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Ur Rehman O.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Rashid M.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Kausar R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Alvi S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Sajjad M.R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute
Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

Soil erosion is a serious threat to counter global population growth with increased and sustainable agricultural production. Torrential rains in sub-mountainous areas of Pakistan yields tremendous amount of runoff which is a major limiting factor to obtain maximum benefits of land use in sloppy areas. A study was planned to estimate the runoff and soil loss under different vegetation covers and slope. For this purpose, three slope gradients, i.e., 1, 5 and 10% were established having four plots of each slope gradient. Three crops, i.e., groundnut, mungbean and millet were sown with a fallow plot (bare soil), on each slope gradient. Runoff and sediment produced after every rainfall (≥ 20 mm) was collected and runoff and sediment losses under each crop cover and slope gradient, were calculated. The results showed that groundnut, mungbean and millet has decreased the accumulative soil sediment loss upto 40, 28 and 38% and runoff loss was decreased by 31, 30 and 24%, respectively, comparing with the bare soil. The highest soil and water losses were monitored at 10% slope gradient following 5 and 1% slope gradients, respectively under all vegetation covers. However, under the same topographic condition, different crops runoff and soil loss show obvious disparity. Topographic gradient has shown significant variation on soil and water loss. It was concluded that crop cover is the best option for appropriate soil and water conservation and profitable crop husbandry. © 2015, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Khalid R.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Khan K.S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Islam M.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Yousaf M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Shabbir G.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2012

A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rainfed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha -1). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl 2- extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha -1. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. Source


Rashid M.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Rehman O.U.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Alvi S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Kausar R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Akram M.I.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Depletion of soil moisture and soil nutrients by run-off is a serious problem in many parts of sloppy rainfed tract of Pakistan particularly in Fateh Jang areas. Terrace Structures (TS) are one of the important measures to enhance the water conservation and to check depletion of essential nutrient elements to obtain maximum crop yield on sloppy lands. A study was executed to assess the performance of TS regarding run off interception to conserve soil moisture and soil fertility for wheat production in uneven terrain of rainfed region. Wheat was sown on the upstream of TS consisting of two major blocks; Recommended Rate of Fertilizer (RRF) and Farmer Practice (FP) while under both there were two sub-blocks; With Terrace Structure (WTS) and Without Terrace Structure (WOTS) which hence constitute four treatments consisting of Recommended Rate of Fertilizer with Structure (RRFWS), Recommended Rate of Fertilizer Without Structure (RRFWOS), Farmer Practice With Structure (FPWS) and Farmer Practice Without Structure (FPWOS). Results of this experiment revealed that TS has increased the wheat grain yield significantly (20%) through conservation of soil moisture contents (16 %) and soil fertility level. TS had decreased the gullies/rills formation through the efficient removal of excess rainwater. © 2016, University of Agriculture. All rights reserved. Source


Waheed A.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Khalid R.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Mahmood T.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Siddique M.T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Javed A.S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

A study was undertaken to categorize suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose in Taxila area of Rawalpindi district. A total of 628 water samples were collected from nine union councils in Taxila, analyzed and categorized according to the suitability criteria of water quality evaluation. Sixty six percent water samples were fit, 21 % were marginally fit and 13 % were found unfit for irrigation purposes. In majority of the union councils, water was fit for irrigation except Thatta Khalil and Khurram Paracha where > 20 % of water samples were unfit. About 17 % water samples were unfit due to higher electrical conductivity (EC). Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were higher in few water samples, while > 90 % water samples had RSC and SAR within prescribed safe permissible limits. The dominant cations were Ca++ + Mg++ and Na+ with mean values of 7.6 and 3.3 me L-1 whereas, HCO- 3 and Cl- were dominant anion with mean values of 4.2 and 3.0 me L-1, respectively. The analytical data indicated that these waters had higher EC. However, the quality of available groundwater in the tehsil is suitable for raising trees and orchards. Guidelines of water for irrigation purpose should be based on the soil textural class for its maximum utilizationr and to avoid any potential harmful effects on soil health. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Alvi S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Khalid R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Rashid M.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Waheed A.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Javed A.S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute
Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research | Year: 2011

Study of micronutrients in the soil of Hazro area of District Attock (Potohar), Pakistan, revealed micronutrient deficiency in the order of Fe> Mn> Zn> Cu. All the soils were low to medium in Fe and Mn followed by Zn content, whereas only 8% samples had low Cu content. 92% and 18% soils in Hazro area had satisfactory to adequate Cu and Zinc contents, respectively, Thus soils were deficient in Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas Cu was in medium to adequate range. Source

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