Soil and Water Testing Laboratory

Laboratory, Pakistan

Soil and Water Testing Laboratory

Laboratory, Pakistan
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Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha | Shahzad S.M.,University of Sargodha | Imtiaz M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Rizwan M.S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Iqbal M.M.,Soil and Water Testing laboratory
Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) being moderately tolerant to salinity has been extensively grown in arid and semiarid regions where soil salinization is a major threat to plant growth and soil productivity. Excess salts in the growth medium may interfere with growth processes of cotton, leading to a severe decline in yield and fiber quality characteristics. Adequate mineral nutrient status of plants can provide an important strategy to improve plant tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment was planned to evaluate the ameliorative effects of additional potassium (K) applied at 50 and 100 mg K2O kg-1 soil as potassium sulfate against NaCl stress of 100 and 180 mM in cotton. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomized design with five replications. NaCl caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in shoot sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) with a corresponding decrease in shoot K+, K+: Na+ ratio, calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Plant growth, yield and fiber quality characteristics were also declined significantly by increasing external NaCl concentration. Additional K reduced shoot Na+ while increased K+, K+: Na+ ratio, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with the consequent improvement in plant growth, lint yield and yield attributes as well as fiber quality characteristics at both levels of NaCl. Results revealed that K nutrition improved shoot K+: Na+ ratio by 116 and 246% at NaCl100 while 188 and 294% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively as compared to NaCl treated plants without additional K. Likewise, lint yield was improved by 38.27 and 60.49% at NaCl100 while 75.12 and 136% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively compared to NaCl stressed plants without additional K. Ameliorative effects of K against NaCl stress were relatively more prominent at higher K application at both NaCl levels. In conclusion, K-induced decrease in Na+, increase in Ca2+, K+, K+: Na+ ratio, relative water content and membrane stability index provide protective mechanisms against NaCl stress. However, the results need to be confirmed under field conditions and the economic feasibility should be worked out. © 2017, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Afzal S.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | Islam M.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Obaid-Ur-Rehman,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted at two locations in order to formulate phosphorus and potassium fertilizer recommendations of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) based on Mitscherlich-Bray equation. The treatments comprised four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) ha-1) and three levels of potassium (0, 30, and 60 kg potassium oxide (K2O) ha-1) in all possible combinations. Theoretical maximum yield of groundnut was calculated by plotting log y (pod yield) versus 1/x (amount of nutrients applied). Fertilizer recommendation for various soil fertility levels and yield target were developed, and their validities were tested by conducting two field verification trials on the same soil. The results showed that although general recommended fertilizer dose resulted in highest yield of groundnut at both the locations, but value cost ratio and rate of increase in income were lowest with this fertilizer treatment, and 90% of maximum yield treatment was superior in terms of economics of fertilizer and risk factor. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad N.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | Ahmad S.,University of Punjab
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

The present study was carried out to screen most commonly cultivated mango, Mangifera indica L., cultivars for their susceptibility to gall formation. Sarooli cultivar proved to be the most resistant one by having a minimum number of galls per 100 leaves. The abundance of galls in four quadrants of the tree i.e., east, west, north and south, was also studied which revealed that east quadrant had maximum number of galls while the abundance of galls in the remaining quadrants was variable. Gall formation on mango leaves seemed to increase gradually with increasing height from the ground level, reached a maximum at the height 12 ft to 16 ft and then declined. Leaf area measurements and nutrient analysis of the leaves were also done to see their impact on gall formation. Correlation analysis revealed that gall formation was positively linked with leaf area and the amount of Zn (ppm), P (%), K (%) while N (%) had negative correlation (P<0.05) with gall formation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study could be helpful in the management of mango leaf gall formation.

PubMed | Government College University Lahore, University of Agriculture at Faisalabad, Soil and Water Testing Laboratory and Government College University at Faisalabad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is one of the main staple food crops which is inherently low in micronutrients, especially iron (Fe), and can lead to severe Fe deficiency in populations having higher consumption of rice. Soils polluted with nickel (Ni) can cause toxicity to rice and decreased Fe uptake by rice plants. We investigated the potential role of biochar (BC) and gravel sludge (GS), alone and in combination, forin situ immobilization of Ni in an industrially Ni-contaminated soil at original and sulfur-amended altered soil pH. Our further aim was to increase Fe bioavailability to rice plants by the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate to the Ni-immobilized soil. Application of the mixture of both amendments reduced grain Ni concentration, phytate, Phytate/Fe, Phyt/Zn molar ratios, and soil DTPA-extractable Ni. In addition,the amendment mixture increased 70% Fe and 229% ferritin concentrations in rice grains grown in the soil at original pH. The Fe and ferritin concentrations in S-treated soil was increased up to 113 and 383% relative to controlrespectively. This enhanced Fe concentration and corresponding ferritin in rice grains can be attributed to Ni/Fe antagonism where Ni has been immobilized by GS and BC mixture. This proposed technique can be used to enhancegrowth, yield, and Fe biofortification in rice by reducing soil pH while in parallel in situ immobilizing Ni in polluted soil.

Akhtar L.H.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | Pervez M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nasim M.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Genetic variability, heritability and interrelationships for seed yield and its components (days taken to 50% flowering, plant height, number of pods per plant, days taken to 90% maturity, 100-seed weight) were estimated in 20 advance genotypes of chickpea collected from various sources along with one check variety (Pb-2000). Highly significant differences existed among the genotypes tested for all the traits. Genotype BRC-61 recorded highest seed yield of 2396 kg ha-1 where as check variety Bunjab-2000 yielded only 2068 kg ha-1. Genotype BRC-61 was the earliest in maturity and had highest weight of 100 seeds. Significant and positive correlations were found between yield and 100-seed weight, number of pods per plant and plant height. Broad sense heritability ranged from 89.61 (seed yield) to 99.99% (100-seed weight). Heritabilities for 100-seed weight and number of pods per plant were the greatest compared to other traits. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) for days taken to flowering, days taken to maturity, plant height and seed yield were higher than genotypic coefficient of variations (GCV) which means that the expression of these traits is more influenced by environmental effects. It is, therefore, suggested that the grain yield could be improved by using the 100-seed weight and number of pods per plant as selection criterion in chickpea.

Hassan W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hassan W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bano R.,On Farm Water Management | Bashir F.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | David J.,Free University of Berlin
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg−1 Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg−1 soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg−1 soil). The results revealed that PGPR significantly decreases the deleterious effects of Pb pollution and increases the maize growth under all Pb concentrations, i.e., 100–400 Pb mg kg−1 soil. PGPR chelate the Pb in the soil, and ultimately influence its bioavailability, release and uptake. The PGPR having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing abilities are more effective and resistive against Pb pollution than PGPR having either ACC-deaminase or nitrogen-fixing activity alone. The ACC enrichment technique is an efficient approach to select promising PGPR. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Saqib M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abbas G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nasim M.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

Salinity and drought are important agro-environmental problems occurring separately as well as together with the combined occurrence increasing with time due to climate change. Screening of bread wheat genotypes against salinity or drought alone is common; however, little information is available on the response of wheat genotypes to a combination of these stresses. This study investigates the response of a salt-resistant (SARC-1) and a salt-sensitive (7-Cerros) wheat genotype to drought at different growth stages under non-saline (ECe 2.1 dS m-1) and saline soil (ECe 15 dS m-1) conditions. Drought was applied by withholding water for 21 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, booting, and grain filling stages. At booting stage measurements regarding water relations, leaf ionic composition and photosynthetic attributes were made. At maturity grain yield and different yield, components were recorded. Salinity and drought significantly decreased grain yield and different yield components with a higher decrease in the case of combined stress of salinity × drought. The complete drought treatment (drought at tillering + booting + grain filling stages) was most harmful for wheat followed by drought at booting stage and grain filling-tillering stages, respectively. The salt-resistant wheat genotype SARC-1 performed better than the salt-sensitive genotype 7-Cerros in different stress treatments. A decrease in the water and turgor potentials, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, leaf K+, and increased leaf Na+ were the apparent causes of growth and yield reduction of bread wheat due to salinity, drought, and salinity × drought. © 2013 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Aziz T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ullah S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sattar A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nasim M.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

Organic manures help to improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties thus improve nutrient availability to crops. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects (if any) of different sources of organic manures on soil physico-chemical properties and growth of maize. Organic manures viz. farm yard manure, poultry manure and pressmud were added in soil filled earthen pots at10 t ha-1. Four seeds of maize (cv Nilam) were sown in each pot. Six days after emergence, plants were thinned to have two plants per pot. Results revealed that organic matter content, phosphorus and potassium bioavailability in soil and their uptake by plants were increased by organic manure application irrespective of the source. Likewise organic manure substantially improved the plant height, leaf area and shoot and root fresh and dry weights. Similarly shoot phosphorus and potassium contents were also improved by the application of organic manures. This improved growth was mainly due to increased soil nutrient availability and uptake by plants. Comparing different sources, phosphorus and potassium concentration in plants were maximum in poultry manure treatment and farm yard manure, respectively. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.

Abbas G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saqib M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Rafique Q.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Atiq ur Rahman M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na+ and Cl-is higher accompanied with the decreased K+: Na+ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m-1) and saline (15 dS m-1) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant-1, followed by grain weight plant-1. High Na+ and low K+, P concentration and K+: Na+ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity.

Ahmad H.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Siddique M.T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hafiz I.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ehsan-ul-Haq,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

A field survey was conducted to assess the zinc (Zn) status of apple orchards and associated soils in Murree tehsil. Each union council was considered as a grid for selection of apple orchard and Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for site identification. Thirteen apple orchards, i.e., one from each apple producing union council and one from each Punjab Fruit Research Hill Station, Lower Topa and Punjab Fruit Research Hill Station, Sunny Bank were selected. Five apple trees were selected from each orchard to collect plant and soil samples. Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in plant samples in comparison to the soils; all the surveyed apple orchards were deficient in Zn supply while soil testing indicated that 38 % apple orchards were deficient in Zn contents. A positive correlation existed between the plant available Zn and organic matter, clay contents, and silt contents where as negative correlation was observed between soil Zn contents and pH, sand and CaCO 3. No correlation was established between the soil and foliage Zn contents. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

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