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Pindi Bhattiān, Pakistan

Rehman H.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nawaz Q.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nawaz Q.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Basra S.M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2014

Reduced early crop growth and limited branching are amongst yield limiting factors of linola. Field response of seed priming treatments viz. 50 mmol L-1 salicylic acid (SA), 2.2% CaCl2 and 3.3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) including untreated dry and hydropriming controls was evaluated on early crop growth and yield performance of linola. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced emergence time and produced the highest seedling fresh and dry weights including Chl. a contents. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced crop branching and flowering and maturity times and had the maximum plant height, number of branches, tillers, pods and seeds per pod followed by MLE. Increase in seed weight, biological and seed yields was 9.30, 34.16 and 39.49%, harvest index (4.12%) and oil contents (13.39%) for CaCl2 osmopriming. Positive relationship between emergence and seedling vigor traits, 100-seed weight, seed yield with maturity time, 100-seed weight and seed yield were found. The study concludes that seed osmopriming with CaCl2 or MLE can play significant role to improve early crop growth and seed yields of linola. © 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Source


Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Khan M.M.H.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Kanwal M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Sarfraz M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2014

Boron is widely deficient in calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of B application [control, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kg ha-1 as soil and 0.1% (w/v) B as foliar spray] to three canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars (Hyola, Punjab Sarsoon and Bulbul) grown in calcareous soil degraded with salts. Application of B significantly increased seed and straw yields of canola cultivars. Maximum seed yield of various cultivars was achieved with 2.0 kg B ha-1. However, seed yield of Punjab Sarsoon and Bulbul was non-significantly different at 1.0 and 2.0 kg B ha-1. Hyola had the highest demand for B and significantly responded to foliar B application for seed and straw yields. The low yielding Hyola accumulated greater B concentration in seeds than other cultivars at various B treatments [minimum at control (3.3 mg B kg-1) and maximum (4.8 mg B kg-1) at 2.0 kg B ha-1]. Boron application reduced Na concentration in canola straw and seed up to 37%. In conclusion, B application mitigated negative effects of salts and enhanced growth of canola and canola cultivars varied in their B requirement for optimum growth under salt affected conditions. © 2014 Friends Science Publishers. Source


Hussain A.,Higher Education Commission | Murtaza G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ghafoor A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

If soil solution phosphorus (P) optimum levels for plant growth (external P) are known, P adsorption isotherms or their equations could further be used to assess how much fertilizer P may be needed for optimum plants yield (QFPN) by adjusting this known external solution P requirement in the soil (ESPR). Surface soil samples were collected from a farmer's field area and research area. An adsorption study was conducted on Ustic Endoaquerts (S 1 soil), Typic Calciargids (S 2 soil), and Typic Torripsamments (S 3 soil) to develop the two-surface Langmuir-type equations. Phosphorus adsorption data were obtained by equilibrating 10-g soil samples in 100 mL of 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl 2) containing various amounts of monopotassium phosphate (KH 2PO 4). Thereafter, 11 P fertilizer rates were calculated by two-surface Langmuir-type equations to adjust different estimated soil solution P levels (EPAS) that were designated as treatments (0.05 to 0.90 mg L -1). Then field experiments on lentil (cv. Niab Masoor 2002) were conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) on these soils to determine internal (plant tissue), external (soil solution), and fertilizer P requirements. Maximum lentil seed yield (Mg ha -1) was 0.87 with T 4 (0.17 mg P L -1) in S 1 soil, 1.8 with T 3 (0.20 mg P L -1) in S 2 soil, and 0.73 with T 7 (0.28 mg P L -1) in S 3 soil, obtained by applying 170 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1 soil, 110 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 2 soil, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 3 soil. Internal P concentrations (%) of the whole plant associated with 95% of maximum lentil seed yield at flowering stage were 0.245, 0.210, and 0.315 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soils, respectively. Internal P requirements of lentil seed were 0.290 in S 1, 0.245% in S 2, and 0.380% in S 3 soil. The ESPRs for 95% of maximum yield of lentil were 0.16 mg L -1, in S 1 soil, 0.23 mg L -1 in S 2 soil, and 0.27 mg L -1 in S 3 soil. The QFPN estimated from graphs corresponding to these ESPR values were 160 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1 soil, 125 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 2 soil, and 74 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 3 soil. The QFPNs estimated from corresponding two-surface Langmuir-type equation by using respective ESPR values were 164, 127, and 75 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively. Field-applied P 2O 5 amounts to adjust soil solution P levels (mg L -1) at 0.166 (T 4), 0.229 (T 4), and 0.281 (T 7) were 170, 126, and 78 kg ha -1 in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, we propose that QFPNs estimated by graphs against identified ESPR values or calculated by the use of corresponding two-surface Langmuir-type equations are in close proximity to the field-applied P to adjust desired EPAS value. Therefore, either of the two techniques may be used to estimate QFPN for optimum lentil yield. Close. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Hussain A.,District Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | Murtaza G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ghafoor A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehdi S.M.,Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sabir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2010

Once soil solution phosphorus (P) level optimum for plant growth is identified, P adsorption isotherms or their equations can further be used to estimate fertilizer P rates required to adjust this desired soil solution P level to obtain maximum yield. Surface soil samples were collected from a farmer's field area and research area. An adsorption study was conducted on Ustic Endoaquerts (S 1 soil), Typic Calciargids (S 2 soil), and Typic Torripsamments (S 3 soil) to develop the Freundlich-type equations. Phosphorus adsorption data were obtained by equilibrating 10-g soil samples in 100 mL of 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl 2) containing various amounts of monopotassium phosphate (KH 2PO 4). Values of 1/n (slope) ranged from 0.4827 to 0.6452 L kg -1. Based on 1/n values, it was inferred that each of the two S 1 and S 3 soils was homogeneous and S 2 was not. The K F (mg P kg -1) values of S 1, S 2, and S 3 soils were 92.45, 55.81, and 23.38, respectively. The highest amount of P (92.45 mg kg -1) was adsorbed at unit EPC in S 1 soil, whereas the lowest amount (23.38 mg P kg -1) was adsorbed in S 3 soil. Thereafter, 11 P fertilizer doses were calculated by these Freundlich-type equations to adjust different estimated soil solution P levels that were designated as treatments (0.05 to 0.90 mg L -1). Then field experiments on wheat (cv. Inqalab-91) were conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) on these soils to determine internal (plant tissue), external (soil solution), and fertilizer P requirements. Maximum wheat gain yield (Mg ha -1) was 6.82 with T 5 (0.25 mg P L -1) on S 1 soil, 5.96 with T 5 (0.25 mg P L -1) on S 2 soil, and 4.97 with T 7 (0.40 mg P L -1) on S 3 soil that was obtained by application of 196 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 1 soil, 142 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 2 soil, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 on S 3 soil. Internal P concentration (%) associated with 95% of maximum wheat yield at booting stage was 0.32 in S 1, 0.21 in S 2, and 0.33 in S 3 soil. In straw, it was 0.123% in S 1, 0.080% in S 2, and 0.108% in S 3 soil. The internal P requirement of wheat grain was 0.39% in S 1, 0.40% in S 2, and 0.37% in S 3 soil. External soil solution P requirement (ESPR) for 95% of maximum yield of wheat was 0.45 mg L -1 in S 1 soil, 0.34 mg L -1 in S 2 soil, and 0.44 mg L -1 in S 3 soil. Quantity of P 2O 5 corresponding to ESPR values were 217 kg ha -1 on S 1, 123 kg ha -1 on S 2, and 60 kg ha -1 on S 3 soil. Putting ESPR values in the respective Freundlich-type equation, P fertilizer rates (kg P 2O 5 ha -1) were estimated that were 282 on S 1, 167 on S 2, and 83 on S 3 soil; Practically, 262, 156, and 78 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 was applied in the field to adjust soil solution P level (mg L -1) at 0.40 (T 7), 0.30 (T 6), and 0.40 (T 7) in S 1, S 2, and S 3 soil, respectively, that are somewhat less than determined ESPR values. Phosphorous doses applied to achieve a desired EPAS value or estimated from graphs against predicted ESPR values, or calculated from corresponding Freundlich-type equations using desired ESPR values are in close proximity to one another. Therefore, any of the techniques can be used interchangeably to estimate the P fertilizer requirement for optimum wheat yield. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Saleem M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shakir M.A.,Soil Salinity Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Abscisic acid (ABA) application helps in improving sunflower oil quality and yield through ameliorating the adverse effects of limited water supply at different growth stages of sunflower hybrid. Improvement in yield and quality of sunflower hybrid by exogenous application of ABA under drought was studied through field experiment executed at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three irrigation schedules i.e. four irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation), three irrigations (25 DAS, flower initiation and achene formation) and three irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, and achene formation) were used. Sunflower hybrid hysun-33 was exposed to ABA concentrations (0, 5μm and 10μm) at bud initiation or at flower initiation. ABA application to sunflower hybrids either at bud or at flower initiation under water deficit conditions improved achene oil content, yield and decreased achene protein contents. Drought stress and ABA application exhibited inverse results for oil quality and yield. Drought stress to sunflower hybrid at bud or at flower initiation increased stearic and oleic acid and decreased palmitic and linoleic acid while exogenous application of ABA under water deficit at both stages slightly decreased stearic and oleic acid but increased palmitic and linoleic acid. It was concluded that exogenous application of ABA to sunflower under drought improved quality and increased crop yield. Source

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