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Qu J.-j.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng J.-w.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng J.-f.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.-h.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment | Year: 2012

Biochar prepared out of wheat straw was applied in reddish yellow paddy soil in Changsha of Hunan and red paddy soil in Jinxian of Jiangxi in a field experiment to explore for effects of biochar applied at a rate of 20 and 40 t • hm -2, separately on yields of early and late rice and nitrogen recover efficiency of late rice. It was found that the early rice didn't respond much in yield to the combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and biochar, regardless of rate, in the two experiment sites, and neither the late rice in the experiment site of Changsha did, but the late rice at the experiment site of Jinxian did, increasing by 5. 18% and 7. 95%, separately, in the two treatments of 20 and 40 t • hm -2 biochar. With the same N application rate, the treatments of 40 t • hm 2 biochar in both experiment sites increased soil organic carbon by 55% or more over the control. Application of the biochar was found to increase pH in acid or weakly acid soil, lower soil bulk density and also increase nitrogen use efficiency of rice by 20. 33 and 17. 58 percentage point in the treatments of 40 t • hm -2 biochar in the experiment sites of Changsha and Jinxian, respectively and nitrogen agronomic efficiency by 39. 81 % in Jinxian. The experiment demonstrates that biochar amendment in acid soil can stabilize or even increase rice yield and improve nitrogen use efficiency.

Gu W.,Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Zhang F.,Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Xu P.,Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Tang S.,Soil and Fertilizer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur. +T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur. +T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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