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Ntzala G.,University of Patras | Kalavrouziotis I.K.,Hellenic Open University | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Global Nest Journal | Year: 2015

Two greenhouse pot experiments were conducted in Agrinion, Greece. The impact of treated municipal wastewater (TMWW) and sludge (i) on the growth of Lactuca sativa L. var Longifolia (lettuce) and (ii) on the extent of soil pollution with heavy metals was studied. Soil pollution was assessed by calculating the Pollution Load Index (PLI). Both of these experiments were conducted, using a randomized block design in four replications and seven treatments, respectively, as follows: (a) Experiment A: study of the effect of treated municipal wastewater (TMWW): [Control, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, (100%+30 t/ha Sludge)] and (b) Experiment B: Study of the effect of sludge (t/ha): 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, (30+100%TMWW). The sludge affected significantly plant height and fresh and dry matter yield, as well as the dry matter N content of plants, while the TMWW affected significantly the dry matter yield and non-significantly the plant height. The pollution load index (PLI) was non-significant for both treatments (sludge and TMWW). According to PLI calibration scale, the soil was found to be slightly polluted with heavy metals under both treatments. © 2015 Global NEST Printed in Greece. All rights reserved.


Xardalias C.,University of Western Greece | Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Fourniotis N.Th.,Technological Educational Institute of Patra
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2013

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted, during 2011-2012 using a Randomized Block Design, including nine zeolite treatment levels, i.e.: Control, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20, 1.60, 2.00, 2.40, 2.80, 3.20 t/ha, respectively, in the presence of a standard level of sludge (43 t/ha), in four replications. Radish (Raphanus sativus, L) var. radícula was used as an experimental test plant. The aim was to study the effect of zeolite on phytoavailability of heavy metals added to soil via sludge. It was found that the Zeolite treatments decreased statistically significantly the availability of Ni, Cd and Co to plants, decreased the heavy metal soil pollution level assessed by the Elemental Pollution Index (EPI), and Pollution Load Index (PLI), respectively, and increased significantly the essential micronutrients Cu and Zn, and the Radish root yield at the early harvest, but its effect on the later harvest was not statistically significant. ©byPSP.


Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Ntzala G.,University of Western Greece | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2012

The assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals has been studied, based on experimental soil and plant analytical heavy metal data obtained by a pot experiment conducted during 2010-2011 in a green house. A completely randomized block design was used, including the following sludge treatments (in tons per hectare): 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and (30 +treated wastewater) in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) var. longifolia was used as a test plant. Three indices were proposed, i.e., (1) elemental pollution index, (2) heavy metal load, and (3) total concentration factor. They were found to be linearly and statistically significantly related to the pollution load index, which was used as a reference index, and curvilinearly related to lettuce dry matter yield. It was concluded that the above indices could be used for the assessment of soil pollution level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Kalavrouziotis I.K.,University of Ioannina | Kostakioti E.,University of Ioannina | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2011

Two greenhouse pot experiments were conducted in Agrinion, Greece, using a randomized block design in four replications, respectively, as follows: The first one included five levels of treated municipal wastewater (TMWW), being used as an irrigation water source. The second one, five levels of applied Cl at a constant soil applied Cd level of 10.36 mg/kg soil, the plants being irrigated with fresh well water. The purpose of these experiments was to study the impact of the Cl × Cd interrelationship on planning TMWW reuse, for the irrigation of Brassica oleracea var. Capitata (cabbage) cv F1 Gloria, ehich was used as test plant, in both of these experiments. It was found that the TMWW Cl content, originating mainly from the procedure of wastewater chlorination, was synergistically interrelated with the toxic heavy metal Cd, increasing its soil availability and cabbage plant leaf uptake (edible plant part). As this increase is directly associated with the consumer's health, it was suggested that the TMWW be subjected to dechlorination process or the disinfection be made by ozonation or UV, which do not include Cl. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kalavrouziotis I.K.,Hellenic Open University | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Drakatos P.A.,University of Patras
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2015

The environmental aspects of modern and ancient wastewater reuse management are comparatively examined. The contribution of the scientific technology and know-how to protect the environment along with a loving, eucharistic and friendly behaviour of humans towards maintenance of a desirable environmental quality, is emphasised. The religious and spiritual relation of the ancient humans with the environment is compared to the often aggressive exploitation of the environment by the vicarious mania of modern humans, with use of up-to-date technology and scientific know-how. Also, the endeavours for the protection and restoration of the damaged agro-ecological environment due to heavy metal soil pollution from the various anthropogenic interventions such as the wastewater reuse, are reported. It is concluded that the successful facing of the environmental protection is the achievement of a balance between sustainable development and protection of the environment. The problem of environmental protection is basically an ethical (moral) issue. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Ntzala G.,University of Western Greece | Koukoulakis P.H.,Soil Science Institute | Papadopoulos A.H.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Leotsinidis M.,University of Patras | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

A greenhouse experiment was conducted during 2010-2011. A complete randomized blocks design was used including seven treatment levels of sludge(tons per hectare), i.e.; 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and "30+ treated wastewater", in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L var longifolia) was chosen as a test plant. The purpose of the experiment was to study the relationships between soil Pollution Load Index, heavy metal transfer factor, and concentration factor and to determine optimum concentration factor values. The following were found: several mathematical relationships were established between the above parameters that could be used for the study of heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants under the effect of the applied sludge. They can be also used for the calculation of one of the above parameters as a function of the others. Based on the experimental data, the optimum concentration factor for several heavy metals were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, expressing the concentration factor as a function of the maximum dry lettuce matter yield, and of optimum/minimum heavy metal content of plant dry matter. The mean value of the calculated concentration factor obtained for each separate metal was: Zn, 2.93; Cd, 0.39; Co, 1.47; and Ni, 0.52. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Iatrou M.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

Hydroponic and field experiments were conducted to assess the optimum nitrogen (N) levels in strawberry leaves for the appropriate management of its N nutrition under field or protected cultivation. Unlike the common view that leaf petiole is the right plant organ to sample for strawberries, the study showed that the leaf blade, of the most recently fully expanded leaf, is more responsive and therefore a better indicator of the N supply changes in the strawberry plant. This was attributed to the distinctive characteristic of strawberry plants to accumulate high concentrations of nitrates in leaf blades when there is luxury consumption of N. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis.


Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos F.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Tziachris P.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Metaxa I.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Iatrou M.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Global Nest Journal | Year: 2014

The Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki produces new digitized Soil Maps that provide a useful electronic database for the spatial representation of the soil variation within a region, based on in situ soil sampling, laboratory analyses, GIS techniques and plant nutrition mathematical models, coupled with the local land cadastre. The novelty of these studies is that local agronomists have immediate access to a wide range of soil information by clicking on a field parcel shown in this digital interface and, therefore, can suggest an appropriate treatment (e.g. liming, manure incorporation, desalination, application of proper type and quantity of fertilizer) depending on the field conditions and cultivated crops. A specific case study is presented in the current work with regards to the construction of the digitized Soil Map of the regional unit of Kastoria. The potential of this map can easily be realized by the fact that the mapping of the physicochemical properties of the soils in this region provided delineation zones for differential fertilization management. An experiment was also conducted using remote sensing techniques for the enhancement of the fertilization advisory software database, which is a component of the digitized map, and the optimization of nitrogen management in agricultural areas. © 2014 Global NEST Printed in Greece. All rights reserved.


Iatrou M.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

Strawberry plants are relatively unresponsive to nitrogen (N) fertilization. Supraoptimal N application also results in excessive vegetative growth, which competes to reproductive growth. Two strawberry field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years using fertigation to investigate the effect of different nitrogen (N) application rates on yield and growth of an everbearing strawberry (cv. Evie II). N was injected weekly into the drip irrigation system at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kg N/ha/week the first year and 0, 1, 2, and 3 kg N/ha/week the next year. Fruit yield and fruit number were not affected the first year, but were increased the second year due to N application. However, there was no effect of N nutrition on average berry weight for both years. It was concluded that N fertilization may increase yield and fruit number, but average berry weight remains unaffected. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Iatrou M.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos A.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Papadopoulos F.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | Dichala O.,Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

The Mehlich 3 method for the extraction of available micronutrients, such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), is more advantageous compared to the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) method, because it can also be used for the extraction of macronutrients. The aim of this study was to compare the Mehlich 3 and DTPA methods for 172 soils in Greece having different levels of pH and calcium carbonate. Single and multiple regression analyses were employed to evaluate the relationship between Mehlich 3 and DTPA tests. Mehlich 3 results correlated well with DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn, but the correlation was poor for DTPA-extractable Mn. Also, a high correlation was found between Mehlich 3 and DTPA-extractable Fe for calcareous soils (R2 = 0.89), while a moderate relationship was found for noncalcareous soils (R2 = 0.65), which was improved to 0.78 when the pH was taken into account in multiple regression analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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