Dobbelin M.,Center for Electrochemical Technologies |
Azcune I.,Center for Electrochemical Technologies |
Bedu M.,SOLVIONIC |
Ruiz De Luzuriaga A.,Center for Electrochemical Technologies |
And 5 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2012
The synthesis and characterization of a new family of pyrrolidinium based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) electrolytes with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) pendant groups is reported. The PILs were synthesized from a diallyl methyl amine hydrochloride monomer, which was obtained in large quantities using a modified Eschweiler-Clarke reaction. As additional plasticizers for the PILs, pyrrolidinium ionic liquids (ILs), also with PEG groups, were synthesized. All obtained PILs and ILs revealed excellent thermal stabilities to greater than 300°C. Binary electrolyte mixtures were prepared by blending the PILs and ILs in different weight ratios. In addition, a ternary mixture of the best performing PIL and IL and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI) was prepared. The obtained electrolyte blends showed very good ionic conductivities in the best case up to 2.4 mS cm -1 at 25 °C and 10.2 mS cm -1 at 100 °C and outperformed their pyrrolidinium counterparts with alkyl side chain that were synthesized as a reference. It was found that the ionic conductivity of the blends increased with an increase in the PEG chain length of the PILs. The good physicochemical properties of the presented materials make them potential candidates for electrochemical applications such as lithium-ion batteries or dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Binetti E.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes |
Panniello A.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes |
Tommasi R.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes |
Tommasi R.,University of Bari |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013
Semiconductor nanocrystals and room-temperature ionic liquids have been extensively investigated as promising materials for applications in the field of energy conversion and storage. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are unquestionably the most used material for the fabrication of sensitized solar cells and batteries, in which room-temperature ionic liquids have been used to replace conventional electrolytes. The study of their interactions is, therefore, undoubtedly of large scientific and technological interest for their implementation in innovative energy devices. Here, a spectroscopic study focused on the interactions, in terms of charge and/or energy transfer, between titanium dioxide nanorods and imidazolium-based ionic liquids is reported. Anatase TiO2 rodlike nanocrystals, synthesized by means of a colloidal synthetic procedure, have been dispersed at increasing loading in a series of dialkyl-substituted imidazolium-based ionic liquids, characterized by different anions and alkyl chain lengths. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements have highlighted a significant increase of the photoluminescence decay times in the presence of TiO2 nanorods. This increase has been shown to directly depend on TiO2 load and has been ascribed to charge-transfer phenomena from photoexcited TiO2 nanorods to imidazolium rings of ionic liquids. The obtained results are of considerable interest for designing batteries and solar cells based on nanostructured materials and ionic liquids. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Chiappe C.,University of Pisa |
Malvaldi M.,University of Pisa |
Melai B.,University of Pisa |
Fantini S.,Solvionic |
And 2 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010
A simple strategy has been reported to prepare new ionic liquids with binary systems of organic-inorganic cations exploiting the common ion effect, i.e. dissolving metal salts with organic or inorganic anions (bistriflylimide or nitrate) in ionic liquids bearing the same anions. The resulting concentrated solutions of metal cations in ionic environments, which may have great potential for electrochemical processes, have been characterized by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Azaceta E.,Cidetec |
Chavhan S.,Cidetec |
Rossi P.,Centro Ricerche Fiat |
Paderi M.,Centro Ricerche Fiat |
And 5 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012
NiO thin films have been successfully deposited by cathodic electrochemical deposition in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifloromethanesulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid (IL), giving an unambiguous proof of concept of the metal oxide electrodeposition in aprotic ILs without metal hydroxide formation as an intermediate phase. The electrochemical phenomena involved in the deposition process have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, pointing out that the electrochemical reduction of Ni 2+ may be quenched in oxygenated IL electrolytes. The physico-chemical properties of the obtained NiO thin films have been characterized by electron scanning and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared X-ray photo-electron spectroscopies. By taking advantage of the present electrodeposition route, ZnO/NiO heterostructures have been built. The current density-voltage characteristic of the resulting device exhibits clear rectifying behavior, with a rectification factor of 3 × 10 3 at V=±1V. This result anticipates a significant potential of the present electrochemical route in the metal oxide electronics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tunckol M.,ENSIACET |
Fantini S.,Solvionic |
Malbosc F.,Solvionic |
Durand J.,ENSIACET |
Carbon | Year: 2013
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been non covalently functionalized with various imidazolium-based polymerized ionic liquids (PILs). Two functionalization methods, starting from ionic liquid (IL) monomers containing a vinyl group, have been explored: a simple solution mixing of MWCNTs and PILs and the in situ polymerization. The resulting hybrid materials have been characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential measurement, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and their dispersibility in various solvents has been evaluated to access the effect of the functionalization. The particle size analysis of MWCNTs/PILs agglomerates in various solvents is also reported. The in situ method allows a homogeneous coating of the MWCNT surface and thus a better dispersion of the nanotubes. The solution mixing method, for which diffusion limitations of the PILs into MWCNT aggregates should exist, does not allow a uniform surface functionalization. Finally, with protic IL monomers showing a tendency for hydrogen bonding, we have produced stable CNT/PIL organo- or hydrogel composites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Azaceta E.,Cidetec |
Marcilla R.,Cidetec |
Mecerreyes D.,Cidetec |
Ungureanu M.,CIC Biomagune |
And 6 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011
The influence of the Zn2+ concentration and temperature on the electrochemical reduction of O2 in a solution of zinc bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Zn(TFSI)2) salt in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 14TFSI) ionic liquid is presented. ZnO nanocrystalline films were then electrodeposited, under enhanced O2 reduction, at temperatures in the 75-150 °C range. Their morphology, chemical composition, structural and optical properties were analyzed. In contrast to the polar-oriented ZnO usually obtained from aqueous and conventional solvent based electrolytes, nanocrystalline films oriented along non-polar directions, (111̄0) and (112̄0), were obtained from this ionic liquid electrolyte. A significant content of carbon was detected in the films, pointing to the active participation and crucial effect of pyrrolidinium cation (and/or byproducts) during the electrodeposition. The films showed semiconducting behavior with an optical gap between 3.43 and 3.53 eV as measured by optical transmittance. Their room temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibited two different bands centered at ∼3.4 and ∼2.2 eV. The intensity ratio between both bands was found to depend on the deposition temperature. This work demonstrates the great potential of ionic liquids based electrolytes for the electrodeposition of ZnO nanocrystalline thin films with innovative microstructural and optoelectronic properties. © the Owner Societies 2011.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-17-2014 | Award Amount: 6.90M | Year: 2015
ALISE is a pan European collaboration focused on the development and commercial scale-up of new materials and on the understanding of the electrochemical processes involved in the lithium sulphur technology. It aims to create impact by developing innovative battery technology capable of fulfilling the expected and characteristics from European Automotive Industry needs, European Materials Roadmap, Social factors from vehicle consumers and future competitiveness trends and European Companies positioning. The project is focused to achieve 500 Wh/Kg stable LiS cell. The project involves dedicated durability, testing and LCA activities that will make sure the safety and adequate cyclability of battery being developed and available at competitive cost. Initial materials research will be scaled up during the project so that pilot scale quantities of the new materials will be introduced into the novel cell designs thus giving the following advancements over the current state of the art. The project approach will bring real breakthrough regarding new components, cell integration and architecture associated. New materials will be developed and optimized regarding anode, cathode, electrolyte and separator. Complete panels of specific tools and modelling associated will be developed from the unit cell to the batteries pack. Activities are focused on the elaboration of new materials and processes at TRL4. Demonstration of the lithium sulphur technology will be until batteries pack levels with validation onboard. Validation of prototype (17 kWh) with its driving range corresponding (100 km) will be done on circuit. ALISE is more than a linear bottom-up approach from materials to cell. ALISE shows strong resources to achieve a stable unit cell, with a supplementary top-down approach from the final application to the optimization of the unit cell.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-13-2014 | Award Amount: 7.22M | Year: 2015
The overall objective of the ALION project is to develop aluminium-ion battery technology for energy storage application in decentralised electricity generation sources. ALION pursues an integral approach comprising electroactive materials based on rocking chair mechanism, robust ionic liquid-based electrolytes as well as novel cell and battery concepts, finally resulting in a technology with much lower cost, improved performance, safety and reliability with respect to current energy storage solutions (e.g. Pumped hydro storage, Compressed air energy storage, Li-ion battery, Redox Flow Battery...). The project covers the whole value chain from materials and component manufacturers, battery assembler, until the technology validation in specific electric microgrid system including renewable energy source (i.e. mini wind turbine, photovoltaic system). Thus, the final objective of this project is to obtain an Al-ion battery module validated in a relevant environment, with a specific energy of 400 W.h/kg, a voltage of 48V and a cycle life of 3000 cycles.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-17-2014 | Award Amount: 7.97M | Year: 2015
Lithium sulphur batteries (LSB) are viable candidate for commercialisation among all post Li-ion battery technologies due to their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. Despites many efforts, there are remaining issues that need to be solved and this will provide final direction of LSB technological development. Some of technological aspects, like development of host matrices, interactions of host matrix with polysulphides and interactions between sulphur and electrolyte have been successfully developed within Eurolis project. Open porosity of the cathode, interactions between host matrices and polysulphides and proper solvatation of polysulphides turned to be important for complete utilisation of sulphur, however with this approach didnt result long term cycling. Additionally we showed that effective separation between electrodes enables stable cycling with excellent coulombic efficiency. The remaining issues are mainly connected with a stability of lithium anode during cycling, with engineering of complete cell and with questions about LSB cells implementation into commercial products (ageing, safety, recycling, battery packs). Instability of lithium metal in most of conventional electrolytes and formation of dendrites due to uneven distribution of lithium upon the deposition cause several difficulties. Safety problems connected with dendrites and low coulombic efficiency with a constant increase of inner resistance due to electrolyte degradation represent main technological challenges. From this point of view, stabilisation of lithium metal will have an impact on safety issues. Stabilised interface layer is important from view of engineering of cathode composite and separator porosity since this is important parameter for electrolyte accommodation and volume expansion adjustment. Finally the mechanism of LSB ageing can determine the practical applicability of LSB in different applications.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2017
MAGENTA proposes a brand new technological path in thermoelectric materials research for waste-heat recovery applications. The originality of the project is based on the newly discovered thermal-to-electric energy conversion capacity of ionic-liquids and ferrofluids; i.e., colloidal dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles in ionic liquids (IL-FFs). It is an inter-disciplinary and cross-sector R&D project combining concepts and techniques from physics, chemistry and electrochemistry with an active participation from 3 SME and 1 industrial partners implicated in the materials supply-chain, the device design/performance and the market-uptake assessment. Both experimental and theoretical approaches will be employed to build foundational knowledge on novel magneto-thermoelectric phenomena in ferrofluids. Computational simulations will allow bottom-up construction of IL-FFs with optimal conditions for harvesting energy. The end-products of MAGENTA, application specific magneto-thermoelectric materials and devices, will provide innovation leadership to European companies in waste-heat recovery industries. The lead-user industries targeted by MAGENTA are automobile and microelectronic sectors, but demonstration-type thermoelectric generators will also be produced for public outreach actions on waste-heat recovery technologies. Through its foundational, interdisciplinary and cross-sector research & innovation actions, the consortium will become a seed community for building an innovation ecosystem around the novel magneto-thermoelectric technology, presenting long-term impacts on future renewal energy science and technology from which the society as a whole can benefit. Withal, MAGENTA offers breakthrough thermoelectric materials that are versatile, cost-effective and non-toxic to assist the economically and environmentally sustainable energy transition in Europe.