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Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Ntzala G.,University of Western Greece | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

The assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals has been studied, based on experimental soil and plant analytical heavy metal data obtained by a pot experiment conducted during 2010-2011 in a green house. A completely randomized block design was used, including the following sludge treatments (in tons per hectare): 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and (30 +treated wastewater) in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) var. longifolia was used as a test plant. Three indices were proposed, i.e., (1) elemental pollution index, (2) heavy metal load, and (3) total concentration factor. They were found to be linearly and statistically significantly related to the pollution load index, which was used as a reference index, and curvilinearly related to lettuce dry matter yield. It was concluded that the above indices could be used for the assessment of soil pollution level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Ioannina | Kostakioti E.,University of Ioannina | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Two greenhouse pot experiments were conducted in Agrinion, Greece, using a randomized block design in four replications, respectively, as follows: The first one included five levels of treated municipal wastewater (TMWW), being used as an irrigation water source. The second one, five levels of applied Cl at a constant soil applied Cd level of 10.36 mg/kg soil, the plants being irrigated with fresh well water. The purpose of these experiments was to study the impact of the Cl × Cd interrelationship on planning TMWW reuse, for the irrigation of Brassica oleracea var. Capitata (cabbage) cv F1 Gloria, ehich was used as test plant, in both of these experiments. It was found that the TMWW Cl content, originating mainly from the procedure of wastewater chlorination, was synergistically interrelated with the toxic heavy metal Cd, increasing its soil availability and cabbage plant leaf uptake (edible plant part). As this increase is directly associated with the consumer's health, it was suggested that the TMWW be subjected to dechlorination process or the disinfection be made by ozonation or UV, which do not include Cl. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Ntzala G.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Leotsinidis M.,University of Patras | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

A greenhouse experiment was conducted during 2010-2011. A complete randomized blocks design was used including seven treatment levels of sludge(tons per hectare), i.e.; 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and "30+ treated wastewater", in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L var longifolia) was chosen as a test plant. The purpose of the experiment was to study the relationships between soil Pollution Load Index, heavy metal transfer factor, and concentration factor and to determine optimum concentration factor values. The following were found: several mathematical relationships were established between the above parameters that could be used for the study of heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants under the effect of the applied sludge. They can be also used for the calculation of one of the above parameters as a function of the others. Based on the experimental data, the optimum concentration factor for several heavy metals were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, expressing the concentration factor as a function of the maximum dry lettuce matter yield, and of optimum/minimum heavy metal content of plant dry matter. The mean value of the calculated concentration factor obtained for each separate metal was: Zn, 2.93; Cd, 0.39; Co, 1.47; and Ni, 0.52. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Kalavrouziotis I.K.,Hellenic Open University | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Drakatos P.A.,University of Patras
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues

The environmental aspects of modern and ancient wastewater reuse management are comparatively examined. The contribution of the scientific technology and know-how to protect the environment along with a loving, eucharistic and friendly behaviour of humans towards maintenance of a desirable environmental quality, is emphasised. The religious and spiritual relation of the ancient humans with the environment is compared to the often aggressive exploitation of the environment by the vicarious mania of modern humans, with use of up-to-date technology and scientific know-how. Also, the endeavours for the protection and restoration of the damaged agro-ecological environment due to heavy metal soil pollution from the various anthropogenic interventions such as the wastewater reuse, are reported. It is concluded that the successful facing of the environmental protection is the achievement of a balance between sustainable development and protection of the environment. The problem of environmental protection is basically an ethical (moral) issue. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

Xardalias C.,University of Western Greece | Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Fourniotis N.Th.,Technological Educational Institute of Patra
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted, during 2011-2012 using a Randomized Block Design, including nine zeolite treatment levels, i.e.: Control, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20, 1.60, 2.00, 2.40, 2.80, 3.20 t/ha, respectively, in the presence of a standard level of sludge (43 t/ha), in four replications. Radish (Raphanus sativus, L) var. radícula was used as an experimental test plant. The aim was to study the effect of zeolite on phytoavailability of heavy metals added to soil via sludge. It was found that the Zeolite treatments decreased statistically significantly the availability of Ni, Cd and Co to plants, decreased the heavy metal soil pollution level assessed by the Elemental Pollution Index (EPI), and Pollution Load Index (PLI), respectively, and increased significantly the essential micronutrients Cu and Zn, and the Radish root yield at the early harvest, but its effect on the later harvest was not statistically significant. ©byPSP. Source

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