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Cohen S.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Leshansky L.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Zussman E.,Solid State Institute | Burman M.,Solid State Institute | And 5 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2010

The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Sela Y.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Sela Y.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Molotski N.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Golan S.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2012

While experimentally induced arrest of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in G1 has been shown to stimulate differentiation, it remains unclear whether the unperturbed G1 phase in hESCs is causally related to differentiation. Here, we use centrifugal elutriation to isolate and investigate differentiation propensities of hESCs in different phases of their cell cycle. We found that isolated G1 cells exhibit higher differentiation propensity compared with S and G2 cells, and they differentiate at low cell densities even under self-renewing conditions. This differentiation of G1 cells was partially prevented in dense cultures of these cells and completely abrogated in coculture with S and G2 cells. However, coculturing without cell-to-cell contact did not rescue the differentiation of G1 cells. Finally, we show that the subset of G1 hESCs with reduced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma has the highest propensity to differentiate and that the differentiation is preceded by cell cycle arrest. These results provide direct evidence for increased propensity of hESCs to differentiate in G1 and suggest a role for neighboring cells in preventing differentiation of hESCs as they pass through a differentiation sensitive, G1 phase. © AlphaMed Press.

Novak A.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Amit M.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Ziv T.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Segev H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2012

The regulatory pathways responsible for maintaining human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in an undifferentiated state have yet to be elucidated. Since these pathways are thought to be governed by complex protein cues, deciphering the changes that occur in the proteomes of the ESCs during differentiation is important for understanding the expansion and differentiation processes involved. In this study, we present the first quantitative comparison of the hESC protein profile in the undifferentiated and early differentiated states. We used iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) labeling combined with two dimensional capillary chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (μLC-MS/MS) to achieve comparative proteomics of hESCs at the undifferentiated stage, and at 6, 48, and 72 h after initiation of differentiation. In addition, two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed on differentiating hESCs at eleven points of time during the first 72 h of differentiation. The results indicate that during the first 48 h of hESC differentiation, many processes are initiated and are later reversed, including chromatin remodeling, heterochromatin spreading, a decrease in transcription and translation, a decrease in glycolytic proteins and cytoskeleton remodeling, and a decrease in focal and cell adhesion. Only 72 h after differentiation induction did the expression of the homeobox prox1 protein increase, indicating the beginning of developmental processes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Novak A.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Shtrichman R.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Germanguz I.,Sohnis and Forman Families Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration Research | Segev H.,Rambam Health Care Campus | And 10 more authors.
Cellular Reprogramming | Year: 2010

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent an ideal cell source for future cell therapy and regenerative medicine. However, most iPSC lines described to date have been isolated from skin fibroblasts or other cell types that require harvesting by surgical intervention. Because it is desirable to avoid such intervention, an alternative cell source that can be readily and noninvasively isolated from patients and efficiently reprogrammed, is required. Here we describe a detailed and reproducible method to derive iPSCs from plucked human hair follicle keratinocytes (HFKTs). HFKTs were isolated from single plucked hair, then expanded and reprogrammed by a single polycistronic excisable lentiviral vector. The reprogrammed HFKTs were found to be very sensitive to human embryonic stem cell (hESC) growth conditions, generating a built-in selection with easily obtainable and very stable iPSCs. All emerging colonies were true iPSCs, with characteristics typical of human embryonic stem cells, differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Spontenaeouly differentiating functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) were successfully derived and characterized from these HFKT-iPSCs. The contracting CMs exhibited well-coordinated intracellular Ca2+ transients and contractions that were readily responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol. The introduction of Cre-recombinase to HFKT-iPSC clones was able to successfully excise the integrated vector and generate transgene-free HFKT-iPSC clone that could be better differentiated into contracting CMs, thereby revealing the desired cells for modeling human diseases. Thus, HFKTs are easily obtainable, and highly reprogrammed human cell source for all iPSC applications. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Dekel-Naftali M.,Tel Aviv University | Dekel-Naftali M.,Danek Gertner Institute of Human Genetics | Aviram-Goldring A.,Tel Aviv University | Aviram-Goldring A.,Danek Gertner Institute of Human Genetics | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Pluripotency and proliferative capacity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) make them a promising source for basic and applied research as well as in therapeutic medicine. The introduction of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise for patient-tailored regenerative medicine therapies. However, for hESCs and hiPSCs to be applied for therapeutic purposes, long-term genomic stability in culture must be maintained. Until recently, G-banding analysis was considered as the default approach for detecting chromosomal abnormalities in stem cells. Our goal in this study was to apply fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for the screening of pluripotent stem cells, which will enable us identifying chromosomal abnormalities in stem cells genome with a better resolution. We studied three hESC lines and two hiPSC lines over long-term culture. Aneuploidy rates were evaluated at different passages, using FISH probes (12,13,16,17,18,21,X,Y). Genomic integrity was shown to be maintained at early passages of hESCs and hiPSCs but, at late passages, we observed low rates mosaiciam in hESCs, which implies a direct correlation between number of passages and increased aneuploidy rate. In addition, CGH analysis revealed a recurrent genomic instability, involving the gain of chromosome 1q. This finding was detected in two unrelated cell lines of different origin and implies that gains of chromosome 1q may endow a clonal advantage in culture. These findings, which could only partially be detected by conventional cytogenetic methods, emphasize the importance of using molecular cytogenetic methods for tracking genomic instability in stem cells. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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