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Yunas M.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | Yousaf M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khalid R.,Soil Fertility Research Institute | Nawaz S.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research
Soil and Environment

The effect of S application on soil sulfur (SO4-S) contents was investigated in different textured soils. The samples from eight soil series viz. Missa, Rajar, Qutbal, Guliana, Tirnaul, Rawal, Rawalpindi and Qazian of Pothwar area were collected and analyzed for physico chemical characteristics. Only two soil series i.e. Missa and Rajar had satisfactory (11-30 mg kg-1) S contents at upper soil depth while the rest were deficient (<10 mg kg-1) in sulphur. The highest SO4-S content (15.2 mg kg-1) was recorded in Missa soil, bearing clay loam, while lowest (5.4 mg kg-1) in Qazian soil bearing loamy sand soil texture at upper (0-15 cm) soil depths. The three soils deficient in SO4-S viz. Guliana, Rawal, Qazian, were selected for a pot experiment. Sulfur was applied @ 0, 5 and 15 kg S ha-1 using gypsum and ammonium sulphate (AS) as sources. The highest biomass (14090 kg ha-1) was observed with AS @ 15 kg S ha-1 application. The post harvest soil analysis revealed that the S application significantly increased soil SO4-S contents; the highest 9.49 mg kg-1 was observed where gypsum @ 30 kg S ha-1 was applied. The application of gypsum and AS @ 30 kg S ha-1 increased SO4-S contents by 8.5 and 7.60 % over control, respectively. The highest mean SO4-S contents (6.40 mg kg-1) were observed in Guliana soil having silt loam texture while lowest (4.64 mg kg-1) in Qazian soil. The results concluded that well drained, light textured soils in high rainfall areas have low SO4-S content and require S fertilization for optimum crop production. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source

Islam M.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Ali S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mohsan S.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Khalid R.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | And 3 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

Field experiments were conducted at two different locations (Barani Agriculture Research Institute Chakwal and farmer's field in Talagang) in northern rainfed Punjab, Pakistan, to assess relative efficiency of two sources of sulfur (S) in enhancing nitrogen (N) fixation and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The treatments were four combinations of two levels of S (15 and 30 kg ha -1) from two sources [gypsum and ammonium sulfate (AS)] and a no-S control. Application of S significantly increased seed yield up to 12% and 14% at Chakwal and Talagang, respectively. Response (kg seed yield kg -1 S) at economic optimum dose (EOD) was greater for AS than for gypsum. Sulfur application enhanced the S uptake at both locations significantly. Sulfur harvest index and S economic yield efficiency ratio were greater at Talagang than at Chakwal. Sulfur application resulted increases in N uptake by 19% and 20% and N fixation by up to 19% and 30% at Chakwal and Talagang, respectively. Ammonium sulfate was more effective in increasing N fixation and uptake as compared to gypsum at Chakwal, whereas the difference between the two sources was nonsignificant at Talagang. Thus, it can be concluded that S should be applied to chickpea crop to enhance yield and improve soil fertility status as result of greater amount of N fixed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Khattak A.,University of Punjab | Ahmed N.,University of Punjab | Hussain I.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Qazi M.A.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the salinity of ground water of the shallow wells and delineation of maps using spatial statistics approach. The water samples were collected from 833 wells located in the rural areas at shallow depth (<100 ft) of Lahore district and recorded their geographic coordinates. In order to achieve this objective, all samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC). Regarding electrical conductivity (EC) in the shallow ground water, 432 samples (51.9% of the samples) were found fit for irrigation, 160 samples (19.2%) were found marginally fit and 241 samples (28.9%) unfit when compared with the standard values for irrigation purpose. Ordinary Kriging and Bayesian Kriging are used to interpolate and observe the behavior of EC in the entire domain of the study. The performance of ordinary Kriging and Bayesian Kriging were compared by means of cross validation. It is concluded that Bayesian Kriging produced less mean square prediction error as compared with that by Ordinary Kriging. It was observed that the value of electric conductivity was very high between longitude 74° 27' to 74° 33' and latitude 31° 3' to 31° 34' whereas in North-East of Lahore district the electric conductivity was very low. Overall, electric conductivities of the ground waters examined in the present study were higher with reference to the standard values used for crop irrigation. Source

Khattak M.A.,University of Punjab | Ahmed N.,University of Punjab | Qazi M.A.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | Izhar A.,University of Punjab | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences

This study was designed to assess the ground water quality of areas adjacent to Hudiara industrial drain, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Thirty three groundwater samples were collected from tube wells located within 3 Km on either side of the Hudiara drain from different depths. This area falls under Indus plain which hosts one of the biggest ground water reservoirs in the world and is the main source of water for drinking as well as agriculture. To check the suitability of ground water, samples were analysed for different irrigational and drinking quality parameters. The minimum and maximum values of these parameters were found as EC (496 to 2060 μScm-1), SAR (2.2 to 15.9), RSC (1.8 to 11.2 meq L-1), MAR (21.4 to 66.1%) and Cl (0.22 to 3.80 meq L-1). Among the heavy metals, Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu) and Cobalt (Co) were not detected. The maximum values of Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and NO3 were found within safe limits whereas Fluoride concentration was higher in one sample. Permissible limits set by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab were considered as standard for evaluating samples for drinking and irrigation suitability, respectively. As a whole, drinking quality of collected water samples was found satisfactory and free of contaminants of human origin. In terms of SAR, 75.7% water samples were fit while regarding RSC, 18% samples were marginally suitable and 82% samples were unfit for irrigation. Chloride level of 97% water samples was in safe limits. Collectively 21% samples were marginally suitable which can be used for irrigation along with some amendments and adopting special management practices while 79% samples were unfit for irrigation purposes. © 2012 Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Source

Khan M.S.A.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | Qazi M.A.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | Mian S.M.,Soil Fertility Research Institute | Ahmed N.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan

Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid́s analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid́s (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid́s analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid́s analytical method was selected being equally effective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. Source

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