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Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software Inc.
Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal | Year: 2010

Maxwell first published what came to be called "Maxwell's equations" in 1865. However, it was not until 1888, and Heinrich Hertz's experimental validation, that Maxwell's equations were widely accepted as correct. The story of the intervening 23 years is little known. Maxwell, who died in 1879, was exceptionally modest and did not promote his own results at any time. The survival of Maxwell's equations was up to the only three researchers in the entire world who paid serious attention to Maxwell's paper in 1865, and his seminal Treatise in 1873: Oliver Heaviside, Oliver Lodge, and George Francis FitzGerald. Later, Hertz joined the group forming "The Four Maxwellians". In this paper, we describe the torturous 23 year path Maxwell's equations took from their creation to their initial acceptance. © 2010 ACES. Source

Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2010

N-port Pi-networks can be extracted directly from Y-parameters. Likewise, two-port T-networks can be extracted directly from two-port Z-parameters. However, it appears that N-port T-networks have not been previously identified for N > 2, a strange topological asymmetry in circuit theory. We introduce the general N-port T-network and illustrate application by synthesis of an N -port T-network lumped model from Z-parameters for a three-port microstrip via to ground on GaAs. The existence of the N-port T-network partially relieves the noted circuit theory asymmetry; however, the T-network is structurally different from the Pi-network. We show that circuit theory becomes topologically perfectly symmetric under an appropriate change of variables when we consider g-parameters and derive circuit theory from the electromagnetically symmetric form of Maxwell's equations. The perfect topological symmetry requires both electric and magnetic (i.e., magnetic monopole) current. Practical application might be possible because effects identical to magnetic monopole current and charge have recently been experimentally observed and reported. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Coonrod J.,Rogers Corporation | Rautio B.,Sonnet Software Inc.
Microwave Journal | Year: 2012

Matching a microwave transmission-line technology to an application requires careful consideration of more than a few factors. Depending on the requirements of an application, high-frequency circuit designers may be concerned with loss budgets, propagation mode issues, radiation losses and electromagnetic interference (EMI), and even the printed-circuit-board (PCB) assembly logistics and the relative difficulty of adding components to a PCB. Microstrip and CPW formats are often selected over other high-frequency transmission- line options, such as stripline, due to their simplicity. Stripline can deliver excellent high- frequency performance, with good noise immunity and isolation between adjacent circuit traces. But it is also more difficult and expensive to fabricate than microstrip or CPW. Strip- line is essentially a flat metal transmission line between two ground planes, with the ground planes separated by a dielectric substrate material. Source

Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software Inc.
IEEE Microwave Magazine | Year: 2014

The IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) is starting a new conference devoted to numerical modeling for microwave and high-frequency problems called Numerical Electromagnetic Modeling and Optimization (NEMO). I was asked to provide a logo for the conference. © 2000-2012 IEEE. Source

Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software Inc.
IEEE Microwave Magazine | Year: 2015

Some of factors involved in successfully starting and running a business in the megahertz to terahertz arena. There is a fair amount of luck involved in being a successful entrepreneur. A successful entrepreneur can apply our engineering problem-solving talents to just about any kind of problem, including the problem of starting a company. Selecting business partners and first few employees is critical to successfully starting and running a business in the megahertz to terahertz arena. Source

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