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Ur Rehman O.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Rashid M.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Kausar R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Station | Alvi S.,Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute | Sajjad M.R.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute
Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

Soil erosion is a serious threat to counter global population growth with increased and sustainable agricultural production. Torrential rains in sub-mountainous areas of Pakistan yields tremendous amount of runoff which is a major limiting factor to obtain maximum benefits of land use in sloppy areas. A study was planned to estimate the runoff and soil loss under different vegetation covers and slope. For this purpose, three slope gradients, i.e., 1, 5 and 10% were established having four plots of each slope gradient. Three crops, i.e., groundnut, mungbean and millet were sown with a fallow plot (bare soil), on each slope gradient. Runoff and sediment produced after every rainfall (≥ 20 mm) was collected and runoff and sediment losses under each crop cover and slope gradient, were calculated. The results showed that groundnut, mungbean and millet has decreased the accumulative soil sediment loss upto 40, 28 and 38% and runoff loss was decreased by 31, 30 and 24%, respectively, comparing with the bare soil. The highest soil and water losses were monitored at 10% slope gradient following 5 and 1% slope gradients, respectively under all vegetation covers. However, under the same topographic condition, different crops runoff and soil loss show obvious disparity. Topographic gradient has shown significant variation on soil and water loss. It was concluded that crop cover is the best option for appropriate soil and water conservation and profitable crop husbandry. © 2015, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Malik S.N.,Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute | Siddique M.T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hayat R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khalid A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 2 more authors.
Soil and Environment | Year: 2014

Apple is highly sensitive to K deficiency and occurrence of K deficiency in the arid and semi-arid tracts was expected therefore a survey was carried out for examining and mapping of K dynamics in the soils of apple producing region of Murree. Eleven apple orchards were selected randomly and samples were collected from five different sites per orchard. One hundred and ten soil samples were collected from the surface (0-15 cm) and sub-surface (15-30 cm) soils. In the surface soils Ks (Soluble K) constituted 0.064 to 0.41 percent of the total K. Sub-surface soil contained Ks that was 0.03 to 0.24 percent of the total K indicating a gradual decrease in plant available K content with the increasing depth. Exchangeable potassium (Ke) constituted about 0.17 to 0.68 and 0.11 to 0.38 percent of total K in the surface and sub- surface soils. Non exchangeable K (Kne) ranged from 0.13 to 0.54 percent with the mean value of 0.29 ± 0.13 constituting about 13.35 to 47.27 percent of total K in the surface soils whereas 31 to 41 percent in the subsurface soils. Surface and subsurface soil contained 14.25 to 75.02 percent of total potassium (Kt) in the form of mineral potassium (Km). © 2014, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

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