Mkoma S.L.,Hokkaido University |
Mkoma S.L.,Sokoine University of Agriculture |
Kawamura K.,Hokkaido University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013
Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m -3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m -3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m -3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar radiation. Strong positive correlations were found among diacids and related compounds as well as good relations to source tracers in both seasons, suggesting a mixed source from natural biogenic emissions, biomass burning, biofuel combustion, and photochemical production. © 2013 Author(s).
Wambura P.N.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011
Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 108.5 EID50/0.1 mL for 90 days at ambient room temperatures (25-34°C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (≥3.0 log2) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Rweyemamu M.M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Emerging health threats journal | Year: 2013
Formed in 2008, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) is a One Health consortium of academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals. Operating in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries, its mission is to harness innovations in science and technology for improving southern Africa's capacity to detect, identify, monitor (DIM) and manage the risk posed by infectious diseases of humans, animals, and ecosystems. The consortium's major capacity development activities include a series of One Health-based Master of Science (MSc) courses and a five-year DIM-driven research program. Additionally, SACIDS organized Africa's first One Health conference, in July 2011. This paper describes these and other major activities that SACIDS has undertaken to improve infectious disease surveillance across southern Africa. The paper also describes the role and collaboration of SACIDS with other national, regional and international consortia/networks that share a vision and interest in promoting novel approaches to infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-06-2014 | Award Amount: 9.89M | Year: 2015
The direct dependence of humans on ecosystem services is by far strongest in developing regions where poverty restricts access to resources. This dependency also makes people in developing countries more sensitive to climate change than their developed counterparts. Increasing human populations deteriorates natural habitat, biodiversity and ecosystems services which spiral into poverty and low human welfare. This calls for innovative solutions that encompass the entire socio-ecological-economic system, as recognized on a global scale in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, innovative and practical solutions require downscaling to regional levels for identifying concrete sets of drivers of change. For Africa specifically, the interplay of human population growth, land use change, climate change and human well-being is a major challenge. This project focuses on the Serengeti-Maasai Mara Ecosystem and associated agricultural areas, a region in East Africa that encompasses parts of Kenya and Tanzania. The ecosystem is world-famous for key aspects of its biodiversity, such as the migration of 1.3 million wildebeest. This flagship ecosystem role will enhance the international interest in the project. In this project, internationally leading researchers from Norway, the Netherlands, Scotland, Denmark and Germany are teaming up with strong local partners in Tanzania and Kenya. The research will be organised in seven interlinked work packages: 1) assemble and integrate the so far separate Kenyan and Tanzanian relevant data on the region; 2) quantify the connections between human population growth, land use change, climate change and biodiversity change; 3) test how biodiversity change leads to changes in key ecosystem services; 4) quantify the dependence of human livelihoods on these ecosystem services. We will implement innovative ways for communication and dissemination of the results of continuous engagement by local stakeholders.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SSH.2013.2.1-3 | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2014
The GLOBAL VALUE project develops an innovative framework for assessing impacts of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) on issues related to the Millennium Declaration, sustainable development, human rights, transparency, and anti-corruption. To ensure utility, we will monitor the policy debate on global and sustainable development and deliver a regularly updated catalogue of goals and indicators. We will shed light on institutional arrangements; analyse systems of governance for responsible business practices; explore responsible competitiveness; assess the complementarity of public and private sector activities; and derive recommendations for decision makers in business, policy and CSOs. For addressing MNCs, the project will deliver a modular, user-friendly and customizable toolkit, including a web-based assessment platform, a tool navigator, a user guide, and training materials. It will take into account the most relevant pathways of impact (through business operations, community investments, regional, supply chain and product related impacts) and link up with powerful management approaches (such as supply chain management, life cycle assessment and base of the pyramid innovation). The toolkit will be tested in close collaboration with leading MNCs: BATA (garment, Bangladesh), OLAM (food, Tanzania) and MONDI (paper & packaging, Russia a.o.). Research organizations, CSOs, and sector experts from these countries are members of the consortium and ensure the involvement of stakeholders and local actors. Reflexive learning workshops contribute to a continuous improvement of the toolkit. The project is carried out by leading researchers from Europe and ICPC countries, and involves relevant UN bodies in an advisory capacity. Special emphasis is put on research capacity building in and networking with ICPC countries and CSOs. By establishing an expert crowd we take business, society, and policy perspectives into account - more than 200 experts are currently part of the crowd.