Ozeki Y.,Osaka City University |
Ozeki Y.,Sonoda Womens University |
Hirayama Y.,Osaka City University |
Takii T.,Nagoya City University |
And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most often used vaccine worldwide and sole vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG is protective against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but less or not protective to adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, improved vaccination strategies and development of new tuberculosis vaccines are urgent demands. For those purposes, appropriate animal models that reflect human are critically useful. However, in animal models, BCG vaccination protects well against subsequent challenge of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated the duration of protective efficacy of the BCG vaccination in mice over time and found that efficacy was diminished 40 weeks after vaccination. The aged mice older than 45 weeks are protected sufficiently after the vaccination with BCG, suggesting that loss of its efficacy is not dependent on the age of mice but rather depends on the period from vaccination. The loss of protection occurred in TH1 polarized STAT6 deficient mice despite the maintenance of interferon (IFN)-gamma production activity of lymph node cells and splenic CD4 + T cells against M. tuberculosis antigens. Our data suggest that the duration from vaccination may explain the variation in BCG efficacy against adult pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Nagai M.,Baika Womens University |
Uyama O.,Sonoda Womens University |
Kaji H.,University of Hyogo
Health Education Journal | Year: 2013
Objective: To evaluate relations among dietary habits, bone mineral density (BMD), visceral fat area (VFA), and arterial stiffness and recommend better dietary habits. Methods: One hundred and six men and 381 women (aged 18-84) received a health checkup and answered questionnaires, with subsequent measurements of BMD (speed of sound), VFA (bioelectrical impedance), and arterial stiffness (acceleration plethysmography). Results: Snacking, intake of meat, fried foods, sweet foods, and instant foods were associated with higher BMD; regular lunch hours, skipping meals, calorie restriction, and eating moderate amounts were associated with lower BMD as indicated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Only skipping meals was an independent factor of high BMD. Age was an independent factor of low BMD, large VFA, and high arterial stiffness. Female sex was an independent factor of low BMD and VFA as indicated using multiple regression analysis. Conclusions and implications: BMD was associated with eating behaviours and food contents, among which only skipping meals was an independent contributor. © The Author(s) 2011.
Chin K.,Kyoto University |
Takegami M.,Kyoto University |
Takegami M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute |
Takahashi K.-I.,Red Cross |
And 9 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013
Background: Dyslipidemia is often comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but few populationbased studies have investigated their relationship. Short sleep duration is associated with hypertension and diabetes; however, its association with dyslipidemia is not well known. We investigated relationships among OSA, sleep duration, and the lipid profile in a community-based study. Methods: We measured the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and sleep duration by a type 3 portable device and actigraph in 275 men in a Japanese company. Fasting blood parameters were obtained from periodic inspection data. Results: According to Japanese criteria, 143 subjects had dyslipidemia. Percent sleep time of oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) <90% and prevalence of severe OSA were greater and sleep duration and mean SpO2 during sleep were lower in subjects with dyslipidemia than in those without. Univariate analysis showed that the RDI was positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) levels (ρ = 0.20, P < .01), and sleep duration was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (γ = -0.13, P = .03) and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (γ = -0.12, P = .04). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that TG was correlated with RDI (β = 0.14, P = .02), BMI (β = 0.20, P < .01), and alcohol intake (β = 0.20, P < .01), and that TC was correlated with sleep duration (β = -0.13, P = .03), age (β = 0.15, P = .02), and waist/hip ratio (β = 0.15, P = .02). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with TC levels and RDI was positively associated with TG levels among working-aged men in an urban Japanese company. Correcting the status of OSA and/or short sleep duration might improve the lipid profile and cardiovascular consequences. © 2013 American College of Chest Physicians.
Chin K.,Kyoto University |
Oga T.,Kyoto University |
Takahashi K.-I.,Kyoto University |
Takegami M.,Kyoto University |
And 9 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2010
Background: Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), metabolic syndrome (Mets) and short sleep duration are all risk factors for cardiovascular events. There has been no report which has investigated this relationship in an age- and BMI-matched population-based study. The prevalence of OSA in Mets subjects has not been established, although the converse (i.e., the prevalence of Mets in OSA subjects) has been investigated several times. Methods: This home cardiorespiratory (type 3) sleep study, using an actigraph, was conducted in 275 males working for an urban company. Retrospective measurements of fasting blood parameters were obtained from the company's periodical inspection data. The mean duration between the sleep study and the measurement of blood parameters was 213 days. Results: Although there was a significant relationship between OSA severity and the prevalence of Mets (P < 0.001), the association between severity and Mets was not significant after adjustments were made for age and BMI. Severe OSA was 7.8 times as likely to be present in subjects with Mets (16.2% of all 68 Mets subjects) as those without (2.4% of 207 non-Mets) (P < 0.001). Subject with severe OSA had a significantly short sleep duration (P < 0.05). Sleep duration in Mets subjects was also significantly shorter than in those without (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although increased BMI and age both had a significant effect on the prevalence of OSA in patients with Mets, one of 6 subjects with Mets, but only one of 40 without Mets had severe OSA in an urban male population in Japan. Physicians should take into account this high prevalence of severe OSA in patients with Mets. Sleep duration should be taken into consideration as an important factor in studies investigating the prevalence of severe OSA and Mets.
Uesugi H.,University of Hyogo |
Uesugi M.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency |
Inaguma T.,Sonoda Womens University
Proceedings of the European Conference on Data Mining 2015, ECDM 2015 and International Conferences on Intelligent Systems and Agents 2015, ISA 2015 and Theory and Practice in Modern Computing 2015, TPMC 2015 - Part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2015 | Year: 2015
We examined an image processing scheme for images on stone monuments, to remove noise from images. N-pixel open-close scheme removes noises in the images. We were able to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio, although the method is insufficient for the automated character recognition. Further improvements are possible, and are expected to be included in the image processing unit in our data archive system in future work.