perch (Hysterocarpus traskiporno) is the only endemic fish in the watershed, this taxon has received limited study. Historic and recent records indicate that Russian River tule perch are widespread in the Russian River. Tule perch were found in 94% of the 156-km-long river mainstem, and the lower valley reaches of 9 large tributaries. No tule perch were found in 2 large reservoirs located on tributaries, although they occurred in free-flowing waters prior to the construction of these reservoirs. Dive surveys in the upper Russian River found tule perch abundance as high as 2,424 fish/km and they comprised 2.9% to 9.5% of the fish observed. In other mainstem sections, tule perch were approximately 12.5% of the fish observed. Our life history findings were similar to other studies where females give birth in May, young double or triple in length the first summer, and few adults are greater than 1 year of age. We found tule perch use mostly complex wood debris habitats associated with riparian forest, and also utilize boulders and widgeon weed for cover when present.


Stokes A.N.,Utah State University | Cook D.G.,Sonoma County Water Agency | Hanifin C.T.,Stanford University | Brodie III E.D.,University of Virginia | Brodie Jr. E.D.,Utah State University
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2011

Newts of the genus Taricha have long been studied in regards to their skin toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). It has been shown that the TTX levels across populations of Taricha are highly variable, and this has been mostly attributed to the interaction between Taricha and their only documented predators, garter snakes of the genus Thamnophis. Here we show that predators other than Thamnophis prey extensively on some newt populations. Ledson Marsh in Annadel State Park in Santa Rosa, CA is a breeding ground for both the California newt (Taricha torosa) and the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). Predation on these newts was tracked from 1998-2009 and was most often in the form of evisceration and significantly male-biased. As TTX seems to have been developed as an antipredator defense in Taricha, we used Fluorometric High Phase Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to quantify TTX levels in the skin of ten male and ten female newts of each species to determine the influence that TTX levels may have on sex-biased predation in this population. We found Taricha females were not significantly more toxic than males. Also, we found that T. torosa were significantly more toxic than T. granulosa, which is in contrast with other newt toxicity studies. © 2011 American Midland Naturalist.


Metge D.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Harvey R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Aiken G.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | Anders R.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Oocysts of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum are of particular concern for riverbank filtration (RBF) operations because of their persistence, ubiquity, and resistance to chlorine disinfection. At the Russian River RBF site (Sonoma County, CA), transport of C. parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized (3 μm) carboxylate-modified microspheres through poorly sorted (sorting indices, σ1, up to 3.0) and geochemically heterogeneous sediments collected between 2 and 25 m below land surface (bls) were assessed. Removal was highly sensitive to variations in both the quantity of extractable metals (mainly Fe and Al) and degree of grain sorting. In flow-through columns, there was a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.82 at p < 0.002) between collision efficiency (α, the probability that colloidal collisions with grain surfaces would result in attachment) and extractable metals, and a linear relationship (r2 = 0.99 at p < 0.002) between α and σ1. Collectively, variability in extractable metals and grain sorting accounted for ∼83% of the variability in α (at p < 0.0002) along the depth profiles. Amendments of 2.2 mg L-1 of Russian River dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduced α for oocysts by 4-5 fold. The highly reactive hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction was particularly effective in re-entraining sediment-attached microspheres. However, the transport-enhancing effects of the riverine DOC did not appear to penetrate very deeply into the underlying sediments, judging from high α values (∼1.0) observed for oocysts being advected through unamended sediments collected at ∼2 m bls. This study suggests that in evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations to remove oocysts, it may be necessary to consider not only the geochemical nature and size distribution of the sediment grains, but also the degrees of sediment sorting and the concentration, reactivity, and penetration of the source water DOC. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


News Article | November 16, 2015
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