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Shah R.U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Qayyum M.F.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ullah R.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture | Year: 2015

Purpose: Owing to aridity in our agro-ecosystem, mineralization of organic substrate is quite rapid and thereafter volatilized due to lower matrix affinity. In these consequences, the study has been chalked out with the hypothesis to alter the best approaches for mineralization of available organic resources as soil supplement to reduce the economic burden on the farming community. Our laboratory study showed the sequential temporal variations in physic-chemical properties of available organic substrates such as farm manure and sugar industry waste during composting/vermicomposting. Methods: The organic material obtained from the farm manure of live-stock farm and another sources of industrial organic waste {sugarcane baggase (SCB), pressmud (SPM), mixture of SCB, SPM and sugarcane effluent} were used for this mineralization perspectives. However, all organic substrates properties remained static except moisture up to a period of 21 days. Thereafter, these produced and processed matrix was subsequently composted and vermicomposted during 45 days under normal shade. No earthworms were spiked in composting while Lumbricus rubellus collected near vicinity of research area were inoculated at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste in vermicomposting. Contrarily, their applications was mandated as and when required policy subsequently. Moisture and temperature status of substrates were monitored regularly. However, compost/vermicompost substrates were assessed @ 15 days interval to evaluate temporal changes in physico-chemical characteristics. Results: Vermicomposting of farm manure and sugar industry wastes produced best quality manure with enriched nutritional status comprising more OC (4 %), N (3 %), P (2 %), K (7 %), Ca (3.5 %), Na (2.5 %), SO4 −2 (3.1 %) and B (twofold) as compared to composting. Conclusion: Inoculation of local specie for vermicomposting is a viable option to be recommended to the farming community. © 2015, The Author(s).

Saqib M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abbas G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nasim M.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

Salinity and drought are important agro-environmental problems occurring separately as well as together with the combined occurrence increasing with time due to climate change. Screening of bread wheat genotypes against salinity or drought alone is common; however, little information is available on the response of wheat genotypes to a combination of these stresses. This study investigates the response of a salt-resistant (SARC-1) and a salt-sensitive (7-Cerros) wheat genotype to drought at different growth stages under non-saline (ECe 2.1 dS m-1) and saline soil (ECe 15 dS m-1) conditions. Drought was applied by withholding water for 21 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, booting, and grain filling stages. At booting stage measurements regarding water relations, leaf ionic composition and photosynthetic attributes were made. At maturity grain yield and different yield, components were recorded. Salinity and drought significantly decreased grain yield and different yield components with a higher decrease in the case of combined stress of salinity × drought. The complete drought treatment (drought at tillering + booting + grain filling stages) was most harmful for wheat followed by drought at booting stage and grain filling-tillering stages, respectively. The salt-resistant wheat genotype SARC-1 performed better than the salt-sensitive genotype 7-Cerros in different stress treatments. A decrease in the water and turgor potentials, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, leaf K+, and increased leaf Na+ were the apparent causes of growth and yield reduction of bread wheat due to salinity, drought, and salinity × drought. © 2013 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Ahmad H.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Siddique M.T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hafiz I.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ehsan-ul-Haq,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

A field survey was conducted to assess the zinc (Zn) status of apple orchards and associated soils in Murree tehsil. Each union council was considered as a grid for selection of apple orchard and Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for site identification. Thirteen apple orchards, i.e., one from each apple producing union council and one from each Punjab Fruit Research Hill Station, Lower Topa and Punjab Fruit Research Hill Station, Sunny Bank were selected. Five apple trees were selected from each orchard to collect plant and soil samples. Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in plant samples in comparison to the soils; all the surveyed apple orchards were deficient in Zn supply while soil testing indicated that 38 % apple orchards were deficient in Zn contents. A positive correlation existed between the plant available Zn and organic matter, clay contents, and silt contents where as negative correlation was observed between soil Zn contents and pH, sand and CaCO 3. No correlation was established between the soil and foliage Zn contents. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Afzal S.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | Islam M.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Obaid-Ur-Rehman,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted at two locations in order to formulate phosphorus and potassium fertilizer recommendations of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) based on Mitscherlich-Bray equation. The treatments comprised four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) ha-1) and three levels of potassium (0, 30, and 60 kg potassium oxide (K2O) ha-1) in all possible combinations. Theoretical maximum yield of groundnut was calculated by plotting log y (pod yield) versus 1/x (amount of nutrients applied). Fertilizer recommendation for various soil fertility levels and yield target were developed, and their validities were tested by conducting two field verification trials on the same soil. The results showed that although general recommended fertilizer dose resulted in highest yield of groundnut at both the locations, but value cost ratio and rate of increase in income were lowest with this fertilizer treatment, and 90% of maximum yield treatment was superior in terms of economics of fertilizer and risk factor. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hassan W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hassan W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bano R.,On Farm Water Management | Bashir F.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory | David J.,Free University of Berlin
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg−1 Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg−1 soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg−1 soil). The results revealed that PGPR significantly decreases the deleterious effects of Pb pollution and increases the maize growth under all Pb concentrations, i.e., 100–400 Pb mg kg−1 soil. PGPR chelate the Pb in the soil, and ultimately influence its bioavailability, release and uptake. The PGPR having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing abilities are more effective and resistive against Pb pollution than PGPR having either ACC-deaminase or nitrogen-fixing activity alone. The ACC enrichment technique is an efficient approach to select promising PGPR. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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