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Morogoro, Tanzania

Sokoine University of Agriculture is a public university in Morogoro, Tanzania specializing in agriculture. Wikipedia.

Mosha T.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Tanzania journal of health research

A cross-sectional comparison study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren 428 children aged 6 -12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni municipalities in Tanzania. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for all respondents. A total of 428 children were involved in the study. The prevalence of obesity among children aged 6 - 9 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni were 5.6% (n = 118) and 6.3% (n = 87), respectively. Likewise, 4.2% (n = 118) of children aged 6-9 years in Dodoma were overweight while 8.6% (n = 87) of their counterparts in Kinondoni municipality were overweight. For children aged 10-12 years, 3.9% (n= 118) in Dodoma were obese compared to 5.8% (n = 87) of their peers in Kinondoni. Some 4.9% of the children aged 10-12 years in Dodoma were overweight compared to 5.8% of their counterparts in Kinondoni. The average body fat mass of children aged 6 - 9 years in Dodoma ranged from 21.42-21.81%, while that of their peers in Kinondoni ranged from 21.66-21.98%. The average body fat mass of children aged 10-12 years ranged between 23.95-24.10% in Dodoma and 23.65-24.95% in Kinondoni. There were gender and age differences in body fat mass distribution, with girls and the older children having significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of body fat mass. In conclusion, although the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in this study were lower than those reported elsewhere, there is an imminent danger because the trend of the conditions is rising swiftly with urbanization, changes in lifestyles and socio-economic transition. It is recommended that, children should be educated on good nutrition practices and trained to develop healthy eating behaviours. Parents should encourage lifestyle behaviours that promote high level of physical activities. Physical education and organized sports at schools should be revived. Source

Mkoma S.L.,Hokkaido University | Mkoma S.L.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kawamura K.,Hokkaido University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m -3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m -3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m -3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar radiation. Strong positive correlations were found among diacids and related compounds as well as good relations to source tracers in both seasons, suggesting a mixed source from natural biogenic emissions, biomass burning, biofuel combustion, and photochemical production. © 2013 Author(s). Source

Wambura P.N.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Tropical Animal Health and Production

Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 108.5 EID50/0.1 mL for 90 days at ambient room temperatures (25-34°C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (≥3.0 log2) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Rweyemamu M.M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Emerging health threats journal

Formed in 2008, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) is a One Health consortium of academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals. Operating in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries, its mission is to harness innovations in science and technology for improving southern Africa's capacity to detect, identify, monitor (DIM) and manage the risk posed by infectious diseases of humans, animals, and ecosystems. The consortium's major capacity development activities include a series of One Health-based Master of Science (MSc) courses and a five-year DIM-driven research program. Additionally, SACIDS organized Africa's first One Health conference, in July 2011. This paper describes these and other major activities that SACIDS has undertaken to improve infectious disease surveillance across southern Africa. The paper also describes the role and collaboration of SACIDS with other national, regional and international consortia/networks that share a vision and interest in promoting novel approaches to infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response. Source

Kideghesho J.R.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Biodiversity and Conservation

Wildlife crime is increasingly gaining prominence in global environmental debates. The crime, generating huge financial returns to few individuals, has far reaching implications on ecology, economy and global security. The seriousness of these implications provides sufficient rationale for reconsidering and intensifying efforts to combat this crime. However, these efforts are compromised by a number of challenges, though opportunities for success exist. This paper presents some of these challenges and opportunities available for reversing the trend of wildlife crime in Tanzania. The challenges presented include poverty, high profit associated with illicit trade on wildlife, poor governance and corruption, minimal budget and inadequate institutional support, political interference and low employee morale, minimal benefits to local communities, human population growth, climate change and HIV/AIDS pandemic. Opportunities identified include increased public awareness, growing global political concern and commitment, presence of relevant policies, programmes and strategies along with international agreements supportive to species protection. Before embarking on challenges and opportunities, the paper provides an overview of Tanzania’s wildlife resources, status and trend of this crime. In conclusion, the paper underscores the gravity of the problem and its implications and offers some recommendations for improving the situation. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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