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Sokoto, Nigeria

Oyeniyi Y.J.,Sokoto State University | Itiola O.A.,University of Ibadan
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

This study was devoted to the extraction and purification of microcrystalline cellulose, (MCC) from Sawdust, an agricultural waste product, readily available in most developing countries at no cost. Microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Alkali delignification of sawdust, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed. The microcrystalline cellulose obtained, was thereafter evaluated for its physicochemical characteristic, in comparison with commercially available Avicel PH 101. The percentage yield of MCC from this waste product was 68% W/w, this is relatively high enough to stimulate large scale commercialization of the extraction of MCC. Source

Hudu S.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hudu S.A.,Sokoto State University | Malik Y.A.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Niazlin M.T.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Patient Preference and Adherence

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the level of hepatitis B immunity among undergraduate students 23 years after commencement of the nationwide hepatitis B childhood immunization program in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 402 serum samples obtained from volunteer undergraduate students were screened for the presence of hepatitis B surface antibodies using qualitative ELISA. Results: Results showed that 62.7% of volunteers had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigens (≥10 IU/L), of whom 67.9% received three doses of the vaccine. The estimated post-vaccination immunity was found to be at least 20 years, indicating persistent immunity against hepatitis B and a significant association (P < 0.05) with duration of vaccination. Anamnestic response 1 month post-hepatitis B booster was 94.0% and highly significant (P < 0.01). Isolated antihepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) prevalence was found to be 5.0%, all having had a positive anamnestic response. Conclusion: Immunity after primary vaccination with hepatitis B recombinant vaccine persists for at least 20 years post-vaccination, with significant association with the number of vaccinations. Furthermore, the presence of anamnestic response to booster vaccine indicates long-lasting immunity despite decreasing antibody levels; therefore, the need for hepatitis B vaccine boosters may not be of significant benefit after complete infant vaccination. © 2013 Hudu et al. Source

Njoku V.O.,Imo State University | Chikezie P.C.,Imo State University | Kaoje A.M.,Sokoto State University
African Journal of Biotechnology

Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the kinetic constants-maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) and Michealis-Menten constant (Km) were evaluated. The Km and Vmax values were 0.5 × 10-3 M and 20 x 10-6 M/min, respectively. Inhibition studies showed that ALP activity was competitively inhibited by 0.67 mM sodium hydrogen orthophosphate (NaH2PO4) and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 0.9 × 10-3 M. The optimum pH value for ALP activity was about 9.2, and optimum temperature registered was 45°C. ALP activity exhibited linear Arrhenius relationship at temperature greater than 44.95°C with corresponding catalytic energy of activation (Ea) = 15.23 KJ mole-1. The present study gave insights into characteristic catalytic properties of ALP extracted from L. townsendii liver. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Rehman I.,Sokoto State University | Shah T.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hussain I.,National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section A Journal of Physical Sciences

In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications. © 2014 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Source

Watila M.M.,University Of Maiduguri | Balarabe B.,Sokoto State University
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Abstract Background Aphasia is an important stroke sequel that impacts negatively on the HQoL of stroke patients. Although a number of stroke patients with aphasia will have good functional recovery, many are left with language deficits. Method Papers were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE search, with keywords such as: 'stroke', 'aphasia', 'post-stroke aphasia', 'factors that predict aphasia recovery', 'aphasia outcomes' and 'aphasia prognosis'. Results The most important factors that determine recovery are the lesion location and size, aphasia type and severity and to some extent the nature of early haemodynamic response, and treatment received. Anagraphic factors like gender, age, handedness and education have not been found to be robust predictors of recovery. Conclusions Predicting post-stroke aphasia recovery is difficult, because of the interplay between lesion, anagraphic, and treatment-related factors, in addition to the role of neuroplasticity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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