Soil and Materials Engineers Inc.

Plymouth, MI, United States

Soil and Materials Engineers Inc.

Plymouth, MI, United States
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Jahangirnejad S.,Quality Engineering Solutions Inc. | Van Dam T.,CTLGroup | Morian D.,Quality Engineering Solutions Inc. | Smith K.,Applied Pavement Technology Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Slag materials are byproducts of metallurgical processes that include metal production from ore and refinement of impure metals. Air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS) has been used for different pavement-related applications. Appropriate use of ACBFS can significantly enhance sustainability, rather than disposing of it, by effectively contributing to all aspects of the "triple bottom line." Proper use of ACBFS can also result in economic, environmental, and social benefits as long as the performance of the concrete structure is not compromised through such use because any short-term economic and environmental gain would be rapidly eclipsed by the economic, environmental, and social costs of poor pavement performance. Thus, it is essential that engineers and contractors who use ACBFS aggregates in concrete understand its unique properties to make sure that the expected performance of the pavement over its design life is achieved. The chemical composition of ACBFS may affect its performance and has to be considered when ACBFS is used as a coarse aggregate. Physical properties of ACBFS, such as texture, absorption, and specific gravity, also have to be considered when ACBFS is used in concrete. ACBFS also affects fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Specific design, construction, and quality control considerations have to be taken into account when ACBFS is used. In this paper, sustainability aspects of using ACBFS as a coarse aggregate in concrete pavements and considerations for its use in this application are presented. A best practices guideline recently published by FHWA presents the same discussions in more detail.


Byrum C.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc. | Ye D.,Fugro
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Past and current rigid pavement thickness design procedures used by the FAA use single-slab free-edge loading stress analysis as the basis of design. The FAA's rigid pavement design methods have assumed a 25% reduction in free-edge bending stress to account for the ability of properly designed joints to transfer load from slab to slab and reduce bending stress from heavy wheel loads. This percentage of reduction is actually changing continuously as a function of slab temperature, joint type, pavement age, and traffic. A systematic procedure is used to evaluate the joint load transfer percentage of stress reduction factor in greater detail with falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements, slab curvature measurements, and finite element method (FEM) structural analysis. Field measurements of joint stiffness and slab curling are presented and compared with FEM simulations calibrated to reproduce field measurements. With the use of calibrated FEM models, the full range of expected load transfer percentages is demonstrated for single-wheel loads, two-wheel gears, and four-wheel gears for a wide range of possible joint stiffness values. Top-down and bottom-up slab cracking stresses are compared. Slab curling measured from test sites is compared with slab curling calculated from FEM models. The calibration of an FEM model to reproduce detailed site measurements of joint stiffness, load transfer efficiency, and slab curvature combined is demonstrated.


Vandenberge D.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Esser A.J.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc | Bumpas K.,Red Rock Consulting LLC
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2015

Sustainability is an important aspect of all infrastructure projects, many of which utilize earth structures such as earth dams, levees, and highway fills. Yet sustainable design (SD) of earth structures has not been comprehensively explored. Common sustainability assessment tools were reviewed, and a life cycle analysis framework was proposed, which provides a holistic view of SD for earth structures. In addition to considerations of CO2 and embodied energy, biodiversity and site selection are the most important environmental concerns for earth structures. Fill materials will dominate considerations of natural resources. The use of waste or recycled materials may be beneficial but potential side effects, such as flatter slopes or hazardous byproducts, must not be neglected. Inclusions such as geosynthetics or structural members and water use are other important material considerations. SD of earth structures must acknowledge and understand the tradeoffs between benefits to society as a whole and impacts on local communities. Economic indicators, such as resilience and planning, must also be considered for earth structures. A roadmap for implementation of SD in earth structures is provided, suggesting simple steps that can be applied to all projects as well as in depth considerations for larger earth structures. © ASCE 2015.


Byrum C.R.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc. | Raymond C.,Ontario Ministry of Transportation | Swanlund M.,U.S. Federal Highway Administration | Kazmierowski T.,Ontario Ministry of Transportation
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

A cooperative research effort was undertaken by FHWA and Canada's Ministry of Transportation for Ontario (MTO) regarding experimental texturing of fresh portland cement concrete pavement. The goal of the research was to develop techniques that can fabricate surface textures having most of the aggressive texture size wavelength content within the 2- to 8-mm (80- to 300-mil) wavelength range, with mean texture depth size at approximately 1 mm (40 mil). This wavelength range is relatively short, and it is difficult to fabricate ultraflat textures with elevation variation only in this wavelength range. The research was initiated by FHWA, and an experimental texture test site was constructed in Ontario, Canada, under the guidance of the MTO. Five texture test sections were constructed and evaluated at the Ontario test site. The short wavelength transverse textures averaging approximately 8-mm (315-mil) spacing are quieter and appear to offer equal or better skid resistance than conventional deeper transverse tining having 16-mm (630-mil) groove spacing.


Murley S.C.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc. | Hettiarachchi H.,Lawrence Technological University
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

Several correlations between the standard penetration test (SPT) N-values and internal friction angle (') have been developed for granular soils. Some correlations have also been developed for un-drained shear strength of saturated clays. However, in many instances soils do not behave as either saturated clay or sand. Sometimes it is important to find the contribution of ' in clays with higher silt and sand content; and cohesion in sands that has sufficient clay and silt content. It is incorrect to classify these soils as cohesive soils with no friction angle, or as granular soils with no cohesion, and is thus the focus of this research. This paper describes a research effort to develop practical relationships between ', effective cohesion (c') and SPT N-values for granular-cohesive soils. Considering the SPT analogous to a miniature pipe pile, an energy-balance approach was taken to derive a relationship between ', c', N-values and effective overburden pressure (σ'). A second relationship was derived between ', c', σ' and the liquidity index (LI) of low-sensitivity granular-cohesive soils. The two relationships were then graphically solved to formulate direct correlations between field N-values and c' and '. © ASCE 2011.


Byrum C.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

A load test performed with a falling weight deflectometer over a joint or crack was used in a new method for the direct calculation of the apparent vertical shear stiffness of a pavement joint or crack feature (i.e., joint stiffness). Joint stiffness is the primary input parameter, or constant, in most software for the structural analysis of pavements by the finite element method (FEM) used for controlling how much load is transferred through joints between simulated concrete slabs. FAA has been developing multislab FEM analysis tools for rigid pavement. Joint models used in FEM analysis tools for pavements must be calibrated to reproduce real measured joint behaviors. The new procedure for calculation of joint stiffness based on the falling weight deflectometer enables these calibrations. This technique was used as part of a procedure for mechanistic site evaluations performed at airfield sites of heavy-duty rigid pavements as part of a study within the Innovative Pavement Research Foundation program in cooperation with FAA.


Byrum C.R.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

This paper presents a study that uses the data from FHWA's General Pavement Studies Three (GPS3) rapid-travel profiler for jointed-concrete pavement to quantify faulting at joints and cracks and to analyze the effectiveness of load transfer dowel bars for reducing faulting. A method for identifying and quantifying the fault size at each joint and crack is described. This profile-based fault quantification method has relatively high precision that results in smooth age trends for faulting growth over time at the GPS3 sites. Size estimates generally match manual Georgia fault meter trends. More time series faulting measurements are available from the rapid travel profile dates than from the lane closure Georgia fault meter survey dates. The paper offers design-oriented nonlinear regression models that can backpredict the age trends for fault growth at the GPS3 sites as viewed through the rapid-travel profiler data. Two regression models are provided, one for the sites with dowels at joints and one for sites with only aggregate interlock for load transfer across joints. In this study, the same regression model form was used for each population's data set. This method allows a fair and direct comparison of the apparent effectiveness of dowels in jointed-concrete pavement systems for a given set of design conditions. Some interesting trends observed from sensitivity analyses of the resulting regression models are presented.


Byrum C.R.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc.
Airfield and Highway Pavement 2013: Sustainable and Efficient Pavements - Proceedings of the 2013 Airfield and Highway Pavement Conference | Year: 2013

This paper describes a numerical procedure for quantifying the effects of varying concrete pavement slab temperature and slab length on joint load transfer for a given jointed concrete pavement design. The joint load transfer model includes a joint opening size versus slab temperature relation developed by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). Instrumentation measurements from Denver International Airport and other field test sites are used to establish a fundamental relation among slab temperature, joint opening size, and deflection load transfer efficiency. Numerical methods initially developed by Skarlatos and Ioannides have been calibrated to detailed site evaluations of heavy duty airfield concrete pavements and are used to relate deflection load transfer to linear-elastic joint stiffness, a key mechanistic joint behavior parameter. The sensitivity of joint load transfer and joint stiffness to variations in annual slab temperature and slab length is presented. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Byrum C.R.,Soil and Materials Engineers Inc
Airfield and Highway Pavement 2013: Sustainable and Efficient Pavements - Proceedings of the 2013 Airfield and Highway Pavement Conference | Year: 2013

This paper describes techniques recently used for Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF) Project No. 01-G-002-05-2 (Joint Load Transfer in Concrete Airfield Pavements) to quantify the effects of concrete pavement joint opening size changes and small differential slab end settlements (faulting) on pavement joint looseness and load transferred through pavement joints. Pavement joint openings change in size continuously from summer to winter and from day to night. This change in opening size causes variations in measureable joint looseness and load transfer magnitude. Slight differential vertical settlements of slab ends also cause variations in joint looseness by causing vertical offset type slack to develop in the joint aggregate interlock, resulting in different load transfer characteristics for loading on one side of a joint versus the other. Methods used to characterize joint looseness and vertical off-set slack with the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) load testing device are described. A new method for analysis of joint looseness using time history FWD responses for joint load transfer tests is demonstrated along with traditional joint looseness evaluation procedures. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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