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Lang E.V.,Hypnalgesics, Llc | Lang E.V.,Ohio State University | Yuh W.T.C.,Ohio State University | Ajam A.,Ohio State University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE. Under the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, patient satisfaction accounts for 30% of the measures of and payments for quality of care. Understanding what drives patient satisfaction data and how the data are obtained, converted into scores, and formulated into rankings is increasingly critical for imaging departments. The objectives of this article are to describe the potential impact of patient satisfaction ratings on institutions and individuals, explain how patient satisfaction is rated and ranked, identify drivers that affect the ratings and rankings, and probe the resulting challenges unique to radiology departments. CONCLUSION. Research results indicate that training providers to make simple modifications in their language and behavior during patient care can significantly impact patient satisfaction, which, in turn, can impact both quality-of-care ratings and the bottom line of hospitals. Training providers is a simple and cost-effective way to potentiate the clinical expression of compassion into improvement of patient satisfaction and financial reward, a national trend that no one in the game can afford to ignore. Source

Caronia L.M.,Ohio State University | Phay J.E.,The Surgical Center | Shah M.H.,Solove Research Institute
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

BRAF, a cytoplasmic serine-threonine protein kinase, plays a critical role in cell signaling as an activator within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The most common BRAF mutation is the V600E transversion, which causes constitutive kinase activity. This mutation has been found in a multitude of human cancers, including both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary-derived anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), in which it initiates follicular cell transformation. With such a high frequency of BRAF mutations in PTC (44%) and PTC-derived ATC (24%), research in BRAF V600E detection for diagnostic purposes has shown high sensitivity and specificity for tumor cell presence. BRAF V600E in PTC has also provided valuable prognostic information, as its presence has been correlated with more aggressive and iodine-resistant phenotypes. Such findings have initiated research in targeting oncogenic BRAF in cancer therapeutics. Although multiple phase II clinical trials in patients with iodine-refractory metastatic PTC have shown significant efficacy for sorafenib, a first-generation BRAF inhibitor, the mechanism by which it mediates its effect remains unclear because of multiple additional kinase targets of sorafenib. Additionally, preclinical and clinical studies investigating combination therapy with agents such as selective (PLX 4032) and potent (BAY 73-4506 and ARQ 736) small-molecule BRAF inhibitors and MAP/extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitors (AZD6244) hold great promise in the treatment of BRAF V600Ecancers and may eventually play a powerful role in changing the clinical course of PTC and ATC. ©2011 AACR. Source

Doo L.,Ohio State University | Shapiro C.L.,Solove Research Institute | Shapiro C.L.,Ohio State University
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Year: 2013

With increasing use of screening mammography and more effective adjuvant systemic therapies, the majority of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer will be long-term survivors and experience personal cures. Among the common side effects of adjuvant therapies is treatment-related bone loss, primarily as a result of estrogen deprivation. Whereas this occurs in both postmenopausal and premenopausal women, this brief review will focus on pre- or perimenopausal women when initially diagnosed with breast cancer. An important distinction is between those women who retain ovarian function despite cancer or preventative treatments and the more common situation of premenopausal women who as result of cancer treatments undergo ovarian failure or early menopause. Some women with treatment-related ovarian failure will have sufficient treatment-related bone loss to be at increased risks of subsequent nontraumatic fractures and/or osteoporosis and will be candidates for antiresorptive treatments. The noncancer treatment risk factors, screening and treatments for the management of osteopenia and osteoporosis are generally the same in postmenopausal women with and without breast cancer. However, premenopausal women with relatively rapid onset of treatment-related ovarian failure and bone loss pose several challenges. Awareness of treatment-related bone loss and risks of subsequent osteoporosis is a high priority in an ever-increasing population of breast cancer survivors. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Home > Press > 'Nanobombs' might deliver agents that alter gene activity in cancer stem cells Abstract: Researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC -- James) have developed nanoparticles that swell and burst when exposed to near-infrared laser light. Such 'nanobombs' might overcome a biological barrier that has blocked development of agents that work by altering the activity -- the expression -- of genes in cancer cells. The agents might kill cancer cells outright or stall their growth. The kinds of agents that change gene expression are generally forms of RNA (ribonucleic acid), and they are notoriously difficult to use as drugs. First, they are readily degraded when free in the bloodstream. In this study, packaging them in nanoparticles that target tumor cells solved that problem. This study, published in the journal Advanced Materials, suggests that the nanobombs might also solve the second problem. When cancer cells take up ordinary nanoparticles, they often enclose them in small compartments called endosomes. This prevents the drug molecules from reaching their target, and they are soon degraded. Along with the therapeutic agent, these nanoparticles contain a chemical that vaporizes, causing them to swell three times or more in size when exposed to near-infrared laser light. The endosomes burst, dispersing the RNA agent into the cell. "A major challenge to using nanoparticles to deliver gene-regulating agents such as microRNAs is the inability of the nanoparticles to escape the compartments, the endosomes, that they are encased in when cells take up the particles," says principal investigator Xiaoming (Shawn) He, PhD, associate professor of Biomedical Engineering and member of the OSUCCC -- James Translational Therapeutics Program. "We believe we've overcome this challenge by developing nanoparticles that include ammonium bicarbonate, a small molecule that vaporizes when exposing the nanoparticles to near-infrared laser light, causing the nanoparticle and endosome to burst, releasing the therapeutic RNA," He explains. For their study, He and colleagues used human prostate-cancer cells and human prostate tumors in an animal model. The nanoparticles were equipped to target cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which are cancer cells that have properties of stem cells. CSCs often resist therapy and are thought to play an important role in cancer development and recurrence. The therapeutic agent in the nanoparticles was a form of microRNA called miR-34a. The researchers chose this molecule because it can lower the levels of a protein that is crucial for CSC survival and may be involved in chemotherapy and radiation therapy resistance. The nanoparticles also encapsulate ammonium bicarbonate, which is a leavening agent sometimes used in baking. Near-infrared laser light, which induces vaporization of the ammonium bicarbonate, can penetrate tissue to a depth of one centimeter (nearly half an inch). For deeper tumors, the light would be delivered using minimally invasive surgery. ### The study's key technical findings include: Nanoparticles with ammonium bicarbonate enlarged more than three times when activated with near-infrared laser (from about 100 nm in diameter at body temperature to more than 300 nm at 43 degrees C. (110 degrees F). Endosomes measure 150-200 nm in diameter; The nanoparticles had great affinity for CSCs and very little for normal human adipose-derived stem cells; The miR-34a nanobombs significantly reduced tumor volume in an animal model that bore human prostate tumors. Funding from an American Cancer Society Research Scholar Grant and a Pelotonia Postdoctoral Fellowship supported this research. Other researchers involved in this study were Hai Wang, Pranay Agarwal, Shuting Zhao and Jianhua Yu, all of The Ohio State University; and Xiongbin Lu of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. About Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 45 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only four centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs. As the cancer program’s 306-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Plascak J.J.,University of Washington | Fisher J.L.,Solove Research Institute | Paskett E.D.,Solove Research Institute | Paskett E.D.,Ohio State University
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Understanding the joint effects of insurance type and primary care physician density on stage at diagnosis is essential to elucidating the healthcare access and late-stage cancer relationship. Purpose: To determine if the relationship between primary care physician density and odds of late-stage cancer are modified by insurance type at diagnosis. Methods: Case patients were Ohio adults diagnosed between 1996 and 2008 with cancer of one of the following sites: female breast, cervix, colon/rectum, lung/bronchus, melanoma of the skin, oral cavity and pharynx, or prostate (N=376,425). County-level physician density was obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated odds ratios of late-stage cancer diagnosis associated with increases in primary care physician density by insurance type. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results: Decreases in late-stage diagnosis of cancers of the breast, prostate, melanoma of the skin, oral cavity and pharynx, or lung/bronchus associated with increases in primary care physician density were strongest among those with private insurance, whereas those with Medicare (prostate, oral cavity and pharynx, lung/bronchus), Medicaid (lung/bronchus), uninsured (prostate), and other/unknown (prostate, oral cavity and pharynx, lung/bronchus) did not benefit as greatly, or experienced significant increases in late-stage cancer diagnosis (other/unknown [female breast], Medicaid [melanoma of the skin], and uninsured [colon/rectum]). Conclusions: As primary care physician density increases, those with private insurance consistently benefit the most in terms of late-stage cancer diagnosis, whereas those with several other insurance types experience flatter decreases or significantly higher odds of late-stage cancer diagnosis. © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

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