Aliso Viejo, CA, United States

Soka University of America
Aliso Viejo, CA, United States

Soka University of America is a university located in Aliso Viejo, California, United States. The university's mission is to "foster of a steady stream of global citizens committed to living a contributive life," with an emphasis on principles of pacifism, human rights, and the creative coexistence of nature and humanity.It has a graduate and an undergraduate program.A much larger and older sister school, Sōka University of Japan, is located in Hachiōji, Tokyo. SUA encompasses a four-year liberal arts college and an ESL Teaching graduate school. SUA hosts the Pacific Basin Research Center and the academic journal Annals of Scholarship. The school is noted for being in the top 3 in terms of freshman's happiness in the United States. Wikipedia.

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Chang E.S.,Soka University of America | Greenberger E.,University of California at Irvine | Chen C.,University of California at Irvine | Heckhausen J.,University of California at Irvine | Farruggia S.P.,University of Auckland
Journal of Research on Adolescence | Year: 2010

This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the social resources of important nonparental adults (VIPs) perceived by youth during their senior year of high school had a significant relation to their educational and socioemotional adjustment 1 year later. One month before their high school graduation, a multiethnic sample of youths (N=754) reported on their grades, educational expectations, and selected psychosocial characteristics (i.e., depressed mood and misconduct); the educational attainment and perceived psychosocial characteristics of an important nonparental adult in their lives; and the educational plans and perceived psychosocial characteristics of their close friends. Key measures were included in a mailed survey 1 year later. VIP characteristics (particularly their educational attainment) were associated with post-high school adjustment, even after controlling for previous level of youth adjustment and contributions from demographic and peer characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2010 Society for Research on Adolescence.

Macleod L.,Soka University of America
Global Governance | Year: 2017

This essay argues that UN Security Council responses to internal armed conflict are the product of the interests as well as the causal and principled beliefs of its engaged permanent members. As China has grown from a regional to a global actor, it has become a more active participant in Council deliberations. The cases of East Timor and Darfur highlight the ways in which Council decisions have come to reflect Chinese understanding of the causes of peace and conflict and appropriate peace strategies. The future of UN peace operations will depend on the ability of the Council’s engaged participants to discover shared interests and points of convergence in their causal and principled beliefs. © 2017, Lynne Rienner Publishers. All rights reserved.

Chang E.S.,Soka University of America
Journal of Research on Adolescence | Year: 2013

This survey study examined the role of parents in the educational goals of 265 college-enrolled youth (19-27 years; M = 22 years; 64% female students) on Jeju Island, Korea. A model of shared agency was applied to identify the processes through which associations between family assistance and adjustment can be explained. Four factors of parental educational involvement were found: coactivity (consisting of autonomy support and collaboration), accommodation, noninvolvement, and directing. Results indicated that family assistance was positively related to adjustment and only coactivity was positively correlated to both family assistance and adjustment. Mediation analyses also indicated that youth's provision of family assistance was associated with lower levels of depression and higher satisfaction with life and educational progress through coactivity. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2013 Society for Research on Adolescence.

Hamersley M.R.,Soka University of America | Turk K.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Leinweber A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gruber N.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Aquatic Microbial Ecology | Year: 2011

We measured pelagic dinitrogen (N2) fixation by incorporation of 15N2 during regular cruises over 4 yr to deep hypoxic basins in the Southern California Bight, USA. N2 fixation in the photic zone was dominated (80%) by nanoplankton (<10 μm). N2 fixation rates in surface waters were near the upper range measured for nanoplankton in tropical waters, averaging 5.8 μmol m-3 d -1 at the San Pedro Ocean Time Series (SPOTS) station, and 2.4 μmol m-3 d-1 at the Santa Monica Bay Observatory (SMBO) station, with a maximum at SPOTS of 35 μmol m-3 d-1. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and nested PCR-based clone libraries targeting the nitrogenase gene nifH indicate that the uncultivated unicellular cyanobacterial group A (UCYN-A) is an abundant diazotroph in the photic zone. Although N2 fixation rates were highest at the surface, mean N2 fixation averaged 0.07 μmol m-3 d-1 at depths of 500 and 885 m within hypoxic basin waters (<10% O2 saturation). When integrated over the aphotic water column, this deep N 2 fixation may account for as much as one-third of the total areal N2 fixation, estimated at 150 μmol N m-2 d -1. These deep hypoxic N2 fixers were an assemblage of heterotrophic bacteria, including Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria and putative sulfate-reducing bacteria. Our results suggest that N2 fixation could play a role in other hypoxic, high-nitrate waters. © Inter-Research 2011.

Bonnet S.,University of New Caledonia | Dekaezemacker J.,University of New Caledonia | Dekaezemacker J.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology | Turk-Kubo K.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We examined rates of N2 fixation from the surface to 2000 m depth in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) during El Niño (2010) and La Niña (2011). Replicated vertical profiles performed under oxygen-free conditions show that N2 fixation takes place both in euphotic and aphotic waters, with rates reaching 155 to 509 μmol N m -2 d-1 in 2010 and 24±14 to 118±87 μmol N m-2 d-1 in 2011. In the aphotic layers, volumetric N 2 fixation rates were relatively low (<1.00 nmol N L-1 d-1), but when integrated over the whole aphotic layer, they accounted for 87-90% of total rates (euphotic+aphotic) for the two cruises. Phylogenetic studies performed in microcosms experiments confirm the presence of diazotrophs in the deep waters of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), which were comprised of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs affiliated with nifH clusters 1K (predominantly comprised of α-proteobacteria), 1G (predominantly comprised of γ-proteobacteria), and 3 (sulfate reducing genera of the δ-proteobacteria and Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp.). Organic and inorganic nutrient addition bioassays revealed that amino acids significantly stimulated N2 fixation in the core of the OMZ at all stations tested and as did simple carbohydrates at stations located nearest the coast of Peru/Chile. The episodic supply of these substrates from upper layers are hypothesized to explain the observed variability of N2 fixation in the ETSP. © 2013 Bonnet et al.

Calef M.P.,Soka University of America | Varvak A.,Soka University of America | McGuire A.D.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Chapin F.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Reinhold K.B.,Albany State University
Earth Interactions | Year: 2015

The Alaskan boreal forest is characterized by frequent extensive wildfires whose spatial extent has been mapped for the past 70 years. Simple predictions based on this record indicate that area burned will increase as a response to climate warming in Alaska. However, two additional factors have affected the area burned in this time record: the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) switched from cool and moist to warm and dry in the late 1970s and the Alaska Fire Service instituted a fire suppression policy in the late 1980s. In this paper a geographic information system (GIS) is used in combination with statistical analyses to reevaluate the changes in area burned through time in Alaska considering both the influence of the PDO and fire management. The authors found that the area burned has increased since the PDO switch and that fire management drastically decreased the area burned in highly suppressed zones. However, the temporal analysis of this study shows that the area burned is increasing more rapidly in suppressed zones than in the unsuppressed zone since the late 1980s. These results indicate that fire policies as well as regional climate patterns are important as large-scale controls on fires over time and across the Alaskan boreal forest. © 2015, American Meteorological Society. All rights reserved.

Padron J.A.G.,Soka University of America
Natural Resources Journal | Year: 2016

The recent approval of a Clean Energy Certificates market in Mexico is part of the broad Energy Reform in the country since the end of 2013. Clean Energy Certificates create an incentive for new investment and a source of extra income for green energy producers in the electricity market. Mexico’s scheme is based on similar Green Trade Certificates schemes, which promote investment in renewable energy by setting quotas on electricity producers and requiring certain electricity users to buy certificates. This article briefly looks at the early adopters, Sweden and later Norway, where a similar scheme has been implemented since 2003. The Nordic scheme, along with other policy measures, has proven effective in increasing the share of renewables. This article analyzes the Mexican Energy Reform’s approach to renewable energy, and explains how Mexico can learn from its Swedish and Norwegian counterparts. © 2016, University of New Mexico. All rights reserved.

Mazumder D.B.,Soka University of America
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

This paper provides an analytical framework to examine the relative efficiencies of a revenue-neutral biofuel subsidy and a gas tax in the presence of pre-existing distortions and growing substitutability between fuels. Both policies are set to achieve a targeted reduction in gasoline use at the state level. The model is then calibrated for a small open economy such as Illinois which is one of the largest producers of biofuels such as ethanol in the U.S. The main result of the paper shows that raising the biofuel subsidy use reduces overall welfare by more than a higher gas tax, both aimed to achieve a targeted reduction in pure gasoline. The relative efficiency of the higher gas tax is primarily due to it exacerbating the pre-existing distortion in the biofuel market by less than the subsidy. Moreover, for current parameter estimates welfare improving policy combinations for achieving a targeted amount of energy security are higher gas taxes combined with lower biofuel subsidies and a lower tax on income. However, the preference for a gasoline-labor tax swap shrinks as the elasticity of substitution between the two fuels rises. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Busenberg G.J.,Soka University of America
Review of Policy Research | Year: 2011

Since 1977, oil produced in northern Alaska has posed a major environmental threat across large areas of Alaska while simultaneously playing a dominant role in the economy of Alaska. This enduring dilemma was created by the building of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System to transport oil produced on the North Slope of Alaska, a region containing the largest oil field ever developed in North America. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System transports oil through an 800-mile pipeline and ocean-going oil tankers. This complex technological system poses an enduring risk of environmentally damaging oil spills in Alaska. This study applies the punctuated equilibrium theory of policy change to examine the processes and enduring consequences of the national policy reforms that allowed the building of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. © 2011 by The Policy Studies Organization.

Tetanus and other widespread endemic diseases of Brazil's early national period speak to intimate details of common life and give clues to big, vexing questions, such as why Brazil's population expanded dramatically at the turn of the twentieth century. Tetanus was for a long time one of Brazil's deadliest afflictions, especially among infants, but historians know very little about it. Using archival sources from across the Empire and early Republic, this article argues tetanus disproportionately killed the enslaved population, but gradually diminished in virulence for nearly all groups across the country by the second half of the 1800s. This decline should be attributed only partially to medical knowledge. Rather, indirect demographic and technological changes were more important factors in Brazil.

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