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Hafnarfjörður, Iceland

Hrafnkelsson H.,University of Iceland | Magnusson K.T.,University of Iceland | Thorsdottir I.,University of Iceland | Johannsson E.,University of Iceland | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care | Year: 2014

To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

Hrafnkelsson H.,University of Iceland | Hrafnkelsson H.,Seltjarnarnes Health Care Center | Sigurdsson G.,University of Iceland | Sigurdsson G.,Reykjavik University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2013

The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan.

Hauksson H.H.,Solvangur Health Care Center | Hrafnkelsson H.,Seltjarnarnes Health Care Center | Hrafnkelsson H.,University of Iceland | Magnusson K.T.,University of Iceland | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2015

The importance of vitamin D for children’s bone health has been well established, but the effects of less severe deficiency are not fully known. The main objective of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of Icelandic children at the age of 7, and again at 9 years of age, and the association of vitamin D status with bone mineral content and bone accrual over 2 years. We invited 321 children to participate in this study, and 267 (83 %) took part; 211 (79 %) underwent a DXA scan and 164 were again scanned 2 years later; 159 (60 %) vitamin D samples were measured and 119 (75 %) were measured again 2 years later. At age 7, 65 % of the children had vitamin D concentrations <50 nmol/l, and at age 9 this figure was 60 %. At age 7, 43 % of the children had insufficient amounts of vitamin D (37.5–50 nmol/l), and 22 % had a vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/l). In linear regression analysis, no association was found between vitamin D and bone mineral content. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bone accrual over 2 years for the children with insufficient or deficient vitamin D at both ages, compared to those having more than 50 nmol/l at both time points. More than 60 % of Icelandic children have inadequate concentrations of vitamin D in serum repeatedly over a 2-year interval. However, vitamin D in the range did not have a significant effect on bone mineral content or accrual at ages 7 and 9. © 2015 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan

Erlingsdottir A.,University of Iceland | Erlingsdottir A.,Gardabaer Health Care Center | Sigurdsson E.L.,University of Iceland | Sigurdsson E.L.,Solvangur Health Care Center | And 5 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care | Year: 2014

Objective. To study the prevalence and possible predictors for smoking during pregnancy in Iceland. Design. A cross-sectional study. Setting. Twenty-six primary health care centres in Iceland 2009-2010. Subjects. Women attending antenatal care in the 11th-16th week of pregnancy were invited to participate by convenient consecutive manner, stratifi ed according to residency. A total of 1111 women provided data in this fi rst phase of the cohort study. Main outcome measures. Smoking habits before and during early pregnancy were assessed with a postal questionnaire, which also included questions about socio-demographic background, physical and emotional well-being, and use of medications. Results. The prevalence of smoking prior to pregnancy was 20% (223/1111). During early pregnancy, it was 5% (53/1111). In comparison with women who stopped smoking during early pregnancy, those who continued to smoke had on average a signifi cantly lower level of education, had smoked more cigarettes per day before pregnancy, and were more likely to use nicotine replacement therapy in addition to smoking during pregnancy. A higher number of cigarettes consumed per day before pregnancy and a lower level of education were the strongest predictors for continued smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. The majority of Icelandic women who smoke stop when they become pregnant, and the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Iceland is still about 5%. Our results indicate stronger nicotine dependence in women who do not stop smoking during pregnancy. Awareness of this can help general practitioners (GPs) and others providing antenatal care to approach these women with more insight and empathy, which might theoretically help them to quit. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.

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