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Keshavarz P.,Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center | Saadat S.,Soil and Water Research Institute SWRI
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science

Plants’ tolerance to salt stress is different among species, nevertheless, mineral nutrition might also affect it. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Zinc (Zn) on salinity tolerance using a sigmoid response model in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ‘Falat’ and ‘Bam’ with different salinity tolerances. The treatments consisted of three Zn rates (0, 5 and 10 mg Zn kg−1) and five levels of soil salinity (1.1, 6.5, 12.3, 18.7 and 25.1 dS m−1). The results showed that dry weight of straw and grain decreased, as salinity increased in both genotypes although this decrease in ‘Falat’ genotype was higher than that of ‘Bam’ genotype. Application of 10 mg kg−1 Zn increased the dry weight by 25% (straw) and 32% (grain) in ‘Falat’ but 67% (straw) and 60% (grain) in ‘Bam’ as compared with the absence of added Zn. According to the fitted function, in the absence of Zn, grain production began to decline at ECe-values of 4.7 dS m−1 in ‘Falat’ genotype, and 7.5 dS m−1 in ‘Bam’ genotype. Application of Zn led to a decrease of salinity tolerance in ‘Falat’ genotype, but an increase in ‘Bam’ genotype. The study found that Zn application under saline conditions, depending on genetic differences of wheat genotypes, would have different effects on their tolerance to salinity. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Milani P.M.,Soil and Water Research Institute SWRI | Babayev M.P.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Azizov Q.Z.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

The use of farmyard manure (FYM) in saline-sodic soils and its comparison with the other available ameliorant materials along with salinity tolerant plants cultivation is important. The study was carried out in the form of a split-split plot statistical design. The treatments included three types of tillage implements, shallow mouldboard 20 cm deep, mouldboard 30 cm deep and subsoiler 50 cm deep, as main plots; three rates of sulphuric acid, 0, 50 and 100% of gypsum requirement (GR), in subplots; and two rates of farmyard manure, 0 and 30 Mg ha -1 in 14 m 2 sub-subplots with three replications. The research was conducted on Mahabad City of West Azerbaijan province, Iran, in November 2009. We found that deep ploughing associated with 30 Mg ha -1 of FYM largely amended the saline-sodic soil and gained 3.33 Mg ha -1 of barley grain yield. The main effects of subsoiler, deep plough, sulphuric acid at 100% of GR and applying FYM increased grain yield 114, 100, 32.7 and 15.3% comparing to that of control, respectively. The bacteria population for deep plough, sulphuric acid at 100% of GR and applying FYM increased 69.1, 116 and 7.2%, respectively, comparing to that of control. Given that the cost of applying sulphuric acid is more than FYM application, using 30 tons per hectare manure associated with deep ploughing (30 cm deep) and planting barley can produce a relatively acceptable grain yield and ameliorate the saline-sodic soil. Source

Yeganeh M.,Soil and Water Research Institute SWRI | Bazargan K.,Soil and Water Research Institute SWRI
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

Because of the low amount of nitrogen and organic matter in most soils of Iran, it is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers in potato fields. Nitrate accumulates in plants naturally and if it enters into the human body it can threaten human health. There is not enough information about nitrate distribution in potatoes in Iran and a scientific value of critical level of nitrate in potatoes in Iran. The objective of this study, then, is to: determine the amount of nitrate in potatoes produced in different parts of Iran, assess the human health risks arising from potatoes nitrate, and calculate the critical concentration of nitrate in potato, using a risk assessment study and Iranian food basket. Two hundred and seventy-seven samples were collected from main provinces producing potatoes in Iran. Concentration of nitrate was measured in all samples. Results showed that Kerman province has more nitrate pollution and non cancer risk arising from nitrate. The most sensitive group to nitrate was boys 7–14 years old residing in Kerman province. Critical value of nitrate in potato for this receptor group, then for Iranian society in conservative conditions, was calculated using intake equations introduced by the USEPA and considering Iranian food basket as 246 mg kg–1. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source

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