Sonic Mill

Albuquerque, NM, United States

Sonic Mill

Albuquerque, NM, United States

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Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.,Kansas State University | Wang Q.G.,Dalian University of Technology | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
International Journal of Manufacturing Research | Year: 2010

Stainless steels have a variety of engineering applications and have been machined using many processes. The composite/steel stacks are used increasingly in new generations of aircraft industry, presenting new challenges in drilling holes in these stacks. It has been reported that Rotary Ultrasonic Machining (RUM) could drill composite materials effectively. The feasibility to use RUM to drill stainless steel was also reported. However, there is no report on systematic study on effects of different machining variables in RUM of stainless steel. This paper presents an experimental study on RUM of stainless steels. Cutting force, torque and surface roughness in RUM of stainless steels have been investigated using different machining variables (including spindle speed, feedrate and ultrasonic power). Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Srivastava A.,TechSolve Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasonics | Year: 2012

Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are very difficult to machine. A large number of holes need to be drilled in CFRP for many applications. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective drilling processes. CFRP has been drilled by rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) successfully. The literature has reports about the effects of input variables on output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, tool wear, and workpiece delamination) in RUM of CFRP. However, there are no reports on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. This paper reports the first study on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. It reports an experimental investigation on effects of input variables (ultrasonic power, tool rotation speed, feedrate, and type of CFRP) on power consumption of each component (including ultrasonic power supply, spindle motor, coolant pump, and air compressor) and the entire RUM system. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Liu D.F.,Central South University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) has been successfully used to drill Ti (titanium and its alloy), CFRP, and CFRP/Ti stacks. In all studies on RUM reported in the literature, feedrate was fixed during each experimental test. It has been shown that low feedrate should be used for RUM of Ti, but RUM of CFRP could be done using feedrate 10 times higher. This paper, for the first time, reports a study on RUM of CFRP/Ti stacks using variable feedrate (high feedrate for CFRP and low feedrate for Ti). It also makes comparisons on RUM of CFRP/Ti stacks using fixed and variable feedrate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2011

Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are in demand for a variety of applications due to their superior properties. Drilling is involved in many CFRP applications. Experiments have been successfully conducted to use rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) for CFRP drilling. These experiments were conducted using either cutting fluids or cold air as coolant. RUM of CFRP composites without cutting fluids can eliminate problems caused by cutting fluids, such as high cost of cutting fluids and their disposal, pollution to the environment, and harm to human health. However, dry machining (machining without cutting fluids) also has its limitations, such as burning of machined surface, more friction and adhesion between tool and workpiece, and reduction in tool life. This article presents an experimental study on feasible regions in rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP using cold air as coolant. Three criteria (burning of machined surface, delamination, and tool blockage) were used to determine feasible regions. Each of four input variables (feedrate, tool rotation speed, ultrasonic power, and cold air pressure) was changed over a wide range so that its feasible region could be found. © The Author(s) 2011.


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Feng Q.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Journal of Composite Materials | Year: 2012

Drilling is involved in many applications of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) has been successfully employed to drill holes in CFRP using either cutting fluid or cold air as coolant. However, there are no reported studies to compare the results in RUM of CFRP using these two types of coolant. This article, for the first time, presents an experimental study to compare cutting force, torque, surface roughness, burning of machined surface, and tool wear in RUM of CFRP using these two types of coolant. This study will result in knowledge about machining conditions under which it is feasible to use cold air instead of cutting fluid and differences in machined hole quality produced using cold air vs. cutting fluid. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/ journalsPermissions.nav.


Cong W.L.,Texas Tech University | Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Ultrasonics | Year: 2014

Reported drilling methods for CFRP/Ti stacks include twist drilling, end milling, core grinding, and their derived methods. The literature does not have any report on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). This paper, for the first time, reports a study on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM. It also compares results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM with reported results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using other methods. When drilling CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM, cutting force, torque, and CFRP surface roughness were lower, hole size variation was smaller, CFRP groove depth was smaller, tool life was longer, and there was no obvious Ti exit burr and CFRP entrance delamination. Ti surface roughness when drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM was about the same as those when using other methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Feng Q.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2012

Drilling is involved in many applications of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composite. Twist drilling is widely used in industry. Rotary ultrasonic machining has been successfully tested to drill holes in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. However, there are no reports on comparisons between rotary ultrasonic machining and twist drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. This paper compares rotary ultrasonic machining and twist drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in six aspects (cutting force, torque, surface roughness, delamination, tool life, and material remove rate). Experimental results show that rotary ultrasonic machining is superior in almost all these aspects. © 2012 The Author(s).


Cong W.L.,Kansas State University | Feng Q.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME | Year: 2011

Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) has been used to machine various difficult-to-machine materials. Investigations have been reported regarding effects of input variables on several output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, edge chipping, material removal rate, and tool wear) in RUM. However, there is no report on any study on cutting temperature in RUM. This paper presents an experimental study on cutting temperature in RUM using titanium as workpiece material. Results show that cutting temperature with ultrasonic vibration was lower than that without ultrasonic vibration. Higher feedrate and lower coolant flow rate caused higher cutting temperature.


Zhang M.,Kansas State University | Song X.X.,Kansas State University | Pei Z.J.,Kansas State University | Deines T.W.,Kansas State University | Treadwell C.,Sonic Mill
International Journal of Manufacturing Research | Year: 2012

Energy security, economy, environment sustainability are all driving the USA to develop alternative liquid transportation fuels that are domestically produced and environmental friendly. Bioethanol produced from cellulosic biomass can significantly reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transportation section. However, significant hurdles must be overcome for cost-effective manufacturing of cellulosic bioethanol. Cellulosic feedstocks have a low bulk density, causing high costs in transportation and storage. To address this problem, this paper reports an experimental investigation on ultrasonic-vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting of wheat straw. Results show that pellet density and durability were greatly improved with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


PubMed | Sonic Mill, Kansas State University and Texas Tech University
Type: | Journal: Ultrasonics | Year: 2016

Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been intensively used in various industries due to their superior properties. In aircraft and aerospace industry, a large number of holes are required to be drilled into CFRP components at final stage for aircraft assembling. There are two major types of methods for hole making of CFRP composites in industry, twist drilling and its derived multi-points machining methods, and grinding and its related methods. The first type of methods are commonly used in hole making of CFRP composites. However, in recent years, rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid machining process combining ultrasonic machining and grinding, has also been successfully used in drilling of CFRP composites. It has been shown that RUM is superior to twist drilling in many aspects. However, there are no reported investigations on comparisons between RUM and grinding in drilling of CFRP. In this paper, these two drilling methods are compared in five aspects, including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, hole diameter, and material removal rate.

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