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Sogndal, Norway

Sogn og Fjordane University College is a høgskole, a Norwegian state institution of higher education, in the county of Sogn og Fjordane. The university college's campuses are located in Sogndal and Førde, and has approximately 3,800 students and 300 employees. The surrounding areas span over a variety of environments ranging from marine to high alpine, with glaciers and several nature parks on the World Heritage list.Sogn og Fjordane University College is divided into four faculties: Faculty of Engineering and Science, Faculty of Health Studies, Faculty of Social science and Faculty of Teacher Education and Sports. Wikipedia.

Leknes I.L.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Tissue and Cell

Histochemical properties of intestine goblet cells in firemouth cichlid, zebra mbuna, freshwater angelfish and platyfish are described. Goblet cells occurred regularly in the epithelial cell layer throughout the entire intestine, they were strongly coloured by alcian blue at pH 2.5. This colour got gradually weaker when the pH was reduced, but still after alcian blue at pH 0.2 these cells displayed a distinct blue colour. When the goblet cells were treated with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), they displayed a strong purple-magenta colour. The findings that a number of goblet cells displayed various colours between blue and purple-magenta when acidic alcian blue was followed by PAS, and between blue and red-brown when acidic alcian blue was followed by neutral red, may reflect different ages or stages of development and differentiation for these cells. However, such results may also suggest a true cellular heterogeneity in the present population of goblet cells, reflecting that the intestine mucus layer has a number of roles in teleosts like lubrication, protection, immunological defence, digestion and absorption. In the ferritin injected specimens of firemouth cichlid and platyfish, a number of macrophage-like cells in intestine wall displayed Prussian blue precipitations in tissue treated with acid ferrocyanide, suggesting that these cells play a cleansing role in the intestinal wall. No ferritin uptake was seen in the intestine goblet cells and eosinophilic granule cells. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bhatta B.P.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Journal of Air Transport Management

This paper discusses the pay-as-you-weigh approach to airline charging, which adopts passenger's weight as a major determinant of a fare. It specifically investigates the economic justification of the model, discusses strengths and weaknesses, evaluates various comments, and points out some potential options for implementation. The model rewards passengers who weigh less than average and/or when they reduce weight, providing financial savings and improved health benefits. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Riiser A.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology

The human microbiome can be defined as the microorganisms that reside within and on our bodies and how they interact with the environment. Recent research suggests that numerous mutually beneficial interactions occur between a human and their microbiome, including those that are essential for good health. Modern microbiological detection techniques have contributed to new knowledge about microorganisms in their human environment. These findings reveal that the microbiomes of the lung and gut contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. For example, evidence indicates that the microbiome of the gut regulates the activities of helper T cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) that affect the development of immune tolerance. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate differences between the lung microbiomes of healthy and asthmatic subjects. The hygiene and biodiversity hypotheses explain how exposure to microorganisms is associated with asthma and allergy. Although those living in developed countries are exposed to fewer and less diverse microorganisms compared with the inhabitants of developing countries, they are experiencing an increase in the incidence of asthma and allergies. Detailed analyses of the human microbiome, as are being conducted under the auspices of the Human Microbiome Project initiated in 2007, promise to contribute insights into the mechanisms and factors that cause asthma and allergy that may lead to the development of strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. © 2015 Riiser. Source

Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
European Journal of Applied Physiology

Little is known about the effect of performing common resistance exercises standing compared to seated and unilaterally compared to bilaterally on muscle activation of the core. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the superficial core muscles (i.e. rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae) between seated, standing, bilateral and unilateral dumbbell shoulder presses. 15 healthy males performed five repetitions at 80% of onerepetition maximum of the exercises in randomized order. Results were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test. The position × exercise interaction was significantly different for rectus abdominis (P = 0.016), but not for external oblique (P = 0.100) and erector spinae (P = 0.151). The following EMG results were observed: For rectus abdominis: ∼49% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), similar in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.408), ∼81% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼59% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001); For external oblique: ∼81% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), ∼68% lower in standing bilateral than unilateral (P<0.001),∼58% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼28% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P = 0.002); For erector spinae: similar in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.737), ∼18% lower in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.001), similar in seated versus standing bilateral (P = 0.480) and unilateral (P = 0.690). In conclusion, to enhance neuromuscular activation of the superficial core muscles, standing exercises should be used instead of seated exercises, and unilateral exercises should be used instead of bilateral exercises. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Saeterbakken A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

Saeterbakken, AH and Finland, MS. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 130-136, 2013-The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (27%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (219%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (224%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

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