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Komnitsas K.,Technical University of Crete | Modis K.,National Technical University of Athens | Doula M.,Benaki Phytopathological Institute | Kavvadias V.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | And 2 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is often disposed of in poorly engineered evaporation ponds or various environmental receptors in most Mediterranean countries causing contamination of soils and water bodies. The aim of this work is to estimate the risk for soils and waters as a result of OMW disposal in an area of 15 km2 at Rethymnon, island of Crete, Greece. Soil, surface, and groundwater samples were collected over a period of five years and geostatistics using the kriging approach was considered for the assessment of risk. Risk maps for several pollutants, namely phenols, Ni, Cr, and available P, in soil and water were produced. The results of the study indicate the presence of hot spots in the area under investigation, mainly in the vicinity of OMW disposal sites. Finally, the fate of contaminants in affected media is discussed and a framework for monitoring of soils and water bodies in areas affected by OMW disposal is proposed. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Ouzounidou G.,Institute of Food Technology | Skiada V.,University of Thessaly | Papadopoulou K.K.,University of Thessaly | Stamatis N.,Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Botanica

In this study, chemical composition and growth responses of chia plants (Salvia hispanica L.) to inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, Glomus mosseae, Nicol. & Gerd.) fungal inoculum (namely MC10) under the influence of soil pH were investigated. The experiment project included six treatments, i.e., control-non-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (NAMF, pH 7.1), control-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF, pH 7.1), acid-NAMF (pH 5.1), acid-AMF (pH 5.1), alkaline-NAMF (pH 8.2), and alkaline-AMF (pH 8.2). Stunted growth and leaf chlorosis were noticed mainly in plants grown in soil with acidic pH. An increase in fresh biomass was attained in plants amended with AM fungi in alkaline soil pH. Alkaline sandy soil with low levels of available P stimulated AMF colonization of chia roots, which subsequently enhanced P uptake and translocation in plant tissues. Total proteins, carbohydrates, and total fat content in leaves increased in AMF-inoculated plants in neutral and alkaline soil pH, while only fat content enhanced under acidic soil pH. MC10 inoculum resulted in reduced levels of total phenolics under alkaline conditions, whereas under acidic soil resulted in increased levels compared to the non-inoculated plants. The predominant fatty acids of chia leaves were palmitic (18.3 %), a-linolenic (17.1 %), pentadecenoic (11.0 %), linoleic (7.5 %), oleic (7.5 %), and stearic (6.3 %). Higher concentration of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and a-linolenic acids was observed in the leaves of chia plants grown on control (neutral pH) and alkaline soil in the presence of the MC10 inoculum. Alkaline soil combined with AM inoculation enhanced the nutritional value of chia leaves. © 2015, Botanical Society of Sao Paulo. Source

Kavvadias V.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Vavoulidou E.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Theocharopoulos S.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Charoulis A.,Institute of Soil Mapping and Classification
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

Citrus, olives, and vines are among the crops that dominate agriculture in southern Greece. A soil sampling campaign was carried out in 30 different representative sites of Peloponnese, Greece, almost exclusively dominated by vineyards and olive and citrus orchards. Soil samples were analyzed for pH; calcium carbonate (CaCO3); organic matter; total nitrogen (N); ammonium (NH4); nitrate (NO3); available phosphorus (P); exchangeable potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca); and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) manganese (Mn). The results suggest that soil organic carbon (C) and total N in the soil, followed by available P, K, and Mn, are the major soil fertility constraints to crop production in the area. Most of the studied soils (77%, 84%, and 61% for vine, olive, and citrus, respectively) were within the favorable pH range for the crops, and 22%, 14%, and 29% of soils in vine, olive, and citrus fields respectively had high CaCO3 values (>20%). Also, 91%, 75%, and 76% of soils in vine, olive, and citrus fields respectively had organic C content below the threshold value of 20 g kg-1. Similar trends were found for total N. Concentration of NH4 in soils was found to be high for the 67% of data, and 46%, 55%, and 29% of soils in vine, olive, and citrus fields respectively had available P below the threshold value of 12 mg kg-1. Low Mg content was found for 24%, 55%, and 7% of soils in vine, olives, and citrus fields respectively. Potassium levels less than the critical value of 0.26 cmol kg-1 were found for 20%, 50%, and 33% of vine, olive, and citrus fields respectively. On the other hand, across all the studied sites, 67% of the soils contained high exchangeable Ca (>20 cmol kg-1) and 58% of Mn data varied in low levels (<5 mg kg-1). © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kavvadias V.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Doula M.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Theocharopoulos S.,Soil Science Institute of Athens
Environmental Forensics

Disposal of untreated olive mill waste waters (OMW) is a serious environmental problem in many Mediterranean countries. The aim of this work was to assess whether changes in soil properties have occurred due to direct disposal of raw OMW on soil and in evaporation ponds, and to investigate the potential fate and transport of pollutants after olive oil production had ceased. The results clearly showed that uncontrolled OMW disposal is a significant source of pollution to surface soil and waters. Disposal of OMW on soil greatly increased electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorous (P), exchangeable potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg), organic matter, polyphenols, total and inorganic nitrogen (N), and available micronutrients mainly in surface soil layers. The presence of a high content of clay and carbonates in soil act as barriers and prevent downward transport of pollutants. Residual levels of total carbon (C), polyphenols, total and inorganic N, exchangeable K+, available P, iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) were also elevated even 8 years after mill closure. The long term disposal of OMW highlights the need to establish soil quality standards for soil parameters in order to identify soils affected by the disposal of OMW. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Paschalidis C.,Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata | Kavvadias V.,Soil Science Institute of Athens | Dimitrakopoulou S.,Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata | Koriki A.,Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) distribution and accumulation in cabbage grown on soil amended with Cd and Pb. The soil was amended with 0, 5, 10, 40, and 80 mg Cd kg-1 in the form of cadmium nitrate [Cd(NO3)2] and with 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 mg Pb kg-1 in the form of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2]. Main soil properties, concentrations of total and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Pb and Cd in soil, plant growth, and total contents of metals in leaves and roots were measured. The DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb were significantly and positively related to the addition of Cd and Pb respectively. Cadmium accumulation in cabbage plants was increased with the increase of Cd rates in soil whereas Pb accumulation was significantly increased by the greatest dose of Pb only, in comparison to control treatment. The largest proportions of Pb and Cd accumulated in roots. Cabbage plants did not show growth disturbance and the plants showed no symptoms of phytotoxicity as results of Cd and Pb application. On the contrary, fresh weights of leaves and roots were increased significantly in the lowest applications (5 mg Cd kg-1 and 10 mg Pb kg-1) compared to the control treatment. Further additions of Cd and Pb had positive, but not significant, effects on biomass except for the weight of roots. The tolerance of cabbage plants to high concentrations of these metals in soil is discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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