Sokoto, Nigeria

Sokoto State University
Sokoto, Nigeria
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Hudu S.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hudu S.A.,Sokoto State University | Malik Y.A.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Niazlin M.T.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Current Issues in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide, and more than 350 million people are chronic carriers, constituting a major global threat. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have the highest levels of endemicity in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence ranging between 2% and 31%. Mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported in many parts of the world but are most common in Asian infants; such mutants have several clinical effects, such as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnostic failures by commercial assays have reduced the diagnostic effectiveness of HBsAg detection. For example the substitution of an amino acid in the major hydrophilic region of the S gene reduces the binding of hepatitis B surface antibodies leading to immune escape. The safety of blood transfusion may be compromised by current screening tests due to escape from being neutralised by antibodies induced by HBsAg mutants, and undetectable levels of viral surface protein. Data on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific are scant; however, this manuscript has reviewed the available information on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific.

Oyeniyi Y.J.,Sokoto State University | Itiola O.A.,University of Ibadan
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

This study was devoted to the extraction and purification of microcrystalline cellulose, (MCC) from Sawdust, an agricultural waste product, readily available in most developing countries at no cost. Microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Alkali delignification of sawdust, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed. The microcrystalline cellulose obtained, was thereafter evaluated for its physicochemical characteristic, in comparison with commercially available Avicel PH 101. The percentage yield of MCC from this waste product was 68% W/w, this is relatively high enough to stimulate large scale commercialization of the extraction of MCC.

Njoku V.O.,Imo State University | Chikezie P.C.,Imo State University | Kaoje A.M.,Sokoto State University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the kinetic constants-maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) and Michealis-Menten constant (Km) were evaluated. The Km and Vmax values were 0.5 × 10-3 M and 20 x 10-6 M/min, respectively. Inhibition studies showed that ALP activity was competitively inhibited by 0.67 mM sodium hydrogen orthophosphate (NaH2PO4) and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 0.9 × 10-3 M. The optimum pH value for ALP activity was about 9.2, and optimum temperature registered was 45°C. ALP activity exhibited linear Arrhenius relationship at temperature greater than 44.95°C with corresponding catalytic energy of activation (Ea) = 15.23 KJ mole-1. The present study gave insights into characteristic catalytic properties of ALP extracted from L. townsendii liver. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Watila M.M.,University Of Maiduguri | Balarabe S.A.,Sokoto State University
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015

PMP22 is a transmembrane glycoprotein component of myelin, important for myelin functioning. Mutation of PMP22 gene which encodes for the production of PMP22 glycoprotein is associated with a variety of inherited neuropathies. This literature review sought to review the molecular mechanism and clinical features of inherited neuropathies caused by PMP22 duplication. PMP22 duplication causes CMT1A which accounts for more than half of all CMT cases and about 70% of CMT1 cases. It manifests with muscle weakness, depressed reflexes, impaired distal sensation, hand and foot deformities, slowing of NCV and onion bulbs. With no specific treatment available, it is managed conservatively. Future treatment may be based on the molecular genetics of the disease. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Watila M.M.,University Of Maiduguri | Balarabe B.,Sokoto State University
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015

Abstract Background Aphasia is an important stroke sequel that impacts negatively on the HQoL of stroke patients. Although a number of stroke patients with aphasia will have good functional recovery, many are left with language deficits. Method Papers were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE search, with keywords such as: 'stroke', 'aphasia', 'post-stroke aphasia', 'factors that predict aphasia recovery', 'aphasia outcomes' and 'aphasia prognosis'. Results The most important factors that determine recovery are the lesion location and size, aphasia type and severity and to some extent the nature of early haemodynamic response, and treatment received. Anagraphic factors like gender, age, handedness and education have not been found to be robust predictors of recovery. Conclusions Predicting post-stroke aphasia recovery is difficult, because of the interplay between lesion, anagraphic, and treatment-related factors, in addition to the role of neuroplasticity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rehman I.,Sokoto State University | Shah T.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hussain I.,National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section A Journal of Physical Sciences | Year: 2014

In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications. © 2014 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung.

Muhammad S.I.,University Putra Malaysia | Muhammad S.I.,Sokoto State University | Ismail M.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmud R.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause.Methods: Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations.Results: GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.Conclusion: GBR and its bioactives could be a potential alternative in improving reproductive system atrophy, dryness and discomfort during menopause. © 2013 Muhammad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bakura S.A.,Sokoto State University | Mohammed A.,Sokoto State University
IEEE International Conference on Adaptive Science and Technology, ICAST | Year: 2015

Concurrency control is one of the most important components of transaction management, which ensures the correctness of shared data items. Most of the existing concurrency control techniques use locking mechanism to achieve concurrency control, which leads to transaction starvation and deadlock. On the other hand, the non-locking techniques (i.e. optimistic and timestamp ordering) are associated with high abortion rate and excessive transaction restart. This paper presents a lock-free hybrid concurrency control strategy that combines the features of optimistic and timestamp-ordering strategies. The technique allows mobile devices to freely read data items and allowed to pre-commit while in disconnection mode, and latter propagate the pre-committed data during reconnection for global commitment. A designed hybrid concurrency simulator (HCsim) was used to evaluate the performance of the new scheme using transaction abortion rate and response time as performance metrics. Simulation results have shown that lock-free hybrid strategy outperform both optimistic and timestamp strategies in terms of minimizing the transaction abortion rate and response time. © 2014 IEEE.

Ben O.,Sokoto State University | Yusuf T.,Sokoto State University
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Introduction: early infant diagnosis (EID) provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and early access to antiretroviral treatment. The study is designed to determine PCR pattern of HIV- exposed infants. Methods: a 2-year cross-sectional study at Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria. All pregnant women that presented to our ANC between January, 2011 and December, 2012 were screened for HIV; confirmation for seropositivity was from a positive ELISA and then a Western Blot assay. PCR was done for all the HIV-exposed babies at 6-8 weeks of age. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results: otal delivery was 6,578. One hundred and sixty three babies from 162 mothers were HIV-exposed; 88 males, 75 females, with male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Eighty eight (54.0%) of the mothers were on HAART before pregnancy; 63 (39.0%) commenced HAART during pregnancy while, 12 (7.0%) never received HAART. Three (1.8%) of the HIV-exposed babies had a positive PCR. One hundred and thirty nine babies (85.3%) were breast fed. Conclusion: mother-to-child-transmission of HIV appears to be on the decline in the study area (1.8%), this probably, represents the pattern in other parts of the country. © Onankpa Ben et al.

The present paper investigates the combined effects of Soret and Dufour on free convective heat and mass transfer on the unsteady one-dimensional boundary layer flow over a vertical channel in the presence of viscous dissipation and constant suction. The governing partial differential equations are solved numerically using the implicit Crank-Nicolson method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number at the plate are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and are presented through tables. It has been observed that the velocity and temperature increase with the increase in the viscous dissipation parameter and Dufour number, while an increase in Soret number causes a reduction in temperature and a rise in the velocity and concentration.

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