Sogndal, Norway

Sogn og Fjordane University College is a høgskole, a Norwegian state institution of higher education, in the county of Sogn og Fjordane. The university college's campuses are located in Sogndal and Førde, and has approximately 3,800 students and 300 employees. The surrounding areas span over a variety of environments ranging from marine to high alpine, with glaciers and several nature parks on the World Heritage list.Sogn og Fjordane University College is divided into four faculties: Faculty of Engineering and Science, Faculty of Health Studies, Faculty of Social science and Faculty of Teacher Education and Sports. Wikipedia.


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Riiser A.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

The human microbiome can be defined as the microorganisms that reside within and on our bodies and how they interact with the environment. Recent research suggests that numerous mutually beneficial interactions occur between a human and their microbiome, including those that are essential for good health. Modern microbiological detection techniques have contributed to new knowledge about microorganisms in their human environment. These findings reveal that the microbiomes of the lung and gut contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. For example, evidence indicates that the microbiome of the gut regulates the activities of helper T cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) that affect the development of immune tolerance. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate differences between the lung microbiomes of healthy and asthmatic subjects. The hygiene and biodiversity hypotheses explain how exposure to microorganisms is associated with asthma and allergy. Although those living in developed countries are exposed to fewer and less diverse microorganisms compared with the inhabitants of developing countries, they are experiencing an increase in the incidence of asthma and allergies. Detailed analyses of the human microbiome, as are being conducted under the auspices of the Human Microbiome Project initiated in 2007, promise to contribute insights into the mechanisms and factors that cause asthma and allergy that may lead to the development of strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. © 2015 Riiser.


Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Little is known about the effect of performing common resistance exercises standing compared to seated and unilaterally compared to bilaterally on muscle activation of the core. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the superficial core muscles (i.e. rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae) between seated, standing, bilateral and unilateral dumbbell shoulder presses. 15 healthy males performed five repetitions at 80% of onerepetition maximum of the exercises in randomized order. Results were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test. The position × exercise interaction was significantly different for rectus abdominis (P = 0.016), but not for external oblique (P = 0.100) and erector spinae (P = 0.151). The following EMG results were observed: For rectus abdominis: ∼49% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), similar in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.408), ∼81% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼59% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001); For external oblique: ∼81% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), ∼68% lower in standing bilateral than unilateral (P<0.001),∼58% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼28% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P = 0.002); For erector spinae: similar in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.737), ∼18% lower in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.001), similar in seated versus standing bilateral (P = 0.480) and unilateral (P = 0.690). In conclusion, to enhance neuromuscular activation of the superficial core muscles, standing exercises should be used instead of seated exercises, and unilateral exercises should be used instead of bilateral exercises. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Leknes I.L.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Tissue and Cell | Year: 2010

Histochemical properties of intestine goblet cells in firemouth cichlid, zebra mbuna, freshwater angelfish and platyfish are described. Goblet cells occurred regularly in the epithelial cell layer throughout the entire intestine, they were strongly coloured by alcian blue at pH 2.5. This colour got gradually weaker when the pH was reduced, but still after alcian blue at pH 0.2 these cells displayed a distinct blue colour. When the goblet cells were treated with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), they displayed a strong purple-magenta colour. The findings that a number of goblet cells displayed various colours between blue and purple-magenta when acidic alcian blue was followed by PAS, and between blue and red-brown when acidic alcian blue was followed by neutral red, may reflect different ages or stages of development and differentiation for these cells. However, such results may also suggest a true cellular heterogeneity in the present population of goblet cells, reflecting that the intestine mucus layer has a number of roles in teleosts like lubrication, protection, immunological defence, digestion and absorption. In the ferritin injected specimens of firemouth cichlid and platyfish, a number of macrophage-like cells in intestine wall displayed Prussian blue precipitations in tissue treated with acid ferrocyanide, suggesting that these cells play a cleansing role in the intestinal wall. No ferritin uptake was seen in the intestine goblet cells and eosinophilic granule cells. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Saeterbakken A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Saeterbakken, AH and Finland, MS. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 130-136, 2013-The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (27%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (219%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (224%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Bhatta B.P.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the pay-as-you-weigh approach to airline charging, which adopts passenger's weight as a major determinant of a fare. It specifically investigates the economic justification of the model, discusses strengths and weaknesses, evaluates various comments, and points out some potential options for implementation. The model rewards passengers who weigh less than average and/or when they reduce weight, providing financial savings and improved health benefits. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of the study was to compare 6-repetition maximum (6RM) loads and muscle activity in bench press on 3 surfaces, namely, stable bench, balance cushion, and Swiss ball. Sixteen healthy, resistance-trained men (age 22.5 ± 2.0 years, stature 1.82 ± 6.6 m, and body mass 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for × habituation/strength testing sessions and 1 experimental session. In randomized order on the 3 surfaces, 6RM strength and electromyographic activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were assessed. Relative to stable bench, the 6RM strength was approximately 93% for balance cushion (p ≤ 0.001) and approximately 92% for Swiss ball (p = 0.008); the pectoralis major electromyographic (EMG) activity was approximately 90% using the balance cushion (p = 0.080) and approximately 81% using Swiss ball (p = 0.006); the triceps EMGwas approximately79%using the balance cushion (p = 0.028) and approximately 69% using the Swiss ball (p = 0.002). Relative to balance cushion, the EMG activity in pectoralis, triceps, and erector spinae using Swiss ball was approximately 89% (p = 0.016), approximately 88% (p = 0.014) and approximately 80% (p = 0.020), respectively. In rectus abdominis, the EMG activity relative to Swiss ball was approximately 69% using stable bench (p = 0.042) and approximately 65% using the balance cushion (p=0.046). SimilarEMGactivities betweenstable and unstable surfaces were observed for deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, and oblique external. In conclusion, stable bench press had greater 6RMstrength and triceps and pectoralisEMGactivity compared with the unstable surfaces. These findings have implications for athletic training and rehabilitation, because they demonstrate an inferior effect of unstable surfaces on muscle activation of prime movers and strength in bench press. If an unstable surface in bench press is desirable, a balance cushion should be chosen instead of a Swiss ball. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Weaver T.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the commercial attractiveness of the nascent offshore wind energy industry from an asset owners perspective. Two commercial scale operational projects are used as illustrative cases. Based upon historical empirical financial and performance data in conjunction with future spot market price scenarios, a discounted cash flow methodology has been applied to underpin the financial value over each life cycle of plant. The robustness of the results is strengthened by sensitizing key input parameters. The results suggest that project annualized returns range between 8% and 11% above prescribed costs of capital. A key finding is that the cost of capital can be more instrumental in achieving lower costs of energy than site selection itself. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Aadland E.,Sogn og Fjordane University College
Journal of rehabilitation medicine | Year: 2014

Direct measurement of physical activity may be critical to revealing its relationship with the change in fat mass over time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between accelerometer-determined change in physical activity and change in fat mass in severely obese men and women. A total of 49 severely obese men (n = 12) and women (n = 37) (mean age 42.8 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.6); mean body mass index 42.0 kg/m2 (SD 5.9) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with 4 measurements of physical activity (Actigraph GT1M accelerometer), energy intake (180-item food frequency questionnaire), and body composition. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. In the total group change in both duration and intensity of physical activity were independently related to change in fat mass (partial r = -0.38 to -0.31, p = 0.001-0.007) after adjustment for baseline body weight, gender and change in energy intake. A gender-specific effect of change in physical activity duration was found for change in fat mass (p for change in physical activity duration*gender < 0.001), where the association was significant in men (partial r = -0.53, p < 0.001), but not in women (partial r = -0.17, p = 0.149). Increased intensity of physical activity was associated with loss of fat mass in severely obese men and women, whereas physical activity duration was associated with fat mass loss in men.


Holden E.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Linnerud K.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

Sustainable passenger transport policies are most often directed towards everyday travel and ignore the large and expanding amount of leisure travel. The paper examines whether policies aimed at reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions for everyday travel may have the opposite effect on leisure travel by reviewing studies of three sustainable passenger transport policies: developing more compact cities, building pro-environment awareness and attitudes, and promoting the growth of information and communication technologies. We found that the policies may indeed have unintended effects and suggest several mechanisms that could explain why this opposite effect occurs. Consideration is also given to the implications for developing more comprehensive sustainable transport policies. © 2011 Urban Studies Journal Limited.


Types of mucus cells and mucins in the epithelial cell layer throughout the digestive tract of the Buenos Aires tetra (Hyphessobrycon anisitsi) are described and compared. The mucin was produced in three different cell types: in sac-like cells in the esophagus, in surface epithelial cells in the stomach and in goblet cells in the caeca and intestine. Nearly the entire esophageal epithelial cell layer consisted of mucus cells, filled by both neutral mucin and non-sulfated acidic mucin. The gastric mucin occurred in the distal area of the surface epithelial cells only and contained mainly neutral proteoglycans rich in glucosamine and some galactosamine and sialic acid. The goblet cells contained mainly non-sulfated acidic mucin in the caeca and sulfated acidic mucin throughout the entire intestine. Much glucosamine and some galactosamine and sialic acid occurred regularly in these cells in both the caeca and intestine. The observation that goblet cells often displayed colors ranging between blue and purple-magenta when alcian blue staining was followed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), or between blue and red-brown when the alcian blue was followed by neutral red, may reflect different ages or stages of development and differentiation for these cells. The highly variable affinities to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-lectin) seen in these cells in the present study strengthens this view. However, such results may also suggest a true cellular heterogeneity reflecting various roles in lubrication, immunological defence, digestion and absorption. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

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