SOLVO Biotechnology

Szeged, Hungary

SOLVO Biotechnology

Szeged, Hungary

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Klukovits A.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,SOLVO Biotechnology
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Introduction: The ATP-binding cassette transporters are among the largest transmembrane protein families in humans and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. By promoting outward transport, they protect cells from the accumulation of undesirable substrates. This protection might lead to suboptimal concentration of chemotherapeutics in the tumor cells, resulting in therapy resistance and poor disease prognosis. In the past decades, a considerable effort was made to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR).Areas covered: We briefly summarize the present knowledge on the clinical efficacy of MDR reversing agents in various types of cancer and discuss their availability in a non-cancerous disease (rheumatoid arthritis). The classical and novel pharmacological approaches directly inhibiting the transporters' function and their extensive investigations in human clinical studies are also mentioned. Furthermore, the article highlights the methodological concerns raised by these investigations.Expert opinion: The development of chemotherapeutics lacking transporter-inducing effects, gene therapy approaches, nanomedicinal formulations and the identification of natural compounds to modulate transporter function are intriguing but face serious delivery challenges. Understanding and mapping molecular mechanisms of drug resistance will make it easier to design clinical treatment regimes that avoid escalation of MDR, by utilizing collateral sensitivity. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Kis E.,Solvo Biotechnology
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2012

Bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABC11) is a membrane protein that is localized in the cholesterol-rich canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its function is to eliminate unconjugated and conjugated bile acids/salts from hepatocyte into the bile. In humans there is no compensatory mechanism for the loss of this transporter. Mutations of BSEP result in a genetic disease, called progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), that is characterized with decreased biliary bile salt secretion, leading to decreased bile flow and accumulation of bile salts inside the hepatocyte, inflicting damage. BSEP inhibitor drugs produce similar bile salt retention that may lead to severe cholestasis and liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a relevant clinical issue, in severe cases ending in liver transplantation. Therefore, measurement of BSEP inhibition by candidate drugs has high importance in drug discovery and development. Although several methods are suitable to detect BSEP-drug interactions, due to interspecies differences in bile acid composition, differences in hepatobiliary transporter modulation, they have limitations. This review summarizes appropriate in vitro methods that could be able to predict BSEP-drug candidate interactions in humans before the start of clinical phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jani M.,Solvo Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,Solvo Biotechnology
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies | Year: 2014

Drug transporter proteins recruit to pharmacological barrier tissues and profoundly affect the ADME properties of a large number of drugs. In vitro assays optimized for drug transporters have grown into routine tools in the determination of molecular level interactions as well as prediction of barrier penetration and system level pharmacokinetics. Regulatory position mandates increasing interest in the application of these assays during drug development. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Marki-Zay J.,Solvo Biotechnology | Jakab K.T.,Solvo Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,Solvo Biotechnology | Szeremy P.,Solvo Biotechnology
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2013

MDR-ABC transporters are widely expressed in cell types relevant to pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports demonstrate the interaction of small molecule drugs with MDR-ABC transporters. Cell-based assays for disease relevant cell types can be easily gated and could reveal specific drug targets and may increase significance and utilisation of data in clinical practice. Many commonly used DMARDs (e.g. methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide/ teriflunomide, hydroxychloroquine) are ABCG2 substrates. Consequently, the activity of this transporter in patients should be determined to understand the disposition and pharmacokinetics of the therapy. In addition, MDR-ABC transporters transport a variety of endobiotics that play important roles in cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, MDR-ABC transporters are important biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2013.

Jani M.,Solvo Biotechnology | Ambrus C.,Solvo Biotechnology | Magnan R.,Solvo Biotechnology | Jakab K.T.,Solvo Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2014

The discovery and characterization of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) as an efflux transporter conferring multidrug resistance has set off a remarkable trajectory in the understanding of its role in physiology and disease. While the relevance in drug resistance and general pharmacokinetic properties quickly became apparent, the lack of a characteristic phenotype in genetically impaired animals and humans cast doubt on the physiological importance of this ATP-binding cassette family member, similarly to fellow multidrug transporters, despite well-known endogenous substrates. Later, high-performance genetic analyses and fine resolution tissue expression data forayed into unexpected territories concerning BCRP relevance, and ultimately, the rise of quantitative proteomics allows putting observed interactions into absolute frameworks for modeling and insight into interindividual and species differences. This overview summarizes existing knowledge on the BCRP transporter on molecular, tissue and system level, both in physiology and disease, and describes a selection of experimental procedures that are the most widely applied for the identification and characterization of substrate and inhibitor-type interactions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Jemnitz K.,Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry | Heredi-Szabo K.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Janossy J.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Ioja E.,SOLVO Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2010

ABCC2/Abcc2 (MRP2/Mrp2) is expressed at major physiological barriers, such as the canalicular membrane of liver cells, kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, enterocytes of the small and large intestine, and syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta. ABCC2/Abcc2 always localizes in the apical membranes. Although ABCC2/Abcc2 transports a variety of amphiphilic anions that belong to different classes of molecules, such as endogenous compounds (e.g., bilirubin- glucuronides), drugs, toxic chemicals, nutraceuticals, and their conjugates, it displays a preference for phase II conjugates. Phenotypically, the most obvious consequence of mutations in ABCC2 that lead to Dubin-Johnson syndrome is conjugate hyperbilirubinemia. ABCC2/Abcc2 harbors multiple binding sites and displays complex transport kinetics. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Krajcsi P.,Solvo Biotechnology | Jani M.,Solvo Biotechnology | Toth B.,Solvo Biotechnology | Erdo F.,Solvo Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Introduction: Sufficient brain exposure is crucial to the success of CNS drugs. The twofold greater attrition rate in clinical development of CNS drugs over the respective attrition rate of non-CNS drugs is due to lack of efficacy. It is generally thought that poor brain exposure is at least partly responsible for this, as the concentrationtime profile at the brain target site is critical for efficacy. Efflux transporters in the bloodbrain interfaces play a crucial role in modulation of permeability of drugs across these interfaces. Validation of preclinical tools to correctly predict brain exposure in humans is essential. Areas covered: This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo tools to detect and characterize interactions of drugs with efflux transporters relevant to bloodbrain interfaces. Furthermore, the article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and the limitations of their application, in addition to covering in vitro in vivo correlations. Expert opinion: A more detailed validation of in vitro efflux transporter assays employing primary brain endothelial cultures is needed. This should go along with mapping uptake transporters expressed in the bloodbrain interfaces. With the availability of specific inhibitors, utilization of in vivo methods such as brain microdialysis is increasing. Once transporter-humanized mice are available, we may witness a further increase in applications of in vivo methods. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Heredi-Szabo K.,Solvo Biotechnology | Kis E.,Solvo Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,Solvo Biotechnology
Current Protocols in Toxicology | Year: 2012

The canalicular membrane of hepatocytes contains several transport proteins that use the energy of ATP to efflux potentially toxic molecules to the bile. Probably the two most important proteins at this location are MRP2 and BSEP, which transport phase II conjugates of xenobiotics and endobiotics and conjugated bile salts, respectively. The impaired function of either of these transporter proteins reduces the clearance of the toxic conjugates, resulting in their accumulation in the hepatocytes and eventually the plasma. Conjugated bile salts and phase II metabolites are compounds with low passive permeability; therefore, the most commonly used test system to investigate MRP2-and BSEP-mediated transport processes is the vesicular transport assay. The concentration of probe substrates and inhibitors used in the experiment is close to their free concentration in the hepatocytes, providing an advantage when calculating kinetic parameters (Km, Ki, Vmax). The protocols aim to assist scientists to set up a transport assay for a known or potential substrate and test small molecule inhibition of the transporters. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Szabo M.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Veres Z.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Batai-Konczos A.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Kekesi O.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2014

Several studies have reported that statins occasionally cause impairment of liver functions characterized by elevated serum bilirubin levels, which might be due to altered function of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp2/3). We aimed to study the modulation of the hepatobiliary transport of bilirubin by four statin derivatives, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. All statins except pravastatin significantly inhibited the uptake of bilirubin. The biliary efflux of bilirubin conjugates was increased by pravastatin and rosuvastatin concentration dependently. Rosuvastatin stimulated not only the Mrp2 mediated biliary, but the Mrp3 mediated sinusoidal elimination, resulting in decreased intracellular bilirubin accumulation. The significantly induced Mrp2/3 protein levels (ranging from 1.5 to 1.8-fold) accounted for the elevated efflux. Cell polarization, the formation of biliary network was also significantly increased by fluvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin (151%, 216% and 275% of the control, respectively). The simultaneous inhibition of the uptake and the stimulation of the sinusoidal and canalicular elimination may explain, at least in part, the clinical observation of elevated serum bilirubin levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that in spite of the elevated serum bilirubin levels, the altered Mrp2 and Mrp3 functions by statins is probably not associated with hepatotoxic effects. © 2014.

PubMed | Solvo Biotechnology and Debrecen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: EJIFCC | Year: 2016

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an unwanted phenomenon, that may cause therapy failure in several neoplasms including hematological malignancies. The purpose of any type of laboratory MDR assay is to reliably identify such patients and to provide useful data to clinicians with a relatively short turnaround time. MDR can be multicausal and several previous data identified a group of transmembrane proteins - the ATP-binding casette (ABC) proteins - that may be involved in MDR in various hematological malignancies. The prototype of these proteins is the P-glycoprotein (Pgp, MDR1, ABCB1) that is a seven-membrane spanning transmembrane protein capable of extruding several cytotoxic drugs that are of key importance in the treatment of hematological disorders. Similarly other ABC proteins - Multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) are both capable of pumping out cytotoxic drugs. Here, we present flow cytometric methods to identify MDR proteins by antigen and activity assays. The advantage of flow technology is the short turnaround time and its relative easiness compared to nucleic acid based technologies. However, for the activity assays, it should be noted, that these functional tests require live cells, thus adequate results can only be provided if the specimen transport can be completed within 6 hours of sample collection. Identification of MDR proteins provides prognostic information and may modulate therapy, thus signifies a clinically useful information in the evaluation of patients with leukemias.

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