Solove Research Institute

Columbus, OH, United States

Solove Research Institute

Columbus, OH, United States

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News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- A new study shows that so-called "light" cigarettes have no health benefits to smokers and have likely contributed to the rise of a certain form of lung cancer that occurs deep in the lungs. For this new study, researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) and five other universities/cancer centers examined why the most common type of lung cancer, called adenocarcinoma, has increased over the last 50 years, rather than decreasing as smokers have been able to quit. Other types of lung cancer have been decreasing in relationship to fewer people smoking, but not lung adenocarcinoma. Because of this, lung adenocarcinoma is now the most common type of lung cancer. Results confirm what tobacco-control researchers have suspected for years: There is no health benefit to high-ventilation (light) cigarettes - long marketed by the tobacco industry as a "healthier" option - and these cigarettes have actually have caused more harm. Holes in cigarette filters were introduced 50 years ago and were critical to claims for low-tar cigarettes "This was done to fool smokers and the public health community into thinking that they actually were safer," says Peter Shields, MD, deputy director of the OSUCCC - James and a lung medical oncologist. "Our data suggests a clear relationship between the addition of ventilation holes to cigarettes and increasing rates of lung adenocarcinoma seen over the past 20 years. What is especially concerning is that these holes are still added to virtually all cigarettes that are smoked today." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was given the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution and marketing of tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009. Current regulations ban tobacco companies from labeling and marketing cigarettes as "low tar" or "light." Study authors, however, say that given this new data, the FDA should take immediate action to regulate the use of the ventilation holes, up to and including a complete ban of the holes. "The FDA has a public health obligation to take immediate regulatory action to eliminate the use of ventilation holes on cigarettes," adds Shields. "It is a somewhat complicated process to enact such regulations, but there is more than enough data to start the process. We believe that such an action would drive down the use and toxicity of conventional cigarettes, and drive smokers to either quit or use less harmful products. There are some open questions about unintended consequences for enacting a ban, which provides for an important research agenda." A team made up of lung oncology, public health and tobacco regulation researchers conducted a comprehensive, multi-faceted analysis of existing literature that included chemistry and toxicology studies, human clinical trials and epidemiological studies of both smoking behavior and cancer risk. They studied scientific publications in the peer-reviewed literature and internal tobacco company documents. Researchers hypothesized that the higher incidence rates of lung adenocarcinoma were attributable to the filter ventilation holes, which allow smokers to inhale more smoke that also has higher levels of carcinogens, mutagens and other toxins. "The filter ventilation holes change how the tobacco is burned, producing more carcinogens, which then also allows the smoke to reach the deeper parts of the lung where adenocarcinomas more frequently occur," explains Shields. To date, all the scientific evidence involves the adverse impact of adding ventilation, but not removing it. Additional research is needed to confirm that the addictiveness of the cigarette or toxic exposures from cigarettes would not increase with elimination of the ventilation holes. The OSUCCC - James and researchers at the University of Minnesota, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Virginia Tech, Harvard University and Medical University of South Carolina are conducting additional research to reconcile human biomarkers studies and smoke distribution/exposure in the lung. Funding for this research comes from the National Cancer Institute and Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products. Coauthors include OSUCCC - James researchers Min-Ae Song, PhD, Micah Berman, JD, Theodore Brasky, PhD, and Casper Woroszylo, PhD; Neal Benowitz, MD, University of California-San Francisco; Michael Cummings, PhD, Medical University of South Carolina; Dorothy Hatsukami, PhD, University of Minnesota; Vaughan Rees, PhD, Harvard University; Richard O'Connor, PhD, Roswell Park Cancer Institute; and Catalin Marian, PhD, of Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Romania). The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 47 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only a few centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs sponsored by the NCI. As the cancer program's 308-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors and with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. Learn more at cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study shows that so-called "light" cigarettes have no health benefits to smokers and have likely contributed to the rise of a certain form of lung cancer that occurs deep in the lungs. For this new study, researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) and five other universities/cancer centers examined why the most common type of lung cancer, called adenocarcinoma, has increased over the last 50 years, rather than decreasing as smokers have been able to quit. Other types of lung cancer have been decreasing in relationship to fewer people smoking, but not lung adenocarcinoma. Because of this, lung adenocarcinoma is now the most common type of lung cancer. Results confirm what tobacco-control researchers have suspected for years: There is no health benefit to high-ventilation (light) cigarettes - long marketed by the tobacco industry as a "healthier" option - and these cigarettes have actually have caused more harm. Holes in cigarette filters were introduced 50 years ago and were critical to claims for low-tar cigarettes "This was done to fool smokers and the public health community into thinking that they actually were safer," says Peter Shields, MD, deputy director of the OSUCCC - James and a lung medical oncologist. "Our data suggests a clear relationship between the addition of ventilation holes to cigarettes and increasing rates of lung adenocarcinoma seen over the past 20 years. What is especially concerning is that these holes are still added to virtually all cigarettes that are smoked today." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was given the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution and marketing of tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009. Current regulations ban tobacco companies from labeling and marketing cigarettes as "low tar" or "light." Study authors, however, say that given this new data, the FDA should take immediate action to regulate the use of the ventilation holes, up to and including a complete ban of the holes. "The FDA has a public health obligation to take immediate regulatory action to eliminate the use of ventilation holes on cigarettes," adds Shields. "It is a somewhat complicated process to enact such regulations, but there is more than enough data to start the process. We believe that such an action would drive down the use and toxicity of conventional cigarettes, and drive smokers to either quit or use less harmful products. There are some open questions about unintended consequences for enacting a ban, which provides for an important research agenda." A team made up of lung oncology, public health and tobacco regulation researchers conducted a comprehensive, multi-faceted analysis of existing literature that included chemistry and toxicology studies, human clinical trials and epidemiological studies of both smoking behavior and cancer risk. They studied scientific publications in the peer-reviewed literature and internal tobacco company documents. Researchers hypothesized that the higher incidence rates of lung adenocarcinoma were attributable to the filter ventilation holes, which allow smokers to inhale more smoke that also has higher levels of carcinogens, mutagens and other toxins. "The filter ventilation holes change how the tobacco is burned, producing more carcinogens, which then also allows the smoke to reach the deeper parts of the lung where adenocarcinomas more frequently occur," explains Shields. To date, all the scientific evidence involves the adverse impact of adding ventilation, but not removing it. Additional research is needed to confirm that the addictiveness of the cigarette or toxic exposures from cigarettes would not increase with elimination of the ventilation holes. The OSUCCC - James and researchers at the University of Minnesota, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Virginia Tech, Harvard University and Medical University of South Carolina are conducting additional research to reconcile human biomarkers studies and smoke distribution/exposure in the lung. Funding for this research comes from the National Cancer Institute and Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products. Coauthors include OSUCCC - James researchers Min-Ae Song, PhD, Micah Berman, JD, Theodore Brasky, PhD, and Casper Woroszylo, PhD; Neal Benowitz, MD, University of California-San Francisco; Michael Cummings, PhD, Medical University of South Carolina; Dorothy Hatsukami, PhD, University of Minnesota; Vaughan Rees, PhD, Harvard University; Richard O'Connor, PhD, Roswell Park Cancer Institute; and Catalin Marian, PhD, of Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Romania).


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

COLUMBUS, Ohio - More than half of breast cancer patients (57 percent) undergoing mastectomy lack the necessary medical knowledge to make a high-quality decision about reconstructive surgery that aligns with their personal goals, suggesting a trend toward overtreatment, according to a new study conducted by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James). "High-quality" decisions were defined as those that demonstrated adequate medical knowledge of treatment choices - including associated risks - and that also matched with the patient's specific goals and preferences for choosing whether or not to pursue reconstructive surgery. Researchers say shared decision-making tools are needed to help women make decisions based on a full understanding of treatment choices and associated risks alongside their personal goals for surgery. Researchers report the findings online first in the medical journal JAMA Surgery May 3, 2017. In this observational, single-institution study, researchers sought to evaluate the quality of 126 adult breast cancer patients' decisions about breast reconstruction after mastectomy. All patients had stage I-III invasive ductal/lobular breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or were having preventive mastectomies. The majority of patients (73 percent) had early-stage disease. Researchers measured study participants' medical knowledge about mastectomy and mastectomy with reconstruction -- for example, effects of surgery on appearance and associated risks. They also measured individual preferences of what mattered most to patients. Key preference factors included breast appearance/shape post treatment, length of recovery time and risk for complications. "We found that less than half of the women had adequate medical knowledge about breast reconstruction and made a choice that aligned with their personal preferences. This is very concerning to us, because it means that some women did not get the treatment they truly preferred, and quite a few had more treatment than they preferred," says Clara Lee, MD, principal investigator of the study and a breast reconstructive surgeon at The OSUCCC - James. Lee holds a dual associate professor appointment in the colleges of medicine and public health at Ohio State. "Many women were quite concerned about complication risks, but they didn't actually know how high the risk was. This may explain some of the overtreatment that we saw," she adds. Researchers found that only 43 percent of the patients in the study demonstrated an understanding of at least half of the important facts about reconstruction and made a choice that was consistent with their preferences. Understanding of surgical complications was particularly low, with only 14 percent of patients demonstrating strong knowledge of associated risks. "As breast cancer providers, we need to talk about the pros and cons of surgery to help women make treatment choices. Shared decision-making between the surgeon and patient would be particularly useful for this decision. We need to connect patients with decision aids to help them really think through what is most important to them," Lee adds. Collaborators in this National Cancer Institute-funded study include Allison Deal, MD, and Ruth Huh, BA, of Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Michael Pignone, MD, MPH, of University of Texas at Austin; and Peter Ubel, MD, of Duke University. "The interesting thing is that these findings are not unique to breast reconstruction," adds Pignone, study coauthor and chair of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Dell Medical School at The University of Texas at Austin. "In other places where we've looked at decision quality, we see gaps in patients' understanding of key information and poor alignment between the things they care most about and the treatments that they choose. It means that we need to do a much better job of providing decision support to patients, so that the care they get is, ultimately, the care they want." Lee and colleagues in Ohio State's colleges of engineering, communication and public health are working on a study to evaluate treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer patients to assess how communication with their providers affects their decision-making. This ongoing study examines patients' knowledge, preferences, and expectations about future well-being. Information from this study is expected to help clinicians develop tools to aid patients in making an informed decision about their care. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 47 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only a few centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs sponsored by the NCI. As the cancer program's 308-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors and with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. Learn more at cancer.osu.edu.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

More than half of breast cancer patients (57 percent) undergoing mastectomy lack the necessary medical knowledge to make a high-quality decision about reconstructive surgery that aligns with their personal goals, suggesting a trend toward overtreatment, according to a new study conducted at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James). "High-quality" decisions were defined as those that demonstrated adequate medical knowledge of treatment choices -- including associated risks -- and that also matched with the patient's specific goals and preferences for choosing whether or not to pursue reconstructive surgery. Researchers say shared decision-making tools are needed to help women make decisions based on a full understanding of treatment choices and associated risks alongside their personal goals for surgery. Researchers report the findings online first in the medical journal JAMA Surgery May 3, 2017. In this observational, single-institution study, researchers sought to evaluate the quality of 126 adult breast cancer patients' decisions about breast reconstruction after mastectomy. All patients had stage I-III invasive ductal/lobular breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or were having preventive mastectomies, and the majority (73 percent) had early-stage disease. Researchers measured study participants' medical knowledge about mastectomy and mastectomy with reconstruction -- for example, effects of surgery on appearance and associated risks. They also measured individual preferences of what mattered most to patients. Key preference factors included breast appearance/shape post treatment, length of recovery time and risk for complications. "We found that less than half of the women had adequate medical knowledge about breast reconstruction and made a choice that aligned with their personal preferences. This is very concerning to us, because it means that some women did not get the treatment they truly preferred, and quite a few had more treatment than they preferred," says Clara Lee, MD, principal investigator of the study and a breast reconstructive surgeon at The OSUCCC - James. Lee holds a dual associate professor appointment in the colleges of medicine and public health at Ohio State. "Many women were quite concerned about complication risks, but they didn't actually know how high the risk was. This may explain some of the overtreatment that we saw," she adds. Researchers found that only 43 percent of the patients in the study demonstrated an understanding of at least half of the important facts about reconstruction and made a choice that was consistent with their preferences. Understanding of surgical complications was particularly low, with only 14 percent of patients demonstrating strong knowledge of associated risks. "As breast cancer providers, we need to talk about the pros and cons of surgery to help women make treatment choices. Shared decision-making between the surgeon and patient would be particularly useful for this decision. We need to connect patients with decision aids to help them really think through what is most important to them," Lee adds. Collaborators in this National Cancer Institute-funded study include Allison Deal, MD, and Ruth Huh, BA, of Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Michael Pignone, MD, MPH, of University of Texas at Austin; and Peter Ubel, MD, of Duke University. Lee and colleagues in Ohio State's colleges of engineering, communication and public health are working on a study to evaluate treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer patients to assess how communication with their providers affects their decision-making. This ongoing study examines patients' knowledge, preferences, and expectations about future well-being. Information from this study is expected to help clinicians develop tools to aid patients in making an informed decision about their care. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 47 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only a few centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs sponsored by the NCI. As the cancer program's 308-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors and with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. Learn more at cancer.osu.edu.


"NCCN is grateful for the collaboration with ION Solutions and their commitment to providing decision support to improve quality and safety in cancer care," said C. Lyn Fitzgerald, MJ, Senior Vice President, U.S. & Global Development, NCCN. "Indeed, we are enthusiastic for the inclusion of the NCCN Guidelines and NCCN Templates® in the IntelliDoseTxM software application and, thereby, the availability of evidence-based clinical decision support for nearly 20,000 patients a month." IntelliDoseTxM is a cloud-based chemotherapy treatment management module that automates an oncology practice's workflow while helping to increase patient safety and staff efficiency. Key features of IntelliDoseTxM include treatment plan management, computerized physician order entry, nurse charting, capturing all charges for each chemotherapy encounter and the capability to integrate with an electronic health record (EHR) application. By including NCCN Content, ION Solutions ensures oncology practices and their patients have access to evidence-based treatment information developed by leading experts. "At ION Solutions, we are always looking for ways to help oncologists create efficiencies in their practice and elevate the level of care they provide to patients. Collaborating with NCCN and providing oncology practices with their industry-leading clinical guidelines and treatment regimens through our IntelliDoseTxM solution is a perfect example of this," said Vicki Albrecht, PhD, Senior Vice President/General Manager, ION Solutions. "NCCN is the gold standard, and we look forward to continuing our partnership and evaluating opportunities to integrate their world-class resources across other areas of our business." The NCCN Guidelines are the recognized standard for clinical policy in cancer care and are the most thorough and most frequently updated clinical practice guidelines available in any area of medicine. Derived directly from the NCCN Guidelines, the NCCN Templates include chemotherapy and immunotherapy regimens with literature support, supportive care agents, monitoring parameters and safety instructions. The goal of the NCCN Templates is to enhance patient safety by empowering health care providers to standardize patient care, reduce medical errors, and anticipate and manage adverse events. NCCN continues to expand the library of chemotherapy order templates to work toward improved safe and effective use of drugs and biologics in cancer care. For more information about the use of NCCN Content in Health Information Technology, visit NCCN.org/HIT. About the National Comprehensive Cancer Network The National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®), a not-for-profit alliance of 27 leading cancer centers devoted to patient care, research, and education, is dedicated to improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of cancer care so that patients can live better lives. Through the leadership and expertise of clinical professionals at NCCN Member Institutions, NCCN develops resources that present valuable information to the numerous stakeholders in the health care delivery system. As the arbiter of high-quality cancer care, NCCN promotes the importance of continuous quality improvement and recognizes the significance of creating clinical practice guidelines appropriate for use by patients, clinicians, and other health care decision-makers. The NCCN Member Institutions are: Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, Omaha, NE; Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH; City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA; Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center | Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA; Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC; Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA; The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD; Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix/Scottsdale, AZ, Jacksonville, FL, and Rochester, MN; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL; The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY; Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital/The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA; University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, AL; UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA; UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA; University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO; University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN; and Yale Cancer Center/Smilow Cancer Hospital, New Haven, CT. About ION Solutions ION Solutions, a part of AmerisourceBergen, is the largest physician service organization and GPO specializing in the support of community oncology. ION provides GPO procurement services, technologies, advocacy resources and expertise to more than half of the community-based oncology practices in the nation to help improve their clinical and operational management. For more information, go to www.iononline.com About AmerisourceBergen AmerisourceBergen provides pharmaceutical products, value-driving services and business solutions that improve access to care. Tens of thousands of healthcare providers, veterinary practices and livestock producers trust us as their partner in the pharmaceutical supply chain. Global pharmaceutical manufacturers depend on us for services that drive commercial success for their products. Powered by our 19,000 associates, we are united in our responsibility to create healthier futures. AmerisourceBergen is ranked #11 on the Fortune 500, with more than $146 billion in annual revenue. The company is headquartered in Valley Forge, Pa. and has a presence in 50+ countries. Learn more at amerisourcebergen.com.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Mike Gardner, President and CEO of third-party logistics provider Kane Is Able, Inc. (KANE -- http://www.kaneisable.com) was awarded the 2016 “Fearless Fundraiser” award by Pelotonia, an organization that runs fundraising bike tours to fight cancer. Pelotonia announced the award at the Pelotonia 2016 Check Celebration on Wednesday, November 9th at Express Live, an indoor-outdoor concert venue in downtown Columbus, OH. Mike’s efforts raised close to $70,000 in funds for cancer research this past year. Susie Pattison, Director of Rider Recruitment and Stewardship for Pelotonia, stated, “Mike set a high bar for all of our other participants! We are so grateful for his enthusiasm for this year’s campaign.” Pelotonia directs 100 percent of every dollar raised by participants to cancer research at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital, and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. Upon receiving the award, Mike said, “A few years ago, my dad was diagnosed with colon cancer. Through surgery, excellent medical care, prayers, and the support of family and friends, he continues to be in remission. Pelotonia is an amazing experience that combines physical challenge, philanthropy and community involvement. These are central tenets in my own life. I am proud to support one of the premier cancer centers in the country – one mile, and one dollar, at a time. Additionally, I’d like to thank the Kane family and our great KANE associates across the country, who have given generously to this cause.” Founded in 2008, Pelotonia was established with the objective to fund life‐saving cancer research. Pelotonia’s ride weekend is a three‐day experience that includes a weekend of cycling, entertainment and volunteerism. In its first seven rides, Pelotonia has raised more than $100 million for cancer research. About Kane Is Able Kane Is Able is a third-party logistics provider that helps manufacturers and their retail partners efficiently and effectively distribute goods throughout the United States. KANE’s value-added logistics services include retail consolidation, nationwide warehousing and distribution, contract packaging, fulfillment, and transportation solutions.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

A new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) has identified a mechanism by which cancer cells develop resistance to a class of drugs called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors. Published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, the study also found that use of a second inhibitor might improve the effectiveness of these drugs by possibly preventing resistance, and it recommends that clinical trials should be designed to include a second inhibitor. FGFR inhibitors are a new family of targeted agents designed to inhibit the action of the fibroblast growth factor receptor, which is often overexpressed in lung, bladder, biliary and breast cancers. "Understanding how drug resistance develops can help in the design of new agents or strategies to overcome resistance," says principal investigator Sameek Roychowdhury, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and of pharmacology in the Division of Medical Oncology at the OSUCCC - James. "Our paper demonstrates in a laboratory model how cancer can evade this class of therapy, and it provides insights into how clinical trials for these therapies could be further developed to overcome the problem of drug resistance," he adds. The laboratory study by Roychowdhury and his colleagues induced resistance to the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 in lung- and bladder-cancer cells after long-term exposure to the agent. The researchers then found that, while the drug continued to inhibit FGFR activity in the resistant cells, its inhibition of FGFR signaling had no appreciable effect on the cells' survival. Examining other molecules in the FGFR pathway, the researchers found that a regulatory protein called Akt remained highly active, even during FGFR inhibition. Akt, a key regulator of cell biology, is directly involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cell growth. Furthermore, they found that by inhibiting Akt they could significantly slow cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in the lung cancer and bladder cancer cells. "Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors are new therapies being developed in clinical trials for patients whose cancer cells have genetic alterations in this family of genes," says Roychowdhury, a member of the OSUCCC - James Translational Therapeutics Program. "We believe our findings will help improve this therapy for lung, bladder and other cancers."


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

New research links specific inherited genetic differences (alterations) to an increased risk for eye (uveal) melanoma, a rare form of melanoma that arises from pigment cells that determine eye color. Roughly 2,500 people are diagnosed with uveal melanoma in the United States annually. Previous clinical data suggests uveal melanoma is more common in Caucasians and individuals with light eye coloration; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying this cancer's development were largely unknown. In this new study -- co-authored by ophthalmologic pathologist and cancer geneticist Mohamed Abdel-Rahman, M.D., Ph.D., of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and cancer geneticist Tomas Kirchhoff, Ph.D., of the Perlmutter Cancer Center of NYU School of Medicine - scientists report the first evidence of a strong association between genes linked to eye color and development of uveal melanoma. Reported data suggests that inherited genetic factors associated with eye and skin pigmentation could increase a person's risk for uveal melanoma. Abdel-Rahman, Kirchhoff and team report their findings in the medical journal Scientific Reports. "This is a very important discovery that will guide future research efforts to explore the interactions of these pigmentary genes with other genetic and environmental risk factors in cancers not linked to sun exposure, such as eye melanoma. This could provide a paradigm shift in the field. Our study suggests that in eye melanoma the pigmentation difference may play a direct cancer-driving role, not related to sunlight protection," says Abdel-Rahman. Unlike other solid tumors, there has been limited progress in understanding the contribution of genetic risk factors to the development of uveal melanoma, researchers say, primarily due to the absence of comprehensive genetic data from patients as the large sample cohorts for this rare cancer type have not been available for research. To overcome these limitations, researchers analyzed samples from more than 270 patients with uveal melanoma, most of whom were treated at Ohio State. Because there is a known clinical connection between eye melanoma and skin cancer, in this study researchers sought to determine whether there were commonly shared genetic factors between both diseases, as the inherited genetic risk of skin melanoma has been more extensively explored in previous medical literature. The team analyzed 29 inherited genetic mutations previously linked with skin melanoma to determine if there was an associated risk of uveal melanoma. This analysis revealed that five genetic mutations were significantly associated with uveal melanoma risk. The three most significant genetic associations occurred in a genetic region that determines eye color. "Genetic susceptibility to uveal melanoma has been traditionally thought to be restricted only to a small groups of patients with family history. Now our strong data shows the presence of novel genetic risk factors associated with this disease in a general population of uveal melanoma patients," says Kirchhoff. "But this data is also important because it indicates -- for the first time -- that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to both skin and uveal melanoma mediated by genetic determination of eye color. This knowledge may have direct implications in the deeper molecular understanding of both diseases," adds Kirchhoff. Researchers expect the data presented in this study to fuel the formation of large national and international research consortiums to conduct comprehensive, systematic analysis of inherited (germline) genome data in large cohorts of uveal melanoma patients. "This type of collaboration is critically needed to dissect additional modifying genetic risk factors that may be uveal melanoma specific. This has important consequences not only for the prevention or early diagnosis of the disease but potentially for more improved therapies for at-risk patients," says Kirchhoff. "Federal funding will be crucial to support research of rare cancers such as eye melanoma as it is likely, as shown in this study, that the impact of such research will extend across the different cancer types," adds Abdel-Rahman.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Columbus, Ohio - A new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) has identified a mechanism by which cancer cells develop resistance to a class of drugs called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors. Published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, the study also found that use of a second inhibitor might improve the effectiveness of these drugs by possibly preventing resistance, and it recommends that clinical trials should be designed to include a second inhibitor. FGFR inhibitors are a new family of targeted agents designed to inhibit the action of the fibroblast growth factor receptor, which is often overexpressed in lung, bladder, biliary and breast cancers. "Understanding how drug resistance develops can help in the design of new agents or strategies to overcome resistance," says principal investigator Sameek Roychowdhury, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and of pharmacology in the Division of Medical Oncology at the OSUCCC - James. "Our paper demonstrates in a laboratory model how cancer can evade this class of therapy, and it provides insights into how clinical trials for these therapies could be further developed to overcome the problem of drug resistance," he adds. The laboratory study by Roychowdhury and his colleagues induced resistance to the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 in lung- and bladder-cancer cells after long-term exposure to the agent. The researchers then found that, while the drug continued to inhibit FGFR activity in the resistant cells, its inhibition of FGFR signaling had no appreciable effect on the cells' survival. Examining other molecules in the FGFR pathway, the researchers found that a regulatory protein called Akt remained highly active, even during FGFR inhibition. Akt, a key regulator of cell biology, is directly involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cell growth. Furthermore, they found that by inhibiting Akt they could significantly slow cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in the lung cancer and bladder cancer cells. "Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors are new therapies being developed in clinical trials for patients whose cancer cells have genetic alterations in this family of genes," says Roychowdhury, a member of the OSUCCC - James Translational Therapeutics Program. "We believe our findings will help improve this therapy for lung, bladder and other cancers." This work was supported by funding from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Cancer Society, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, Fore Cancer Research, American Lung Association and Pelotonia. Other Ohio State researchers involved in this study were Jharna Datta, Senthilkumar Damodaran, Hannah Parks, Cristina Ocrainiciuc, Jharna Miya, Lianbo Yu, Elijah P. Gardner, Eric Samorodnitsky, Michele R. Wing, Darshna Bhatt, John Hays and Julie W. Reeser. The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 47 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only a few centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials on novel anticancer drugs sponsored by the NCI. As the cancer program's 308-bed adult patient-care component, The James is one of the top cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S. News & World Report and has achieved Magnet designation, the highest honor an organization can receive for quality patient care and professional nursing practice. At 21 floors and with more than 1.1 million square feet, The James is a transformational facility that fosters collaboration and integration of cancer research and clinical cancer care. For more information, please visit cancer.osu.edu.


Caronia L.M.,Ohio State University | Phay J.E.,The Surgical Center | Shah M.H.,Solove Research Institute
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

BRAF, a cytoplasmic serine-threonine protein kinase, plays a critical role in cell signaling as an activator within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The most common BRAF mutation is the V600E transversion, which causes constitutive kinase activity. This mutation has been found in a multitude of human cancers, including both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary-derived anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), in which it initiates follicular cell transformation. With such a high frequency of BRAF mutations in PTC (44%) and PTC-derived ATC (24%), research in BRAF V600E detection for diagnostic purposes has shown high sensitivity and specificity for tumor cell presence. BRAF V600E in PTC has also provided valuable prognostic information, as its presence has been correlated with more aggressive and iodine-resistant phenotypes. Such findings have initiated research in targeting oncogenic BRAF in cancer therapeutics. Although multiple phase II clinical trials in patients with iodine-refractory metastatic PTC have shown significant efficacy for sorafenib, a first-generation BRAF inhibitor, the mechanism by which it mediates its effect remains unclear because of multiple additional kinase targets of sorafenib. Additionally, preclinical and clinical studies investigating combination therapy with agents such as selective (PLX 4032) and potent (BAY 73-4506 and ARQ 736) small-molecule BRAF inhibitors and MAP/extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitors (AZD6244) hold great promise in the treatment of BRAF V600Ecancers and may eventually play a powerful role in changing the clinical course of PTC and ATC. ©2011 AACR.

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