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Other factors -- such as weight loss, a healthy diet and ceasing to smoke -- remain the top risk-reduction strategies both for developing cancer and premature cancer-related deaths COLUMBUS, Ohio - Regular use of over-the-counter non-steroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen is associated with an increased risk of dying in patients diagnosed with Type 1 endometrial cancers, according to a new population-based study led by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James). In this observational study, a multi-institutional team of cancer researchers sought to understand the association of regular NSAID use and the risk of dying from endometrial cancer among a cohort of more than 4,000 patients. They found that regular NSAID use was associated with a 66 percent increased risk of dying from endometrial cancer among women with Type 1 endometrial cancers, a typically less-aggressive form of the disease. The association was statistically significant among patients who reported past or current NSAID use at the time of diagnosis, but it was strongest among patients who had used NSAIDs for more than 10 years in the past but had ceased use prior to diagnosis. Use of NSAIDs was not associated with mortality from typically more aggressive, Type 2 cancers. "There is a increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is involved in endometrial cancer and progression and recent data suggests that inhibition of inflammation through NSAID use plays a role," says Theodore Brasky, PhD, co-lead author of the study and a cancer epidemiologist with the OSUCCC - James. "This study identifies a clear association that merits additional research to help us fully understand the biologic mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Our finding was surprising because it goes against previous studies that suggest NSAIDs can be used to reduce inflammation and reduce the risk of developing or dying from certain cancers, like colorectal cancer." Researchers point out that information about specific dosages and NSAID use after surgery was not available in the current study, which represents a significant limitation. "We are continuing to analyze the biologic mechanisms by which inflammation is related to cancer progression in this specific cohort of patients," adds Ashley Felix, PhD, co-lead author of the study and cancer epidemiologist with the OSUCCC - James and College of Public Health. They report their findings in the Dec. 16, 2016, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. "These results are intriguing and worthy of further investigation," says David Cohn, MD, gynecologic oncology division director at the OSUCCC - James and co-author of the study. "It is important to remember that endometrial cancer patients are far more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than their cancer so women who take NSAIDs to reduce their risk of heart attack -- under the guidance of their physicians -- should continue doing so. While these data are interesting, there is not yet enough data to make a public recommendation for or against taking NSAIDS to reduce the risk of cancer-related death." Cohn says any woman concerned about the risks of long-term NSAID use should consult with her physician. For this study, researchers analyzed information from 4,374 endometrial cancer patients who previously participated in a national clinical trial (NRG Oncology/GOG 210). All of the women were eligible for surgery and had not undergone prior surgery or radiation at the time of enrollment. Participants were followed for an average of five years after enrollment. Study participants were asked at the beginning of the study to complete a questionnaire prior to surgery to capture information about previous and current NSAID use including aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs (ibuprofren, naproxen, indomethacin, piroxicam, sulinadac) and COX-2 inhibitors. Researchers collected information about duration of use -- ranging from less than one year to more than 10 years -- and whether that use was previous or current. Daily frequency of NSAID use, NSAID dosage, and use after surgery were not available. Researchers also collected clinical data (cancer stage, pathology, and treatment), demographic data (age, race, annual income, education) and information about established endometrial cancer risk factors, including body weight/height, reproductive and menstrual characteristics, history of hormone therapy, smoking status and other medical conditions. Researchers used regression models to statistically account for the influence of these additional factors on the association between NSAID use and endometrial cancer mortality. Funding for this research comes from grants to the NRG/Gynecologic Oncology Group (CA 27469, CA 37517, 1 U10 CA180822 and U10 CA180868); National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health. Additional collaborators in this study include Louise A. Brinton, PhD, of the National Cancer Institute; D. Scott McMeekin, MD, and Joan Walker, MD, of the University of Oklahoma; David Mutch, MD, and Premal Thaker, MD, Washington University School of Medicine; William Creasman, MD, Medical University of South Carolina; Richard Moore, MD, Women and Infants Hospital/Brown University; Shashikant Lele, MD, and John Boggess, MD, University of North Carolina; Saketh Guntupalli, MD, University of Colorado Cancer Center; Levi Downs, MD, University of Minnesota; Christa Nagel, MD, Case Western Reserve University; Michael Pearl, MD, State University of New York; Olga Ioffe, MD; University of Maryland; and Shamshad Ali, Roswell Park Cancer Institute. More than 60,000 women are diagnosed with endometrial cancer in the United States annually, making it the fourth most common cancer in women and sixth leading cause of cancer death. The cancer begins in the lining of the uterus and grows outward to surrounding organs. Type 1 tumors are less aggressive and are typically confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis, whereas Type 2 tumors tend to be aggressive and are at greater risk of spreading. The disease is most common in women over age 60. Aside from aging, excess body weight, diabetes, certain hormone therapies, a family history of endometrial cancer or personal history of endometrial hyperplasia, breast cancer or ovarian cancer are associated with increased risk of the disease. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 41 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only four centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs. As the cancer program's 306-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, please visit cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Mike Gardner, President and CEO of third-party logistics provider Kane Is Able, Inc. (KANE -- http://www.kaneisable.com) was awarded the 2016 “Fearless Fundraiser” award by Pelotonia, an organization that runs fundraising bike tours to fight cancer. Pelotonia announced the award at the Pelotonia 2016 Check Celebration on Wednesday, November 9th at Express Live, an indoor-outdoor concert venue in downtown Columbus, OH. Mike’s efforts raised close to $70,000 in funds for cancer research this past year. Susie Pattison, Director of Rider Recruitment and Stewardship for Pelotonia, stated, “Mike set a high bar for all of our other participants! We are so grateful for his enthusiasm for this year’s campaign.” Pelotonia directs 100 percent of every dollar raised by participants to cancer research at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital, and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. Upon receiving the award, Mike said, “A few years ago, my dad was diagnosed with colon cancer. Through surgery, excellent medical care, prayers, and the support of family and friends, he continues to be in remission. Pelotonia is an amazing experience that combines physical challenge, philanthropy and community involvement. These are central tenets in my own life. I am proud to support one of the premier cancer centers in the country – one mile, and one dollar, at a time. Additionally, I’d like to thank the Kane family and our great KANE associates across the country, who have given generously to this cause.” Founded in 2008, Pelotonia was established with the objective to fund life‐saving cancer research. Pelotonia’s ride weekend is a three‐day experience that includes a weekend of cycling, entertainment and volunteerism. In its first seven rides, Pelotonia has raised more than $100 million for cancer research. About Kane Is Able Kane Is Able is a third-party logistics provider that helps manufacturers and their retail partners efficiently and effectively distribute goods throughout the United States. KANE’s value-added logistics services include retail consolidation, nationwide warehousing and distribution, contract packaging, fulfillment, and transportation solutions.


News Article | December 15, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

While many patients with colorectal are diagnosed when they are older than 50, about 10 percent of patients are diagnosed at younger ages. So what is the frequency of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with colorectal cancer who are diagnosed younger than 50? A new study published online by JAMA Oncology by Heather Hampel, M.S., C.G.C., of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, Columbus, and coauthors studied 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at 51 hospitals in the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from 2013 through June 2016. Researchers reported finding 75 gene mutations in 72 patients (16 percent), according to the article. "Given the high frequency and wide spectrum of mutations, genetic counseling and testing with a multigene panel could be considered for all patients with early-onset CRC [colorectal cancer]," the study concludes. For more details and to read the study findings, please visit the For The Media website. Editor's Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

A new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) has identified a mechanism by which cancer cells develop resistance to a class of drugs called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors. Published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, the study also found that use of a second inhibitor might improve the effectiveness of these drugs by possibly preventing resistance, and it recommends that clinical trials should be designed to include a second inhibitor. FGFR inhibitors are a new family of targeted agents designed to inhibit the action of the fibroblast growth factor receptor, which is often overexpressed in lung, bladder, biliary and breast cancers. "Understanding how drug resistance develops can help in the design of new agents or strategies to overcome resistance," says principal investigator Sameek Roychowdhury, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and of pharmacology in the Division of Medical Oncology at the OSUCCC - James. "Our paper demonstrates in a laboratory model how cancer can evade this class of therapy, and it provides insights into how clinical trials for these therapies could be further developed to overcome the problem of drug resistance," he adds. The laboratory study by Roychowdhury and his colleagues induced resistance to the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 in lung- and bladder-cancer cells after long-term exposure to the agent. The researchers then found that, while the drug continued to inhibit FGFR activity in the resistant cells, its inhibition of FGFR signaling had no appreciable effect on the cells' survival. Examining other molecules in the FGFR pathway, the researchers found that a regulatory protein called Akt remained highly active, even during FGFR inhibition. Akt, a key regulator of cell biology, is directly involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cell growth. Furthermore, they found that by inhibiting Akt they could significantly slow cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in the lung cancer and bladder cancer cells. "Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors are new therapies being developed in clinical trials for patients whose cancer cells have genetic alterations in this family of genes," says Roychowdhury, a member of the OSUCCC - James Translational Therapeutics Program. "We believe our findings will help improve this therapy for lung, bladder and other cancers."


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Ohio State seeking volunteers who currently use cigarettes, smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes for 2 clinical studies aimed at understanding the health effects of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Most Americans under age 35 think that using electronic cigarettes does not cause as much damage lung health as compared with traditional cigarettes, according to the results of a new national consumer survey. The survey - which included more than 2,000 people under the age of 35 - showed that 44 percent of survey respondents reported believing that e-cigarettes are less harmful to the lungs than traditional cigarettes. Among men specifically, that number jumped to 54 percent who think e-cigarettes are safer. "The truth is there is just so much we don't know about these new products," said Peter Shields, MD, a thoracic oncologist, cancer control researcher and deputy director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. "We have no idea where in the spectrum these are, in terms of safety. Are they like cigarettes, or nothing like cigarettes? Do they affect people the same if they've never smoked, or a lot worse? We need to figure this out." Ongoing Clinical Studies Evaluate Health Impact The OSUCCC - James is recruiting healthy volunteers who currently use tobacco products for two clinical studies underway to evaluate the health effects of electronic cigarettes (known as "e-cigs" or "vaping") and other tobacco products. "There is minimal data available regarding the direct health effects of e-cig use or vaping, but these products have gained rapid popularity among existing smokers and non-smokers alike, including young adults," says Shields. "We are concerned that people assume these products have fewer negative health effects as compared with cigarettes and other tobacco products. The reality is that they are still a tobacco product and people are still inhaling potentially harmful chemicals. They should not be considered a 'safer' option until science has the opportunity to catch up with the consumer market." On May 5, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its regulatory authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, cigars, hookah tobacco and pipe tobacco. Prior to this, there was no federal law prohibiting retailers from selling e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco or cigars to people under age 18. The final FDA went into effect Aug. 8, 2016. The OSUCCC - James research is being done to provide the FDA with scientific data to guide consumer regulation of tobacco products. The research is funded by the FDA and the National Cancer Institute. The OSUCCC - James is recruiting about 60 current cigarette smokers, e-cig users, smokeless tobacco users, and non-smokers for this pilot study aimed at understanding whether e-cig use impacts lung health differently than traditional cigarettes. In order to directly assess the impact of tobacco and e-cig use on the lungs, volunteers undergo bronchoscopy. This is an outpatient test where a doctor inserts a thin tube through the nose or mouth to view the airways. A small sample of lung cells will be collected from fluid in the lungs of healthy smokers, e-cig users, smokeless tobacco users and non-smokers to evaluate differences among the groups. Participants will also be asked to complete questionnaires regarding demographic information, medical history and previous/current tobacco use. "This will allow us to see - in real time - how the lung tissue of non-smokers, e-cig users and traditional cigarette smokers differs. We are especially interested in understanding how e-cig use impacts immunology factors. This could be an important indicator of negative health impacts and give us clues about the changes in lung tissue that lead to future lung diseases," adds Shields. Non-smoker volunteers will be asked to use nicotine- and flavor-free e-cigs for one month and then undergo another bronchoscopy so that they can document the effects, if any, of e-cigs on the lungs. All information gathered through the study will be used to evaluate health impact of e-cig use on the lung and help guide the FDA in developing future regulations to make e-cigs safer. Participants do not have to reside in Columbus, Ohio, to participate in the study but they do need to be able to travel to The OSUCCC - James a minimum of two times. Participants will be compensated for their time and receive e-cigs for free. To learn more, visit cancer.osu.edu/ecigs, email ecig-study@osumc.edu or call 1-844-744-2447. The OSUCCC - James is seeking several hundred current smokers who are otherwise in good health for a study to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on exposure to cancer-causing chemicals and other smoke toxins. In addition, researchers will collect information about how flavorings influence a person's choice to use the products. The study is being conducted in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and is expected to enroll about 600 patients nationwide over five years. The study has two phases: a baseline phase and an eight-week clinical trial. During the baseline phase, participants will be asked to complete questionnaires and provide urine and mouth cell samples. They will then be will be randomly assigned to one of the clinical trial study groups: e-cig (delivers vaporized nicotine) or medicinal nicotine (gum or lozenges) for 8 weeks. All participants will receive free products (e-cigs or nicotine replacement therapy) and financial compensation for participation. "This study is aimed at identifying how different methods of using tobacco impacts the exposures that happen when smoking the product or using e-cigs, but it will also give us important information about how personal thoughts and attitudes toward tobacco products influence how, when and why people use tobacco at all," explains Shields. Participants do not have to reside in Columbus, Ohio, to participate in this study but they must be able to come to The OSUCCC - James weekly for a period of three months and have access to a telephone. To learn more about this study, visit cancer.osu.edu/ecigs, email comet-study@osumc.edu or call 1-844-744-2447. Both e-cig studies are funded by the National Institutes of Health and FDA as part of the Ohio State University's Tobacco Center of Regulatory Sciences, a federally funded research program that spans the entire university. The center focuses on research aimed at putting science behind the FDA's regulation of tobacco products. Additional support for the bronchoscopy study comes from Pelotonia, a grassroots cycling event that has raised more than $106 million for cancer research efforts at The OSUCCC - James. Pelotonia 2017 takes place Aug. 4-6, 2017. Learn more at pelotonia.org. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 46 National Cancer Institute designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only four centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs. As the cancer program's 306-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, visit cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Columbus, Ohio - A new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) has identified a mechanism by which cancer cells develop resistance to a class of drugs called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors. Published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, the study also found that use of a second inhibitor might improve the effectiveness of these drugs by possibly preventing resistance, and it recommends that clinical trials should be designed to include a second inhibitor. FGFR inhibitors are a new family of targeted agents designed to inhibit the action of the fibroblast growth factor receptor, which is often overexpressed in lung, bladder, biliary and breast cancers. "Understanding how drug resistance develops can help in the design of new agents or strategies to overcome resistance," says principal investigator Sameek Roychowdhury, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and of pharmacology in the Division of Medical Oncology at the OSUCCC - James. "Our paper demonstrates in a laboratory model how cancer can evade this class of therapy, and it provides insights into how clinical trials for these therapies could be further developed to overcome the problem of drug resistance," he adds. The laboratory study by Roychowdhury and his colleagues induced resistance to the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 in lung- and bladder-cancer cells after long-term exposure to the agent. The researchers then found that, while the drug continued to inhibit FGFR activity in the resistant cells, its inhibition of FGFR signaling had no appreciable effect on the cells' survival. Examining other molecules in the FGFR pathway, the researchers found that a regulatory protein called Akt remained highly active, even during FGFR inhibition. Akt, a key regulator of cell biology, is directly involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cell growth. Furthermore, they found that by inhibiting Akt they could significantly slow cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in the lung cancer and bladder cancer cells. "Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors are new therapies being developed in clinical trials for patients whose cancer cells have genetic alterations in this family of genes," says Roychowdhury, a member of the OSUCCC - James Translational Therapeutics Program. "We believe our findings will help improve this therapy for lung, bladder and other cancers." This work was supported by funding from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Cancer Society, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, Fore Cancer Research, American Lung Association and Pelotonia. Other Ohio State researchers involved in this study were Jharna Datta, Senthilkumar Damodaran, Hannah Parks, Cristina Ocrainiciuc, Jharna Miya, Lianbo Yu, Elijah P. Gardner, Eric Samorodnitsky, Michele R. Wing, Darshna Bhatt, John Hays and Julie W. Reeser. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 47 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only a few centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs sponsored by the NCI. As the cancer program's 308-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors and with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, please visit cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Most Americans under age 35 think that using electronic cigarettes does not cause as much damage lung health as compared with traditional cigarettes, according to the results of a new national consumer survey. The survey -- which included more than 2,000 people under the age of 35 -- showed that 44 percent of survey respondents reported believing that e-cigarettes are less harmful to the lungs than traditional cigarettes. Among men specifically, that number jumped to 54 percent who think e-cigarettes are safer. "The truth is there is just so much we don't know about these new products," said Peter Shields, MD, a thoracic oncologist, cancer control researcher and deputy director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. "We have no idea where in the spectrum these are, in terms of safety. Are they like cigarettes, or nothing like cigarettes? Do they affect people the same if they've never smoked, or a lot worse? We need to figure this out." The OSUCCC -- James is recruiting healthy volunteers who currently use tobacco products for two clinical studies underway to evaluate the health effects of electronic cigarettes (known as "e-cigs" or "vaping") and other tobacco products. "There is minimal data available regarding the direct health effects of e-cig use or vaping, but these products have gained rapid popularity among existing smokers and non-smokers alike, including young adults," says Shields. "We are concerned that people assume these products have fewer negative health effects as compared with cigarettes and other tobacco products. The reality is that they are still a tobacco product and people are still inhaling potentially harmful chemicals. They should not be considered a 'safer' option until science has the opportunity to catch up with the consumer market." On May 5, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its regulatory authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, cigars, hookah tobacco and pipe tobacco. Prior to this, there was no federal law prohibiting retailers from selling e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco or cigars to people under age 18. The final FDA went into effect Aug. 8, 2016. The OSUCCC -- James research is being done to provide the FDA with scientific data to guide consumer regulation of tobacco products. The research is funded by the FDA and the National Cancer Institute.


COLUMBUS, Ohio - A new study shows that psychosocial risk factors that impact a person's ability to cope with chronic stress are associated with significantly higher readmission rates and longer hospital stays among blood cancer patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This, says, researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James), is a critical clinical concern and area of unmet need for patients who require intensive treatment to eradicate their cancer that should be addressed in a systematic way by the oncology community. "Stem cell transplant can be a curative treatment for certain cancers, but it is a very long process that can put strains on a patient before, during and after the actual transplant," said Ashley Rosko, MD, an OSUCCC - James hematologist and senior author of the new study. "Just like we assess potential impact and risks of a patient's co-morbidities before pursuing a stem cell transplant, we saw a need to evaluate psychosocial vulnerabilities to identify those patients at the highest risk for complications and develop interventions to ensure the smoothest recovery possible." The goal of this study was identify patients that might be at increased risk for complications during or after treatment based on non-traditional medical factors that influence overall health and wellbeing, such as depression and anxiety. Researchers conducted an observational study of 395 patients undergoing stem cell transplant to treat acute leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma and other cancers/disorders at the OSUCCC - James in Columbus, Ohio. Stem cell transplantation involves collecting stem cells - which are produced in the bone marrow - either from the cancer patient (autologous) or a donor (allogeneic). Stem cells are then infused back into the patient after high dose chemotherapy cancer treatment is complete to help restore the bone marrow's ability to produce red and white blood cells that fight off infection. Prior to treatment, all patients in this study had a psychosocial screening to identify factors affecting their ability to cope including: history of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, health behaviors, family social support, emotional tone, and mental status. Patients deemed at-risk were subcategorized into mild and moderate risk. OSUCCC - James researchers found that 48 percent of all patients included in this observational study were deemed to be at risk. Psychiatric conditions (24 percent), poor health behaviors (16 percent) and poor coping history (13 percent) were the most common identified risk factors. In addition, all patients with any degree of psychosocial vulnerability - regardless of race, disease type, remission status or type of stem cell transplant procedure - were at a higher risk for hospital readmission following HSCT and at-risk autologous transplant patients have a significantly longer length of stay. The findings will be presented on Dec. 5, 2016, at the American Society of Hematology 2016. "Hospital readmission in stem cell transplant patients is associated with poor overall survival, increased cost and worse quality of life so it is important that we do all that we can to identify these patients in advance of treatment to help them successfully navigate the treatment process," says Rosko. "Many of these psychosocial risk factors can be mitigated and managed to the benefit of the patient." Researchers expect to continue this research through a prospective study aimed at identifying at-risk patients prior to therapy and offering a psychologist-led coping strategy intervention prior to treatment. "We need to help our patients better cope with the chronic stress of a cancer diagnosis and treatment so that they are less likely to have setbacks in care due to additional illness," adds Rosko. This research was supported as a clinical quality research initiative of The OSUCCC - James division of hematology. Co-authors of the study include first author Daniel Richardson, MD, Ying Huang, Patrick Elder, Joanna Newlin, Cyndi Kirkendall, Steven Devine, MD, Leslie Andritsos, MD, Don Benson, MD, PhD, William Blum, MD, Yvonne Efebera, MD, Craig Hofmeister, MD, Samantha Jaglowski, MD, Rebecca Klisovic, MD, Heather McGinty, PhD, Sam Penza, MD, Sumithra Vasu and Basem William, MD. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 45 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only four centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs. As the cancer program's 306-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, please visit cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

New research links specific inherited genetic differences (alterations) to an increased risk for eye (uveal) melanoma, a rare form of melanoma that arises from pigment cells that determine eye color. Roughly 2,500 people are diagnosed with uveal melanoma in the United States annually. Previous clinical data suggests uveal melanoma is more common in Caucasians and individuals with light eye coloration; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying this cancer's development were largely unknown. In this new study -- co-authored by ophthalmologic pathologist and cancer geneticist Mohamed Abdel-Rahman, M.D., Ph.D., of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and cancer geneticist Tomas Kirchhoff, Ph.D., of the Perlmutter Cancer Center of NYU School of Medicine - scientists report the first evidence of a strong association between genes linked to eye color and development of uveal melanoma. Reported data suggests that inherited genetic factors associated with eye and skin pigmentation could increase a person's risk for uveal melanoma. Abdel-Rahman, Kirchhoff and team report their findings in the medical journal Scientific Reports. "This is a very important discovery that will guide future research efforts to explore the interactions of these pigmentary genes with other genetic and environmental risk factors in cancers not linked to sun exposure, such as eye melanoma. This could provide a paradigm shift in the field. Our study suggests that in eye melanoma the pigmentation difference may play a direct cancer-driving role, not related to sunlight protection," says Abdel-Rahman. Unlike other solid tumors, there has been limited progress in understanding the contribution of genetic risk factors to the development of uveal melanoma, researchers say, primarily due to the absence of comprehensive genetic data from patients as the large sample cohorts for this rare cancer type have not been available for research. To overcome these limitations, researchers analyzed samples from more than 270 patients with uveal melanoma, most of whom were treated at Ohio State. Because there is a known clinical connection between eye melanoma and skin cancer, in this study researchers sought to determine whether there were commonly shared genetic factors between both diseases, as the inherited genetic risk of skin melanoma has been more extensively explored in previous medical literature. The team analyzed 29 inherited genetic mutations previously linked with skin melanoma to determine if there was an associated risk of uveal melanoma. This analysis revealed that five genetic mutations were significantly associated with uveal melanoma risk. The three most significant genetic associations occurred in a genetic region that determines eye color. "Genetic susceptibility to uveal melanoma has been traditionally thought to be restricted only to a small groups of patients with family history. Now our strong data shows the presence of novel genetic risk factors associated with this disease in a general population of uveal melanoma patients," says Kirchhoff. "But this data is also important because it indicates -- for the first time -- that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to both skin and uveal melanoma mediated by genetic determination of eye color. This knowledge may have direct implications in the deeper molecular understanding of both diseases," adds Kirchhoff. Researchers expect the data presented in this study to fuel the formation of large national and international research consortiums to conduct comprehensive, systematic analysis of inherited (germline) genome data in large cohorts of uveal melanoma patients. "This type of collaboration is critically needed to dissect additional modifying genetic risk factors that may be uveal melanoma specific. This has important consequences not only for the prevention or early diagnosis of the disease but potentially for more improved therapies for at-risk patients," says Kirchhoff. "Federal funding will be crucial to support research of rare cancers such as eye melanoma as it is likely, as shown in this study, that the impact of such research will extend across the different cancer types," adds Abdel-Rahman.


Caronia L.M.,Ohio State University | Phay J.E.,The Surgical Center | Shah M.H.,Solove Research Institute
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

BRAF, a cytoplasmic serine-threonine protein kinase, plays a critical role in cell signaling as an activator within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The most common BRAF mutation is the V600E transversion, which causes constitutive kinase activity. This mutation has been found in a multitude of human cancers, including both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary-derived anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), in which it initiates follicular cell transformation. With such a high frequency of BRAF mutations in PTC (44%) and PTC-derived ATC (24%), research in BRAF V600E detection for diagnostic purposes has shown high sensitivity and specificity for tumor cell presence. BRAF V600E in PTC has also provided valuable prognostic information, as its presence has been correlated with more aggressive and iodine-resistant phenotypes. Such findings have initiated research in targeting oncogenic BRAF in cancer therapeutics. Although multiple phase II clinical trials in patients with iodine-refractory metastatic PTC have shown significant efficacy for sorafenib, a first-generation BRAF inhibitor, the mechanism by which it mediates its effect remains unclear because of multiple additional kinase targets of sorafenib. Additionally, preclinical and clinical studies investigating combination therapy with agents such as selective (PLX 4032) and potent (BAY 73-4506 and ARQ 736) small-molecule BRAF inhibitors and MAP/extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitors (AZD6244) hold great promise in the treatment of BRAF V600Ecancers and may eventually play a powerful role in changing the clinical course of PTC and ATC. ©2011 AACR.

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