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Tachikawa, Japan

Miyazaki S.,Japan National Institute of Polar Research | Miyazaki S.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Miyazaki S.,Sonic Corporation | Saito K.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | And 34 more authors.
Geoscientific Model Development | Year: 2015

As part of the terrestrial branch of the Japan-funded Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA), which aims to clarify the role and function of the terrestrial Arctic in the climate system and assess the influence of its changes on a global scale, this model intercomparison project (GTMIP) is designed to (1) enhance communication and understanding between the modelling and field scientists and (2) assess the uncertainty and variations stemming from variability in model implementation/design and in model outputs using climatic and historical conditions in the Arctic terrestrial regions. This paper provides an overview of all GTMIP activity, and the experiment protocol of Stage 1, which is site simulations driven by statistically fitted data created using the GRENE-TEA site observations for the last 3 decades. The target metrics for the model evaluation cover key processes in both physics and biogeochemistry, including energy budgets, snow, permafrost, phenology, and carbon budgets. Exemplary results for distributions of four metrics (annual mean latent heat flux, annual maximum snow depth, gross primary production, and net ecosystem production) and for seasonal transitions are provided to give an outlook of the planned analysis that will delineate the inter-dependence among the key processes and provide clues for improving model performance. © Author(s) 2015.


Horiguchi M.,Kyoto University | Hayashi T.,Kyoto University | Hashiguchi H.,Kyoto University | Ito Y.,Sonic Corporation | Ueda H.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

Turbulence structures of high Reynolds number flow in the near-neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are investigated based on observations at Shionomisaki and Shigaraki, Japan. A Doppler sodar measured the vertical profiles of winds in the ABL. Using the integral wavelet transform for the time series of surface wind data, the pattern of a descending high-speed structure with large vertical extent (from the surface to more than 200-m level) is depicted from the Doppler sodar data. Essentially this structure is a specific type of coherent structure that has been previously shown in experiments on turbulent boundary-layer flows. Large-scale high-speed structures in the ABL are extracted using a long time scale (240 s) for the wavelet transform. The non-dimensional interval of time between structures is evaluated as 3.0-6.2 in most cases. These structures make a large contribution to downward momentum transfer in the surface layer. Quadrant analyses of the turbulent motion measured by the sonic anemometer (20-m height) suggest that the sweep motion (high-speed downward motion) plays a substantial role in the downward momentum transfer. In general, the contribution of sweep motions to the momentum flux is nearly equal to that of ejection motions (low-speed upward motions). This contribution of sweep motions is related to the large-scale high-speed structures. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Tamaki M.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Tamaki S.,University of Ryukyus | Ito Y.,Sonic Corporation | Touma T.,Takunanshinsen Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wind Engineering | Year: 2010

Performance of the uneven dual-screen windbreak (UDSW) to protect agricultural products from the strong wind was tested when the typhoon 0310 attacked Okinawa. The test area surrounded by the UDSW is located on a plateau near a cliff. Wind speed was measured by ultrasonic anemometers at 6m high from the ground outside of the test area and 3m and 6m high inside. The relations between the distance from the cliff edge and the average wind speed were indicated a quadratic function of the distance in the range of 400m from the edge. These calculated data by a quadratic function were compared with the measured data. The wind speed at 28m leeward from the UDSW was reduced by 25% at a height of 6m, and that at 90m leeward was reduced by 17%. The wind speed ratio at a height of 3m to 6m was increased with distance from the UDSW about 0.83 to 0.92.


Trademark
Sonic Co. | Date: 2013-10-02

clothing for children or babies, namely, dresses, suits, jackets, shirts, T-shirts, blouses, sweaters, vests, pants, slacks, jeans, overalls, sweat pants, shorts, bottoms, skirts, hats, caps, bandanas, scarves, neckties, mufflers, pullovers, socks, stockings, gloves; belts for clothing; footwear.


Trademark
Sonic Co. | Date: 2013-10-02

clothing for children or babies, namely, dresses, suits, jackets, shirts, T-shirts, blouses, sweaters, vests, pants, slacks, jeans, overalls, sweat pants, shorts, bottoms, skirts, hats, caps, bandanas, scarves, neckties, mufflers, pullovers, socks, stockings, gloves; belts for clothing; footwear.

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