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Boguska Z.,University of Presov | Fazekasova D.,University of Presov | Ivanova M.,University of Presov | Barancikova G.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

The basic principle of the philosophy of sustainable land use is its protection against any degradation of natural and human-induced impacts. Survey on the current state and changes in biodiversity, habitats of endangered and protected species of plants and animals as well as changes in landscape ecological stability are also important part of evaluation of the agricultural landscape. Ecological stability increases with increasing diversity of ecosystem and species. Higher biodiversity leads to interspecific interactions, enabling more effective self-regulation of population dynamics of different ecosystem populations. Grasslands are essential for the maintenance of the diversity. They belong to the biologically most active and most productive plant communities with rapid exchange cycle and with high ability to move chemical elements in the biosphere. They represent mostly poly-dominant phytocenosis. Over the growing seasons of 2010 – 2013, grassland was monitored at grasslands’ in the cadaster of Liptov Teplička (48° 57' N; 20° 05' E), where ecological farming system on the land is applied. The aim of this work was based on the results of field research to assess the diversity of vascular flora of grasslands. Diversity of flora was assessed by Shannon index H´ and Equatibility index. Grasslands in area of environmental management were by diversity index species varied and balanced rich. Species diversity during the reporting period did not change significantly. Dominated by families Rosaceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae. © SGEM2014.

Smith P.,University of Aberdeen | House J.I.,University of Bristol | Bustamante M.,University of Brasilia | Sobocka J.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | And 17 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016

Soils are subject to varying degrees of direct or indirect human disturbance, constituting a major global change driver. Factoring out natural from direct and indirect human influence is not always straightforward, but some human activities have clear impacts. These include land-use change, land management and land degradation (erosion, compaction, sealing and salinization). The intensity of land use also exerts a great impact on soils, and soils are also subject to indirect impacts arising from human activity, such as acid deposition (sulphur and nitrogen) and heavy metal pollution. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding of these global change pressures on soils, identify knowledge gaps and research challenges and highlight actions and policies to minimize adverse environmental impacts arising from these global change drivers. Soils are central to considerations of what constitutes sustainable intensification. Therefore, ensuring that vulnerable and high environmental value soils are considered when protecting important habitats and ecosystems, will help to reduce the pressure on land from global change drivers. To ensure that soils are protected as part of wider environmental efforts, a global soil resilience programme should be considered, to monitor, recover or sustain soil fertility and function, and to enhance the ecosystem services provided by soils. Soils cannot, and should not, be considered in isolation of the ecosystems that they underpin and vice versa. The role of soils in supporting ecosystems and natural capital needs greater recognition. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be to put soils at the centre of policy supporting environmental protection and sustainable development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Torma S.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Vilcek J.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Vilcek J.,University of Presov | Adamisin P.,University of Presov | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2014

Sorption of the cations NH4 +, Al3+, Fe2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ in powdered zeolite and its mixture with soil was monitored. More than 90% of the observed cations were fixed in the zeolite in the first few minutes of the laboratory experiment, which is a very fast speed of sorption, and the ammonia cations reacted fastest. Consequently, the dynamics of the nitrate and ammoniac nitrogen in soil after application of zeolite in different amounts was monitored. A decreased ammonium content was apparent in the variants with zeolite 1 month after zeolite application in comparison with variants without zeolite owing to the specific fixation of NH4 + cations in the zeolite lattice (92.5 mg in the control variant and 77.2-81.0 mg per kg of soil in the tested variants). Three months later, there was an increase in ammonium content in the variants with zeolite of 24% to 59% in comparison with the control variant owing to gradual ammonium release from the zeolite lattice. Six months after the zeolite application, statistically significant differences were found not only between the control variant and the variants with zeolite, but also between individual variants with various zeolite doses (H = 14.201; P = 0.003 according to the Kruskal-Wallis test). The nitrification process in the soil was less intense under the influence of applied zeolite. The nitrate nitrogen contents in the soil decreased by 66% to 78% in comparison with the control variant in the autumn period; therefore, the amount of nitrate leaching from the soil horizons to the groundwater was less. In summary, zeolite can be considered to be a slowreleasing nitrogen fertiliser. © TÜBİTAK.

Makovnikova J.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Barancikova G.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2012

One of the most important soil ecological functions is inactivation of soil pollutants. The potential of soil for immobilization of inorganic pollutants is dependent on the total amount of the inorganic pollutants in the soil and the potential of soil sorbents which are sensitive to the pollutants sorption. The minimum data set for assessment of the soil's ability to immobilize inorganic contaminants in soil profile includes the following: total content of inorganic contaminants, pH value, content and quality (optical parameters Q 4 6) of organic matter, humus layer thickness and soil texture. The decline of pH value (acidification) and organic matter content and also deterioration of organic matter quality can bring negative influence and change the sorption potential of soil. Actual changes of dynamic parameters were applied in sorption model in the Banska Bystrica region of Slovakia. The decline of pH and organic matter content as well as the increase of soil organic matter optical parameter shift Fluvisols from medium category into very low category of sorption potential on 3.8% of grassland area. This result shows that soil degradation processes will cause a decline of soil sorption potential. Therefore, optimization of dynamic soil parameters belongs to the very important tasks in soil management. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Barancikova G.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Makovnikova J.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Skalsky R.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | Tarasovicova Z.,Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava | And 4 more authors.
Agriculture | Year: 2013

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the basic parameters of soil productivity and quality. Generally soil has potential to sequestrate or release organic carbon depending on land use/management and climatic conditions. The main aim of this article is to show changes in SOC in agricultural land of Slovakia over almost the last 40 years on the basis of modelling data of SOC stock by the RothC model and unequal development of SOC stock on agro-climatic regions of Slovakia. The results received show that average SOC stock [t/ha] in Slovakia is higher on grasslands in comparison to arable land. However, total SOC pool (t) in top of 0.2 m of soil on the modelling area of agricultural Slovak land shows that a considerable part of SOC stock is located in arable land and is approximately four times greater than on grasslands because the arable land represents about 80% of the modelling area. In the first modelling period (1970-1994), the SOC stock gradually increased, but in the second modelling period (1995-2007) no significant changes in SOC stock on the arable land were observed. In the southwest part of Slovakia, increasing of SOC stock during all modelling periods was observed; however, in the northeast part a slight increase of SOC stock only in the first modelling period (1970-1994) was found and in the second modelling period (1995-2007) decrease of SOC accumulation was observed. The results of this statistical analysis show significant relationship between carbon input/SOC stock as independent variables and agro-climatic regions as dependent variable.

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