Soil Salinity Research Institute

Pindi Bhattiān, Pakistan

Soil Salinity Research Institute

Pindi Bhattiān, Pakistan
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Jamil M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Hussain S.S.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Qureshi M.A.,Agri Biotech Research Institute | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Fertility Research Institute | Nawaz M.Q.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Irrigation induced soil salinity or secondary salinization has become severe threat to food security through deterioration of soil and reduction of crop yields. An integrated management approach is direly needed to combat the salinity stress by reclamation of soil through amendments, agronomic / engineering approaches, scheduling of irrigation schemes, proper drainage and farming practices. Another approach is the introduction of minor crops on marginal lands by different management practices. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae grown as non-edible oil seed crop with enormous significance. Experiments were conducted to assess the best dose of fertilizer and different sowing methods to popularize the non-traditional crop among the farming community under salt affected soils during 2010-13. Treatments included in the study were i.e. N levels (90 and 60 kg N ha-1) and sowing methods (ridge, drill and broadcast sowing) laid out in split plot arrangement with three replications. Results exhibited that the maximum plant height (316.7 cm), number of branches plant-1 (13.00), number of nodes plant-1(25.03), 100 seed weight (29.07 g) and seed yield (2.072 t ha-1) obtained from ridge sowing method with 90 kg N ha-1 compared to the rest of treatments. Moreover, ridge sowing method with 90 kg N ha-1 proved to be the effective technique for successful production of castor bean on salt affected soil. The ridge and drill sowing showed least value of ECe and SAR at both levels of N as compared to broadcast sowing. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.


Jamil M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Hussain S.S.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Qureshi M.A.,Agri Biotech Research Institute | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Fertility Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Rice is usually cultivated under flooded conditions by transplanting, an expensive, time consuming and required significant labour pool as compared to the direct seeded rice. Canal water is not satisfying the required demand and ground water at most of the places is unfit for irrigation except some patches. Under prevailing conditions, direct seeded rice is the ultimate strategy for optimum production of rice. Assessment of the different sowing techniques viz. broadcast, ridge and drill sowing and different fertilizer rates on the paddy yield on moderately salt affect soil was executed through field experiments at Research Farm of Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, district Hafizabad, Punjab during 2010-2012. Three methods of sowing i.e. ridge, drill and broadcast sowing and five N levels viz. T1: farmer practices (80-60-0 NPK kg ha-1), T2: Recommended dose (RD) (110-90-60 NPK kg ha-1), T3: 75% N of RD, T4: 125% N of RD and T5:150% N of RD.Trial was laid out in split plot arrangement with three replications. Results revealed the better growth and development, yield attributes and ultimately the highest paddy yield (4.46 t ha-1) at 150% N of recommended dose fromridge sowing followed by 125% N of recommended dose with 4.35 t ha-1 production. Among the sowing techniques, ridge sowing proved the best with all growth, development and yield parameters at the optimum followed by drill sowing. Studies concluded that the effect of various sowing techniques, N rates and their interaction was significant on yield components of direct seeded rice. Nitrogen rate @ 150 % N of RD gave the maximum yield which was statistically at par with the 125% N of RD. Among sowing techniques, ridge sowing proved superior followed than drill and broad cast sowing.Slight decrease in ECe and SAR was observed with drill sowing at higher rates of N i.e. 125 and 150% of RD. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.


Rehman H.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nawaz Q.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nawaz Q.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Basra S.M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2014

Reduced early crop growth and limited branching are amongst yield limiting factors of linola. Field response of seed priming treatments viz. 50 mmol L-1 salicylic acid (SA), 2.2% CaCl2 and 3.3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) including untreated dry and hydropriming controls was evaluated on early crop growth and yield performance of linola. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced emergence time and produced the highest seedling fresh and dry weights including Chl. a contents. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced crop branching and flowering and maturity times and had the maximum plant height, number of branches, tillers, pods and seeds per pod followed by MLE. Increase in seed weight, biological and seed yields was 9.30, 34.16 and 39.49%, harvest index (4.12%) and oil contents (13.39%) for CaCl2 osmopriming. Positive relationship between emergence and seedling vigor traits, 100-seed weight, seed yield with maturity time, 100-seed weight and seed yield were found. The study concludes that seed osmopriming with CaCl2 or MLE can play significant role to improve early crop growth and seed yields of linola. © 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Khan M.M.H.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Kanwal M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Sarfraz M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2014

Boron is widely deficient in calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of B application [control, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kg ha-1 as soil and 0.1% (w/v) B as foliar spray] to three canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars (Hyola, Punjab Sarsoon and Bulbul) grown in calcareous soil degraded with salts. Application of B significantly increased seed and straw yields of canola cultivars. Maximum seed yield of various cultivars was achieved with 2.0 kg B ha-1. However, seed yield of Punjab Sarsoon and Bulbul was non-significantly different at 1.0 and 2.0 kg B ha-1. Hyola had the highest demand for B and significantly responded to foliar B application for seed and straw yields. The low yielding Hyola accumulated greater B concentration in seeds than other cultivars at various B treatments [minimum at control (3.3 mg B kg-1) and maximum (4.8 mg B kg-1) at 2.0 kg B ha-1]. Boron application reduced Na concentration in canola straw and seed up to 37%. In conclusion, B application mitigated negative effects of salts and enhanced growth of canola and canola cultivars varied in their B requirement for optimum growth under salt affected conditions. © 2014 Friends Science Publishers.


Hussain A.,Higher Education Commission | Murtaza G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ghafoor A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

If soil solution phosphorus (P) optimum levels for plant growth (external P) are known, P adsorption isotherms or their equations could further be used to assess how much fertilizer P may be needed for optimum plants yield (QFPN) by adjusting this known external solution P requirement in the soil (ESPR). Surface soil samples were collected from a farmer's field area and research area. An adsorption study was conducted on Ustic Endoaquerts (S 1 soil), Typic Calciargids (S 2 soil), and Typic Torripsamments (S 3 soil) to develop the two-surface Langmuir-type equations. Phosphorus adsorption data were obtained by equilibrating 10-g soil samples in 100 mL of 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl 2) containing various amounts of monopotassium phosphate (KH 2PO 4). Thereafter, 11 P fertilizer rates were calculated by two-surface Langmuir-type equations to adjust different estimated soil solution P levels (EPAS) that were designated as treatments (0.05 to 0.90 mg L -1). Then field experiments on lentil (cv. Niab Masoor 2002) were conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) on these soils to determine internal (plant tissue), external (soil solution), and fertilizer P requirements. Maximum lentil seed yield (Mg ha -1) was 0.87 with T 4 (0.17 mg P L -1) in S 1 soil, 1.8 with T 3 (0.20 mg P L -1) in S 2 soil, and 0.73 with T 7 (0.28 mg P L -1) in S 3 soil, obtained by applying 170 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1 soil, 110 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 2 soil, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 3 soil. Internal P concentrations (%) of the whole plant associated with 95% of maximum lentil seed yield at flowering stage were 0.245, 0.210, and 0.315 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soils, respectively. Internal P requirements of lentil seed were 0.290 in S 1, 0.245% in S 2, and 0.380% in S 3 soil. The ESPRs for 95% of maximum yield of lentil were 0.16 mg L -1, in S 1 soil, 0.23 mg L -1 in S 2 soil, and 0.27 mg L -1 in S 3 soil. The QFPN estimated from graphs corresponding to these ESPR values were 160 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1 soil, 125 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 2 soil, and 74 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 3 soil. The QFPNs estimated from corresponding two-surface Langmuir-type equation by using respective ESPR values were 164, 127, and 75 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively. Field-applied P 2O 5 amounts to adjust soil solution P levels (mg L -1) at 0.166 (T 4), 0.229 (T 4), and 0.281 (T 7) were 170, 126, and 78 kg ha -1 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, we propose that QFPNs estimated by graphs against identified ESPR values or calculated by the use of corresponding two-surface Langmuir-type equations are in close proximity to the field-applied P to adjust desired EPAS value. Therefore, either of the two techniques may be used to estimate QFPN for optimum lentil yield. Close. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Mehdi S.M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sarfraz M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Abbas S.T.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Shabbir G.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Akhtar J.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Soil and Environment | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted for integrated nutrient management in a recently reclaimed soil. For this purpose a saline sodic field was selected at soil salinity research farm having EC e, 7.40 (dS m -1); pH s, 8.90; SAR, 38.26 (mmol L -1) 1/2 and gypsum requirement, 3.52 (ton acre -1); deficient in total nitrogen (0.017%) and available phosphorus (4.20 mg kg -1) and medium in extractable K (90 mg kg -1). This field was reclaimed by applying gypsum at 100% G.R. After reclamation, different combinations of FYM, Sesbania and chemical fertilizers were applied. The experiment was layed out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Rice variety Shaheen basmati was transplanted. The data showed that different combinations of organic manures with chemical fertilizers increased paddy and straw yield significantly over application of organic manures alone. Among different combinations, Sesbania at 20 ton ha -1 + 75% recommended dose (R.D.) proved to be the best combination followed by Sesbania 20 ton ha -1 + 50% R.D. and least in FYM alone at 20 ton ha -1. It was also noted that sesbania green manuring alone was found superior to FYM alone. The NPK contents both in paddy and straw were increased significantly by applying various combinations of organic manures with chemical fertilizers over application of organic manures. Maximum contents of NPK both in paddy and straw of rice were recorded in the combination of Sesbania at 20 ton ha -1 + 75% R.D. followed by Sesbania 20 ton ha -1 + 50% R.D. and least in FYM alone at 20 ton ha -1.The soil analysis after harvest of rice showed that it was still slightly sodic in nature but free from salinity, deficient in total N and available P but adequate in extractable K. After harvest of rice crop in the same layout wheat variety Inqulab 91 was sown. Percent recommended dose of NPK was applied to all the plots as per treatment plan to see the residual effect of the organic manures applied to rice crop. Crop was harvested at maturity. The results of grain and straw yield showed that different combinations of organic manures (residual) and chemical fertilizers increased grain and straw yield significantly over alone application of organic manures (residual). Recommended dose of chemical fertilizers alone applied to wheat gave the maximum yield of grain and straw followed by combinations of FYM at 20 ton ha -1 + 75% R.D (residual) which was non significant with FYM 20 ton ha -1 + 50% R.D (residual) combination and least in FYM and Sesbania alone at 20 ton ha -1 (residual). The NPK contents both in grain and straw were increased significantly by applying various combinations of organic manures (residual) and chemical fertilizers over alone application of organic manures (residual). Maximum contents of NPK both in grain and straw of wheat were recorded in the combination of seabania at 20 ton ha -1 (residual) + 75% R.D. followed by Sesbania at 20 ton ha -1 + 50% R.D. and least in alone Sesbania and FYM (residual) treatments. Soil analysis after harvest of wheat showed that salinity/ sodicity parameters of the soil decreased, while fertility status of the soil improved further. © 2011, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.


Saleem M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shakir M.A.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Abscisic acid (ABA) application helps in improving sunflower oil quality and yield through ameliorating the adverse effects of limited water supply at different growth stages of sunflower hybrid. Improvement in yield and quality of sunflower hybrid by exogenous application of ABA under drought was studied through field experiment executed at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three irrigation schedules i.e. four irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation), three irrigations (25 DAS, flower initiation and achene formation) and three irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, and achene formation) were used. Sunflower hybrid hysun-33 was exposed to ABA concentrations (0, 5μm and 10μm) at bud initiation or at flower initiation. ABA application to sunflower hybrids either at bud or at flower initiation under water deficit conditions improved achene oil content, yield and decreased achene protein contents. Drought stress and ABA application exhibited inverse results for oil quality and yield. Drought stress to sunflower hybrid at bud or at flower initiation increased stearic and oleic acid and decreased palmitic and linoleic acid while exogenous application of ABA under water deficit at both stages slightly decreased stearic and oleic acid but increased palmitic and linoleic acid. It was concluded that exogenous application of ABA to sunflower under drought improved quality and increased crop yield.


Hussain A.,District Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | Murtaza G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ghafoor A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sabir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2010

Once soil solution phosphorus (P) level optimum for plant growth is identified, P adsorption isotherms or their equations can further be used to estimate fertilizer P rates required to adjust this desired soil solution P level to obtain maximum yield. Surface soil samples were collected from a farmer's field area and research area. An adsorption study was conducted on Ustic Endoaquerts (S 1 soil), Typic Calciargids (S 2 soil), and Typic Torripsamments (S 3 soil) to develop the Freundlich-type equations. Phosphorus adsorption data were obtained by equilibrating 10-g soil samples in 100 mL of 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl 2) containing various amounts of monopotassium phosphate (KH 2PO 4). Values of 1/n (slope) ranged from 0.4827 to 0.6452 L kg -1. Based on 1/n values, it was inferred that each of the two S 1 and S 3 soils was homogeneous and S 2 was not. The K F (mg P kg -1) values of S 1, S 2, and S 3 soils were 92.45, 55.81, and 23.38, respectively. The highest amount of P (92.45 mg kg -1) was adsorbed at unit EPC in S 1 soil, whereas the lowest amount (23.38 mg P kg -1) was adsorbed in S 3 soil. Thereafter, 11 P fertilizer doses were calculated by these Freundlich-type equations to adjust different estimated soil solution P levels that were designated as treatments (0.05 to 0.90 mg L -1). Then field experiments on wheat (cv. Inqalab-91) were conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) on these soils to determine internal (plant tissue), external (soil solution), and fertilizer P requirements. Maximum wheat gain yield (Mg ha -1) was 6.82 with T 5 (0.25 mg P L -1) on S 1 soil, 5.96 with T 5 (0.25 mg P L -1) on S 2 soil, and 4.97 with T 7 (0.40 mg P L -1) on S 3 soil that was obtained by application of 196 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 1 soil, 142 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 2 soil, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 3 soil. Internal P concentration (%) associated with 95% of maximum wheat yield at booting stage was 0.32 in S 1, 0.21 in S 2, and 0.33 in S 3 soil. In straw, it was 0.123% in S 1, 0.080% in S 2, and 0.108% in S 3 soil. The internal P requirement of wheat grain was 0.39% in S 1, 0.40% in S 2, and 0.37% in S 3 soil. External soil solution P requirement (ESPR) for 95% of maximum yield of wheat was 0.45 mg L -1 in S 1 soil, 0.34 mg L -1 in S 2 soil, and 0.44 mg L -1 in S 3 soil. Quantity of P 2O 5 corresponding to ESPR values were 217 kg ha -1 on S 1, 123 kg ha -1 on S 2, and 60 kg ha -1 on S 3 soil. Putting ESPR values in the respective Freundlich-type equation, P fertilizer rates (kg P 2O 5 ha -1) were estimated that were 282 on S 1, 167 on S 2, and 83 on S 3 soil; Practically, 262, 156, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 was applied in the field to adjust soil solution P level (mg L -1) at 0.40 (T 7), 0.30 (T 6), and 0.40 (T 7) in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively, that are somewhat less than determined ESPR values. Phosphorous doses applied to achieve a desired EPAS value or estimated from graphs against predicted ESPR values, or calculated from corresponding Freundlich-type equations using desired ESPR values are in close proximity to one another. Therefore, any of the techniques can be used interchangeably to estimate the P fertilizer requirement for optimum wheat yield. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | Tunis el Manar University, University Putra Malaysia, Soil Salinity Research Institute, University of Sichuan and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2016

The biomass of Urochloa mutica was subjected to thermal degradation analyses to understand its pyrolytic behavior for bioenergy production. Thermal degradation experiments were performed at three different heating rates, 10, 30 and 50Cmin


News Article | November 27, 2015
Site: www.reuters.com

A women uses a hand-pump to fill drinking water on the outskirts of Amritsar in the northern state of Punjab, India, November 15, 2015. Back-to-back droughts for the first time in nearly 30 years mean some rural areas in the north are running out of water for human consumption and agriculture, prompting warnings of serious consequences if urgent action is not taken. "It is unlikely that India will have another drought next year; three years in a row has never happened before," said Ashok Gulati, a farm economist who advised the last government. "But with extreme events increasing due to climate change, you never know. If we don't wake up now then, God forbid, people will leave farming to become laborers at railways stations." With more than two-thirds of the 1.25 billion population living off the land, water scarcity could affect the majority and hit long term food supplies. As world leaders meet in Paris next week to agree a deal on cutting greenhouse gas emissions, India says climate change is already hurting the agriculture and water sectors, and the impact is amplified by poverty and a heavy reliance on farming. Locally, officials are trying to change farming habits and enforce stricter rules on water usage. "We are encouraging crop diversification; we are going for pulses," said Amit Kishore, chief development officer in Rampur, a farm belt city in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh. "We have been trying to convince farmers to shift to horticulture as well, but the uptake has not been satisfactory." Four out of Rampur's six administrative areas are so-called "dark zones", with 80 percent or more of groundwater exhausted. In those zones, the practice of boring wells has been banned this fiscal year. Without urgent action, the region risks going the way of Punjab and Haryana, two parched states where the groundwater has sunk even further. Some farmers in those states now need to dig 300 feet (91 meters) for water, compared to five feet (1.5 meters) in the 1960s, according to research by a local government scientist. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has urged farmers to use water wisely, advocating a "per drop, more crop" approach that includes water-saving methods like drip irrigation. Yet his 18-month-old government has also boosted incentives to grow water-intensive rice, wheat and sugarcane that India exports, at the expense of crops like oilseeds or pulses that it has to import. Little wonder some farmers in the northern farming belt are ignoring the advice of local officials. "We grow rice because that is what sells," said Babu Ram Saini, standing by a pond in Jiwai Jadid village in Rampur. "Productivity for lentils is so low that we'll not be able to sustain ourselves without massive government support," he said. Some experts are advocating tougher measures to force more efficient use of water. Wastage is encouraged by the supply of free or subsidized power which boosts politicians' popularity. "We have been trying to tell farmers that if you continue growing rice, more places are going to become dark zones," said V.K. Mishra, a regional head of the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute in Uttar Pradesh's capital Lucknow. "We should make a law that you can't grow rice in areas where the water table is very low." Rice covers 62 percent of Punjab's area under cultivation, up from 10 percent in 1970. The expansion of rice has been similar in neighboring Haryana. Though the droughts have hit crops, India still produces more rice, wheat and sugar than it consumes, drawing accusations from the World Trade Organization that stockpiling to provide cheap grain to the poor unfairly distorts trade. "It is quite natural for our farmers to go for rice and cane when both power and water are almost free," said economist Gulati, adding that selling such produce abroad is like exporting "precious water for free".

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