Syracuse, NY, United States
Syracuse, NY, United States

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Rautio B.J.,Syracuse University | Okhmatovski V.I.,University of Manitoba | Cangellaris A.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software | Lee J.K.,Syracuse University
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2014

The unified fast Fourier transform (UFFT) methodology is proposed for fast method of moments analysis of dense integrated circuits embedded in layered media inside perfectly electric conducting or perfectly magnetic conducting enclosures of rectangular cross section. The pre-corrected fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is modified to handle the dyadic Green's function (DGF) of shielded layered media through factorization of the DGF into four convolution/correlation terms enabling fast matrix solve operations (MSOs). Calculation of the impedance matrix elements in the form of an infinite series of waveguide modes is cast into the form of a 2-D discrete Fourier transform allowing for fast FFT-accelerated matrix fill operations (MFOs). Fast FFT-enhanced MSOs and MFOs used in conjunction form the UFFT method. The computational complexity and memory requirements for the proposed UFFT solver scale as O(N\log N) and O(N), respectively, where $N$ is the number of unknowns in the discrete approximation of the governing integral equation. New criteria specific to shielded circuits for the projection of the current expansion functions on a uniform FFT grid are developed. The accuracy and efficiency of the solver is demonstrated through its application to multiple examples of full-wave analysis of large planar circuits. © 2012 IEEE.


Rautio B.J.,Sonnet Software | Okhmatovski V.I.,University of Manitoba | Lee J.K.,Syracuse University
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest) | Year: 2015

A method for estimating the suitability of GPUs for computational algorithms is presented. The method is used to estimate performance for several matrix solutions for planar method of moments simulation. © 2015 IEEE.


Rautio B.,Sonnet Software | Okhmatovski V.I.,University of Manitoba | Lee J.K.,Syracuse University
Progress in Electromagnetics Research | Year: 2015

While considerable progress has been made in the realm of speed-enhanced electromagnetic (EM) solvers, these fast solvers generally achieve their results through methods that introduce additional error components by way of geometric type approximations, sparse-matrix type approximations, multilevel type decomposition of interactions, and assumptions regarding the stochastic nature of EM problems. This work introduces the O(N logN) Unified-FFT grid totalizing (UFFT-GT) method, a derivative of method of moments (MoM), which achieves fast analysis with minimal to zero reduction in accuracy relative to direct MoM solution. The method uniquely combines FFT-enhanced Matrix Fill Operations (MFO) that are calculated to machine precision with FFT-enhanced Matrix Solve Operations (MSO) that are also calculated to machine precision, for an expedient solution that does not compromise accuracy. © 2015, Electromagnetics Academy. All rights reserved.


Rautio B.J.,Syracuse University | El Sabbagh M.,Syracuse University | Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband | Year: 2011

A broadband methodology for measurement of uniaxial dielectric anisotropy is described. Previous work is improved with reduced measurement error, enhanced automation, and additional material testing. Additionally, permittivity variation with temperature is explored. © 2011 IEEE.


Horn III A.F.,Rogers Corporation | Reynolds J.W.,Rogers Corporation | Lafrance P.A.,Rogers Corporation | Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software
DesignCon 2010 | Year: 2010

It has been long known that conductor surface roughness can increase the conductor loss as frequency increases to the extent that the signal skin depth is comparable or smaller than the scale of the conductor roughness. In the present work, we experimentally show that the increase in conductor loss is larger than the factor of two predicted by the most widely used roughness factor correction correlations. This is consistent with the findings of a more recent theoretical paper on the effect of random roughness on conductor loss. We also experimentally show that increasing the conductor roughness alone increases the phase constant, or effective dielectric constant, in thin circuitry by up to 15% and substantially increases dispersion. Conductor profile is clearly a major variable in the performance of thin high frequency circuits. A subtle adjustment to the conductor model in Sonnet Software related to the conductor roughness accounts quantitatively for both the insertion loss and phase constant effects.


Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software | Merrill J.D.,Sonnet Software | Kobasa M.J.,Sonnet Software
2013 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, COMCAS 2013 | Year: 2013

Patterned ground shields are widely used to increase the Q of spiral inductors on silicon. As RFIC (radio frequency integrated circuit) technology pushes toward deeper submicron nodes, the geometries of ground shields can become exceedingly complicated. This poses a huge challenge for numerical EM (electromagnetic) simulators. This paper explores several ground shield geometries and illustrates a new anisotropic conducting sheet model for efficient EM analysis of even the most complicated ground shield geometries by substitution of a continuous, but anisotropic conducting sheet. The technique is validated by comparison of EM analysis results using this new model to EM analysis results of actual ground shield geometries. We also explore visualization of the current induced in the silicon substrate by the inductor and (if present) the ground shield. © 2013 IEEE.


Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software
IEEE Microwave Magazine | Year: 2015

Presents information on the MTT-S logo. © 2000-2012 IEEE.


LaFrance P.A.,Rogers Corporation | Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software
Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly | Year: 2010

The effect of conductor profile on the insertion loss, phase constant and dispersion in thin high frequency transmission lines was studied. Fifty-ohm microstrip transmission lines were photo-lithographically etched onto Rogers ULTRALAM 3850 copper foil clad LCP (liquid crystal polymer) laminates of thicknesses of 0.004" to 0.020". The samples were made in thickness increments of 0.004" from 0.004" to 0.020" by plying up 0.004" sheets and laminating them in an oil-heated flat bed press. The 50 ω line widths were calculated using the method of Hammerstad and Jensen that is incorporated into Rogers' novel impedance calculator program, MWI. Insertion loss results up to 50 GHz for copper foils with profiles of 0.5, 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0 μm on the 0.004" thick LCP dielectric material show a number of interesting features. The data clearly show that saturation does not occur, at least up to frequencies of 50 GHz, and that the effect of conductor profile is larger than predicted by the Morgan correlation at frequencies above 10 GHz.


Horn III A.F.,Rogers Corporation | Reynolds J.W.,Rogers Corporation | Rautio J.C.,Sonnet Software
IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest | Year: 2010

We experimentally show that the increase in conductor loss due to roughness is larger than the factor of two predicted by the most widely used roughness factor models. This is consistent with a recent numerical study of the effect of random roughness on conductor loss. The data also show that, for thin substrates, increasing the conductor profile substantially slows the effective velocity of propagation and also increases dispersion, independent of the composition of the dielectric material. Measurements are compared with results from a new conductor model as used in a 3-D planar EM analysis that includes an excess inductance related to the conductor profile. It is shown that this accounts quantitatively for both the insertion loss and phase constant effects. © 2010 IEEE.


Souid B.,Sonnet Software | Arvas S.,Sonnet Software
2011 30th URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, URSIGASS 2011 | Year: 2011

The use of Monte Carlo samples of interpolated data from a linearly spaced grid of electromagnetic simulation data for yield analysis is investigated. The motivation for this approach stems from a desire to have accurate yield metrics without the need to fabricate a large number of circuits or run a large number of full wave simulations. A means to estimate circuit yield values with relatively little computational effort is presented. A Wilkinson power divider designed with Sonnet's electromagnetic simulation engine, em, is provided as a simple example. © 2011 IEEE.

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