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Szeged, Hungary

Kis E.,SOLVO Biotechnology
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2012

Bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABC11) is a membrane protein that is localized in the cholesterol-rich canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its function is to eliminate unconjugated and conjugated bile acids/salts from hepatocyte into the bile. In humans there is no compensatory mechanism for the loss of this transporter. Mutations of BSEP result in a genetic disease, called progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), that is characterized with decreased biliary bile salt secretion, leading to decreased bile flow and accumulation of bile salts inside the hepatocyte, inflicting damage. BSEP inhibitor drugs produce similar bile salt retention that may lead to severe cholestasis and liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a relevant clinical issue, in severe cases ending in liver transplantation. Therefore, measurement of BSEP inhibition by candidate drugs has high importance in drug discovery and development. Although several methods are suitable to detect BSEP-drug interactions, due to interspecies differences in bile acid composition, differences in hepatobiliary transporter modulation, they have limitations. This review summarizes appropriate in vitro methods that could be able to predict BSEP-drug candidate interactions in humans before the start of clinical phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jani M.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,SOLVO Biotechnology
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies | Year: 2014

Drug transporter proteins recruit to pharmacological barrier tissues and profoundly affect the ADME properties of a large number of drugs. In vitro assays optimized for drug transporters have grown into routine tools in the determination of molecular level interactions as well as prediction of barrier penetration and system level pharmacokinetics. Regulatory position mandates increasing interest in the application of these assays during drug development. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Klukovits A.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,SOLVO Biotechnology
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Introduction: The ATP-binding cassette transporters are among the largest transmembrane protein families in humans and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. By promoting outward transport, they protect cells from the accumulation of undesirable substrates. This protection might lead to suboptimal concentration of chemotherapeutics in the tumor cells, resulting in therapy resistance and poor disease prognosis. In the past decades, a considerable effort was made to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR).Areas covered: We briefly summarize the present knowledge on the clinical efficacy of MDR reversing agents in various types of cancer and discuss their availability in a non-cancerous disease (rheumatoid arthritis). The classical and novel pharmacological approaches directly inhibiting the transporters' function and their extensive investigations in human clinical studies are also mentioned. Furthermore, the article highlights the methodological concerns raised by these investigations.Expert opinion: The development of chemotherapeutics lacking transporter-inducing effects, gene therapy approaches, nanomedicinal formulations and the identification of natural compounds to modulate transporter function are intriguing but face serious delivery challenges. Understanding and mapping molecular mechanisms of drug resistance will make it easier to design clinical treatment regimes that avoid escalation of MDR, by utilizing collateral sensitivity. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Heredi-Szabo K.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Kis E.,SOLVO Biotechnology | Krajcsi P.,SOLVO Biotechnology
Current Protocols in Toxicology | Year: 2012

The canalicular membrane of hepatocytes contains several transport proteins that use the energy of ATP to efflux potentially toxic molecules to the bile. Probably the two most important proteins at this location are MRP2 and BSEP, which transport phase II conjugates of xenobiotics and endobiotics and conjugated bile salts, respectively. The impaired function of either of these transporter proteins reduces the clearance of the toxic conjugates, resulting in their accumulation in the hepatocytes and eventually the plasma. Conjugated bile salts and phase II metabolites are compounds with low passive permeability; therefore, the most commonly used test system to investigate MRP2-and BSEP-mediated transport processes is the vesicular transport assay. The concentration of probe substrates and inhibitors used in the experiment is close to their free concentration in the hepatocytes, providing an advantage when calculating kinetic parameters (Km, Ki, Vmax). The protocols aim to assist scientists to set up a transport assay for a known or potential substrate and test small molecule inhibition of the transporters. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Source


Szabo M.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Veres Z.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Batai-Konczos A.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | Kekesi O.,Institute of Molecular Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2014

Several studies have reported that statins occasionally cause impairment of liver functions characterized by elevated serum bilirubin levels, which might be due to altered function of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp2/3). We aimed to study the modulation of the hepatobiliary transport of bilirubin by four statin derivatives, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. All statins except pravastatin significantly inhibited the uptake of bilirubin. The biliary efflux of bilirubin conjugates was increased by pravastatin and rosuvastatin concentration dependently. Rosuvastatin stimulated not only the Mrp2 mediated biliary, but the Mrp3 mediated sinusoidal elimination, resulting in decreased intracellular bilirubin accumulation. The significantly induced Mrp2/3 protein levels (ranging from 1.5 to 1.8-fold) accounted for the elevated efflux. Cell polarization, the formation of biliary network was also significantly increased by fluvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin (151%, 216% and 275% of the control, respectively). The simultaneous inhibition of the uptake and the stimulation of the sinusoidal and canalicular elimination may explain, at least in part, the clinical observation of elevated serum bilirubin levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that in spite of the elevated serum bilirubin levels, the altered Mrp2 and Mrp3 functions by statins is probably not associated with hepatotoxic effects. © 2014. Source

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