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In its approach to scientific research, President Trump’s budget can be accurately described as a mugging. I’ve watched this happen before, up-close and personal. It does not end well. In 1979, President Carter set an ambitious but achievable goal to get 20% of the nation’s energy from renewable sources by the year 2000. I then headed the federal Solar Energy Research Institute, which spearheaded the Manhattan Project to Harness the Sun. In the late 1970s, the United States had more PhDs in the solar field, filed more solar patents and made more commercial solar modules than the rest of the  world combined. In its first year, the Reagan administration slashed the solar institute’s staff by 40%, reduced its budget by 80% and abruptly terminated all of its 1,000-plus university research contracts (including shutting down work by two professors who later won Nobel Prizes). The firings were so wantonly brutal that many of the researchers were driven into other fields. The consequences have been huge. In 2016, solar energy was the United States’ largest source of new electricity-generating capacity, contributing roughly 40% of the total from all sources. The U.S. solar industry now employs 260,000 people, more than three times as many workers as the coal industry. Most of them install and maintain photovoltaic panels that convert free, nonpolluting sunlight into power. But nearly all the solar modules these workers install are being developed and manufactured abroad. The U.S. makes just 5% of the world’s solar panels. The U.S. ought to own the solar electric industry. By rights, we ought to be exporting solar technology, not importing it. Our second-tier status, in a field that we once absolutely dominated, is a direct consequence of budget decisions made by President Reagan’s Office of Management and Budget, and a go-along Congress. Adjusted for inflation, the budget of the solar institute (since renamed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) did not recover to its 1979 level until 2008. Science research can’t be revved up and down like an engine and succeed. If you pull the funding out from under a field of inquiry, it will stall and fall behind at best. Now the Trump science budget proposes to make Reagan’s mistake all over again, across many more fields. Denis Hayes, president and chief executive of the Bullitt Foundation, was the convener of the first Earth Day.


Razykov T.M.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan | Razykov T.M.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Amin N.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Ergashev B.,Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan | And 8 more authors.
Applied Solar Energy (English translation of Geliotekhnika) | Year: 2013

CdTe films with different compositions (Cd-rich, Te-rich and stoichiometric) were fabricated by revolutionary novel and low cost chemical molecular beam deposition (CMBD) method in the atmospheric pressure hydrogen flow. Cd and Te granules were used as precursors. The films were deposited on ceramic (SiO2: Al2O3) substrates at 600 C. The growth rate was varied in the range of 20-30 Å/s. The composition of the samples was changed by controlling the molecular beam intensity (MBI) ratio Cd/Te. Effect of CdCl2 treatment on morphology, photoluminescence and electrical properties of CdTe films was investigated by AFM, Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and Hall methods. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.


« Elio Motors plans to sell 100 pre-production 3-wheelers; consumer launch moving to 2017 as company seeks funding | Main | $67 Oil Has All The Majors Converging in Argentina » Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a new, environmentally stable solid-state hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H per liter in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments. An open-access paper on the work is published in the journal Nature Communications. Metal hydrides for solid-state hydrogen storage are one of the few materials capable of providing sufficient storage density required to meet these long-term targets. However, simultaneously meeting gravimetric, volumetric, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements has proven challenging, owing to the strong binding enthalpies for the metal hydride bonds, long diffusion path lengths and oxidative instability of zero-valent metals. Although nanostructuring has been shown to optimize binding enthalpies3, synthesis and oxidative stabilization of metallic nanocrystals remains a challenge. Protection strategies against oxidization and sintering of nanocrystals often involve embedding these crystals in dense matrices, which add considerable ‘dead’ mass to the composite, in turn decreasing gravimetric and volumetric density. Thus, although metal hydrides show the most promise for non-cryogenic applications, it remains true that no single material has met all of these essential criteria. These graphene-encapsulated magnesium crystals act as “sponges” for hydrogen, offering a very compact and safe way to take in and store hydrogen. The nanocrystals also permit faster fueling, and reduce the overall “tank” size. The graphene shields the nanocrystals from oxygen and moisture and contaminants, while tiny, natural holes allow the smaller hydrogen molecules to pass through. This filtering process overcomes common problems degrading the performance of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The research, conducted at Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source, is part of a National Lab Consortium, dubbed HyMARC (Hydrogen Materials—Advanced Research Consortium) (earlier post) that seeks safer and more cost-effective hydrogen storage. The work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium (BAPVC), and the US-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the US (SERIIUS).


News Article | March 14, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element on Earth and in our universe. So it shouldn’t be a big surprise that scientists are pursuing hydrogen as a clean, carbon-free, virtually limitless energy source for cars and for a range of other uses, from portable generators to telecommunications towers — with water as the only byproduct of combustion. While there remain scientific challenges to making hydrogen-based energy sources more competitive with current automotive propulsion systems and other energy technologies, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a new materials recipe for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell — which surrounds hydrogen-absorbing magnesium nanocrystals with atomically thin graphene sheets — to push its performance forward in key areas. The graphene shields the nanocrystals from oxygen and moisture and contaminants, while tiny, natural holes allow the smaller hydrogen molecules to pass through. This filtering process overcomes common problems degrading the performance of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. These graphene-encapsulated magnesium crystals act as “sponges” for hydrogen, offering a very compact and safe way to take in and store hydrogen. The nanocrystals also permit faster fueling, and reduce the overall “tank” size. “Among metal hydride-based materials for hydrogen storage for fuel-cell vehicle applications, our materials have good performance in terms of capacity, reversibility, kinetics and stability,” says Eun Seon Cho, a postdoctoral researcher at Berkeley Lab and lead author of a study related to the new fuel cell formula, published recently in Nature Communications. In a hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicle using these materials, known as a “metal hydride” (hydrogen bound with a metal) fuel cell, hydrogen gas pumped into a vehicle would be chemically absorbed by the magnesium nanocrystaline powder and rendered safe at low pressures. Jeff Urban, a Berkeley Lab staff scientist and co-author, says, “This work suggests the possibility of practical hydrogen storage and use in the future. I believe that these materials represent a generally applicable approach to stabilizing reactive materials while still harnessing their unique activity — concepts that could have wide-ranging applications for batteries, catalysis, and energetic materials.” The research, conducted at Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source, is part of a National Lab Consortium, dubbed HyMARC (Hydrogen Materials — Advanced Research Consortium) that seeks safer and more cost-effective hydrogen storage, and Urban is Berkeley Lab’s lead scientist for that effort. The U.S. market share for all electric-drive vehicles in 2015, including full-electric, hybrids and plug-in hybrid vehicles, was 2.87 percent, which amounts to about 500,000 electric-drive vehicles out of total vehicle sales of about 17.4 million, according to statistics reported by the Electric Drive Transportation Association, a trade association promoting electric-drive vehicles. Hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles haven’t yet made major in-roads in vehicle sales, though several major auto manufacturers including Toyota, Honda, and General Motors, have invested in developing hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Indeed, Toyota released a small-production model called the Mirai, which uses compressed-hydrogen tanks, last year in the U.S. A potential advantage for hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles, in addition to their reduced environmental impact over standard-fuel vehicles, is the high specific energy of hydrogen, which means that hydrogen fuel cells can potentially take up less weight than other battery systems and fuel sources while yielding more electrical energy. A measure of the energy storage capacity per weight of hydrogen fuel cells, known as the “gravimetric energy density,” is roughly three times that of gasoline. Urban noted that this important property, if effectively used, could extend the total vehicle range of hydrogen-based transportation, and extend the time between refueling for many other applications, too. More R&D is needed to realize higher-capacity hydrogen storage for long-range vehicle applications that exceed the performance of existing electric-vehicle batteries, Cho said, and other applications may be better suited for hydrogen fuel cells in the short term, such as stationary power sources, forklifts and airport vehicles, portable power sources like laptop battery chargers, portable lighting, water and sewage pumps and emergency services equipment. Cho says that a roadblock to metal hydride storage has been a relatively slow rate in taking in (absorption) and giving out (desorption) hydrogen during the cycling of the units. In fuel cells, separate chemical reactions involving hydrogen and oxygen produce a flow of electrons that are channeled as electric current, creating water as a byproduct. The tiny size of the graphene-encapsulated nanocrystals created at Berkeley Lab, which measure only about 3-4 nanometers, or billionths of a meter across, is a key in the new fuel cell materials’ fast capture and release of hydrogen, Cho said, as they have more surface area available for reactions than the same material would at larger sizes. Another key is protecting the magnesium from exposure to air, which would render it unusable for the fuel cell, she added. Working at The Molecular Foundry, researchers found a simple, scalable and cost-effective “one pan” technique to mix up the graphene sheets and magnesium oxide nanocrystals in the same batch. They later studied the coated nanocrystals’ structure using X-rays at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source. The X-ray studies showed how hydrogen gas pumped into the fuel cell mixture reacted with the magnesium nanocrystals to form a more stable molecule called magnesium hydride while locking out oxygen from reaching the magnesium. “It is stable in air, which is important,” Cho says. Next steps in the research will focus on using different types of catalysts — which can improve the speed and efficiency of chemical reactions — to further improve the fuel cell’s conversion of electrical current, and in studying whether different types of material can also improve the fuel cell’s overall capacity, Cho says. The Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source are both DOE Office of Science User Facilities. The work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium (BAPVC), and the US-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the U.S. (SERIIUS).


Home > Press > New fuel cell design powered by graphene-wrapped nanocrystals: Berkeley Lab innovation could lead to faster fueling, improved performance for hydrogen-powered vehicles Abstract: Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element on Earth and in our universe. So it shouldn't be a big surprise that scientists are pursuing hydrogen as a clean, carbon-free, virtually limitless energy source for cars and for a range of other uses, from portable generators to telecommunications towers--with water as the only byproduct of combustion. While there remain scientific challenges to making hydrogen-based energy sources more competitive with current automotive propulsion systems and other energy technologies, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a new materials recipe for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell--which surrounds hydrogen-absorbing magnesium nanocrystals with atomically thin graphene sheets--to push its performance forward in key areas. The graphene shields the nanocrystals from oxygen and moisture and contaminants, while tiny, natural holes allow the smaller hydrogen molecules to pass through. This filtering process overcomes common problems degrading the performance of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. These graphene-encapsulated magnesium crystals act as "sponges" for hydrogen, offering a very compact and safe way to take in and store hydrogen. The nanocrystals also permit faster fueling, and reduce the overall "tank" size. "Among metal hydride-based materials for hydrogen storage for fuel-cell vehicle applications, our materials have good performance in terms of capacity, reversibility, kinetics and stability," said Eun Seon Cho, a postdoctoral researcher at Berkeley Lab and lead author of a study related to the new fuel cell formula, published recently in Nature Communications. In a hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicle using these materials, known as a "metal hydride" (hydrogen bound with a metal) fuel cell, hydrogen gas pumped into a vehicle would be chemically absorbed by the magnesium nanocrystaline powder and rendered safe at low pressures. Jeff Urban, a Berkeley Lab staff scientist and co-author, said, "This work suggests the possibility of practical hydrogen storage and use in the future. I believe that these materials represent a generally applicable approach to stabilizing reactive materials while still harnessing their unique activity--concepts that could have wide-ranging applications for batteries, catalysis, and energetic materials." The research, conducted at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source, is part of a National Lab Consortium, dubbed HyMARC (Hydrogen Materials--Advanced Research Consortium) that seeks safer and more cost-effective hydrogen storage, and Urban is Berkeley Lab's lead scientist for that effort. The U.S. market share for all electric-drive vehicles in 2015, including full-electric, hybrids and plug-in hybrid vehicles, was 2.87 percent, which amounts to about 500,000 electric-drive vehicles out of total vehicle sales of about 17.4 million, according to statistics reported by the Electric Drive Transportation Association, a trade association promoting electric-drive vehicles. Hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles haven't yet made major in-roads in vehicle sales, though several major auto manufacturers including Toyota, Honda, and General Motors, have invested in developing hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Indeed, Toyota released a small-production model called the Mirai, which uses compressed-hydrogen tanks, last year in the U.S. A potential advantage for hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles, in addition to their reduced environmental impact over standard-fuel vehicles, is the high specific energy of hydrogen, which means that hydrogen fuel cells can potentially take up less weight than other battery systems and fuel sources while yielding more electrical energy. A measure of the energy storage capacity per weight of hydrogen fuel cells, known as the "gravimetric energy density," is roughly three times that of gasoline. Urban noted that this important property, if effectively used, could extend the total vehicle range of hydrogen-based transportation, and extend the time between refueling for many other applications, too. More R&D is needed to realize higher-capacity hydrogen storage for long-range vehicle applications that exceed the performance of existing electric-vehicle batteries, Cho said, and other applications may be better suited for hydrogen fuel cells in the short term, such as stationary power sources, forklifts and airport vehicles, portable power sources like laptop battery chargers, portable lighting, water and sewage pumps and emergency services equipment. Cho said that a roadblock to metal hydride storage has been a relatively slow rate in taking in (absorption) and giving out (desorption) hydrogen during the cycling of the units. In fuel cells, separate chemical reactions involving hydrogen and oxygen produce a flow of electrons that are channeled as electric current, creating water as a byproduct. The tiny size of the graphene-encapsulated nanocrystals created at Berkeley Lab, which measure only about 3-4 nanometers, or billionths of a meter across, is a key in the new fuel cell materials' fast capture and release of hydrogen, Cho said, as they have more surface area available for reactions than the same material would at larger sizes. Another key is protecting the magnesium from exposure to air, which would render it unusable for the fuel cell, she added. Working at The Molecular Foundry, researchers found a simple, scalable and cost-effective "one pan" technique to mix up the graphene sheets and magnesium oxide nanocrystals in the same batch. They later studied the coated nanocrystals' structure using X-rays at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source. The X-ray studies showed how hydrogen gas pumped into the fuel cell mixture reacted with the magnesium nanocrystals to form a more stable molecule called magnesium hydride while locking out oxygen from reaching the magnesium. "It is stable in air, which is important," Cho said. Next steps in the research will focus on using different types of catalysts--which can improve the speed and efficiency of chemical reactions--to further improve the fuel cell's conversion of electrical current, and in studying whether different types of material can also improve the fuel cell's overall capacity, Cho said. ### The Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source are both DOE Office of Science User Facilities. The work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium (BAPVC), and the US-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the U.S. (SERIIUS). About Berkeley Lab Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world's most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab's scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. For more, visit www.lbl.gov. DOE's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit www.science.energy.gov. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Razykov T.M.,Physical Technical Institute | Razykov T.M.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Razykov T.M.,University of South Florida | Amin N.,Solar Energy Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

We developed revolutionary novel and low cost and nonvacuum chemical molecular beam deposition method for fabrication of thin film II-VI solar cells in the atmospheric pressure gas (He, Ar, H 2) flow. High quality polycrystalline CdTe films with different compositions (stoichiometric and Cd/Te 1.0 and Cd/Te 1.0) and thickness of 2-3 μm were fabricated on ceramic (SiO 2:Al 2O 3) substrates at temperature of 600°C. Separate sources of Cd and Te with respective purities of 99.999 were used as precursors. The growth rate was varied in the range of 9-30 Å/s. The effect of the composition and CdCl 2 treatment on the structure, intrinsic point defects, and electrical properties of CdTe films was investigated by XRD, AFM, Raman spectra, photoluminescence, and Hall methods. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


News Article | August 7, 2015
Site: www.techtimes.com

To solve its energy crisis in a coal-dependent country and to reach its goal toward becoming one of the world's largest solar markets, India is launching a new concentrated solar power project in a few weeks. Run by the Indian Institute of Science (IISC) as part of the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States (Seriius), the project consists of rows of aluminum troughs that will generate solar-powered electricity. Sunlight that reflects from the troughs will bounce to water pipes located above. The water in the pipes will be heated to 392 degrees Fahrenheit and go through a heat exchanger that is attached to a small machine used for producing power from fast-flowing water, which will then create 100 kilowatts of electricity. The researchers will then be able to test various reflective heat-transferable liquids, such as molten salt, to produce electricity. They will gather and analyze data sent to a dashboard at IISC from small wireless sensors with the goal of finding the best components to produce solar power in India as many of the solar panels the country received are not suited for the extreme conditions of its climate. Along with testing concentrated solar power, solar photovoltaic installations will also be added, and researchers will focus on creating polymers to protect the panels from extreme conditions like high temperatures and dust. While the project may lead to the solution for the deterioration of solar panels, the researchers have another problem on their hands — monkeys. The installation set in Challakere, north of Bangalore, is often invaded by monkeys that are wreaking havoc on the solar panels. The monkeys are said to chew on the electrical cables and even lick the panels that collect dew. "We've tried giving them food to lure them away, but they just sit there," professor of materials engineering at IISC Praveen Ramamurthy said. "I don't know what to do." To address the monkey problem, the researchers have even tried an ultrasonic monkey repellent to keep the animals away from the project, but they just keep coming back. While the panels provide a hangout spot for the primates, the project will help India progress toward providing clean energy to the more than 300 million people who live without it.


Mohd Sari K.A.,University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia | Mohd Sari K.A.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Mat S.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Haji Badri K.,Polymer Research Center | Mohd Zain M.F.,National University of Malaysia
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

An experimental program was performed to obtain the density, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of palm-based lightweight concrete. Palm-based polyurethane (PU) particles were used as lightweight aggregates in creating concrete systems. Concrete systems contain palm kernel oil-based polyol (PKO-p) reacted with 2,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). In this study, polymer concrete was improved to achieve the optimum level of PU with the lowest possible density. The PU particles in the concrete mixture comprised of 1% to 5% w/w with density of less than 1800 kg/m3. The PU particles were 5 mm in size. The ratio of PKO-p to MDI was set at 1:1 and the loading of the concrete mixture was set at 3% w/w to produce lightweight concrete. The resulting concrete has excellent compressive strength (17.5 MPa) and thermal conductivity (0.24 W/m K). Results show that the PU particle dosage has the most significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Matin M.A.,Electronics and System Engineering | Amin N.,Electronics and System Engineering | Amin N.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Zaharim A.,Solar Energy Research Institute | Sopian K.,National University of Malaysia
WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development | Year: 2010

Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the leading material for realization of low cost and high efficiency solar cell for terrestrial use. In this work, a conventional structure of CdTe thin film solar cells [1] was investigated and conversion efficiency as high as 13.2% was achieved with the CdTe baseline structure of SnO2/CdS/CdTe. To explore the possibility of ultra thin and high efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells, the CdTe absorber layer and CdS window layer were decreased to the extreme limit and 1 μm thin CdTe layer is found to show reasonable range of efficiency with stability. Moreover, it was found that there were scopes to increase cell efficiency by reducing the cadmium sulfide (CdS) window layer thickness. The CdS window layer was reduced to 60 nm together with the insertion of zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) as the buffer layer to prevent forward leakage current. All the simulations have been done using Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS 1D) simulator. The maximum conversion efficiency of 18.3% (Voc = 1.00 V, Jsc = 26.15 mA/cm2, FF = 0.769) was achieved with 1 μm-CdTe absorber layer, 60 nm-CdS window layer and 100 nm of ZnO or Zn2SnO4 buffer layer. Furthermore, it was found that the cell normalized efficiency linearly decreased with the increasing operating temperature at the gradient of -0.4%/°C, which indicated better stability of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.


News Article | November 24, 2016
Site: cleantechnica.com

Watts going on with the price of solar? In short, the future is very bright – and affordable. Today, solar power is everywhere. It’s on your neighbor’s roof and in tiny portable cellphone chargers. There are even solar powered roads. And as solar power heats up, prices are going down. In fact, over the past 40 years, the cost of solar has decreased by over 99%! But how did we get here? Ready for a quick history lesson on one of the world’s fastest growing sources of energy? You might find this hard to believe, but we can trace the idea of harnessing the power of the sun back to 1839. A bright (pun intended!) young French physicist named Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect – the creation of an electric current in a material after being exposed to light – while experimenting in his father’s laboratory. Over the following hundred-plus years, scientists continued exploring this phenomenon, creating and patenting solar cells, using them to heat water, and doing extensive research to increase the efficiency of solar energy. The 1970s brought a period of change not only in the form of political and cultural upheaval, but also saw the rise of solar as a viable way to produce electricity. The first solar-powered calculator was commercialized, the Solar Energy Research Institute (now called the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) was established, and US President Jimmy Carter installed solar panels on the White House for the first time. But it was also quite expensive, costing an average of $76 per watt in 1977. But as advancements in the industry continued, the costs began to fall. Over the next 10 years, the price would drop sevenfold to less than $10 per watt, hitting a plateau in the late 1980s and early ‘90s. Fast-forward to a few years later, and solar technology was really hitting its stride as huge cost reductions were made in recent years, causing world leaders, governments, and the private sector to get on board and moving solar from a niche technology into the mainstream. Soon, regular people in communities all over the world were installing panels on their roofs and in numerous other applications thanks to the technology’s improving economics and innovative incentives and financing models. Which brings us to today, when solar power can cost a minuscule 61 cents per watt. In a relatively short period of time, it’s become clear that an incredible future is ahead for this renewable source of energy. And as you might expect, the more the price falls, the more attractive it becomes. Forty years ago, the total global installation of solar was around 2 megawatts. Today, total global installation is closer to 224,000 megawatts. And as we start down the road forward after the historic Paris Agreement, we’re noticing just how many countries are working to meet their carbon emissions reduction goals by going solar. That’s why we’re hoping you will join us December 5-6 for 24 Hours of Reality: The Road Forward as we travel the world for a look at how solar power is revolutionizing access to electricity in Mexico, Malaysia, and Venezuela. We’ll visit southeast Asia to meet a ”solar monk” in Thailand, and to South Africa, where sheep and solar live together on one solar PV farm. We’ll even hear from oil-rich countries in the Middle East that are starting to prepare for a future beyond fossil fuels – and renewables like solar are becoming more and more cost effective. Sign up today to receive reminders about these inspiring stories. We’ll see you December 5-6 for The Climate Reality Project’s annual 24 Hours of Reality live event. You won’t want to miss out! Buy a cool T-shirt or mug in the CleanTechnica store!   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech daily newsletter or weekly newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.

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