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Pittsburgh, PA, United States

HTLV-1 is the causal agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease observed in up to 5% of individuals infected with HTLV-1. However, infected individuals without the disease can present neurological complaints relating to sensory, motor or urinary manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of neurological manifestations among patients with HTLV-1.Method: HTLV-1 patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were enrolled into a cohort study.Results: Among 414 subjects, 76 had definite and 87 had possible or probable HAM/TSP at the baseline, whereas 251 subjects had no neurological signs or symptoms. Definite HAM/TSP developed in 5 patients (1.74%). The asymptomatic subjects were selected for analysis. The incidence rate expressed per 1,000 persons-year was calculated. It was 206 for hand numbness, 129 for nocturia and 126 for urinary urgency. In the neurological examination, leg hyperreflexia presented an average incidence rate of 76; leg paraparesis, 52; and Babinski sign, 36. Kaplan-Meyer curves categorized according to gender and proviral load showed that females and patients with proviral load of more than 100,000 copies per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) presented higher risk.Conclusion: Development of neurological symptoms or signs occurred in up to 30% of asymptomatic subjects during 8 years of follow-up. Female gender and high proviral load were risk factors for neurological disease. © 2015, Associacao Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. All rights reserved.


Standish K.,Sustainable science Institute | Kuan G.,Socrates | Aviles W.,Sustainable science Institute | Harris E.,University of California at Berkeley
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES) program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3) times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development. © 2010 Standish et al.


Gordon A.,University of California at Berkeley | Gordon A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Videa E.,Sustainable science Institute | Kuan G.,Socrates | Harris E.,University of California at Berkeley
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Little is known about the clinical presentation and epidemiology of influenza A H1N1 pdm in children in developing countries. We assessed the severity of influenza A H1N1 pdm in children in Nicaragua by comparing H1N1pdm cases to seasonal influenza cases in an ongoing cohort study. Methods. The Nicaraguan Influenza Cohort Study was established in June 2007 to study the burden and seasonality of pediatric influenza in a tropical developing country. During the period from June 2007 through November 2009, a total of 4391 children aged 2-14 years participated in the cohort. We examined the attack rate of clinical influenza and assessed symptoms at first presentation in febrile patients with H1N1pdm versus those with seasonal influenza A or B. Results. The estimated clinical attack rate of H1N1pdm in the cohort was 20.1%, compared to 11.7% and 15.1% for seasonal influenza A and 11.9% and 24.2% for seasonal influenza A and B in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Symptoms significantly associated with H1N1pdm cases versus seasonal influenza A cases were sore throat (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.5), wheezing (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.3-19.0), rhonchi (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.4-15.0), crepitations (OR, 16.2; 95% CI, 2.1-128.7), pneumonia (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.7-37.3), nausea (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1), and loss of appetite (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1). In addition, 3 concurrent influenza and dengue virus coinfections were identified. Conclusions. Children with influenza A H1N1pdm presented with significantly more symptoms of lower respiratory infection and gastrointestinal symptoms than children with seasonal influenza. The clinical influenza attack rate was high in both pandemic and seasonal years. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Yozwiak N.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Skewes-Cox P.,University of California at San Francisco | Gordon A.,University of California at Berkeley | Gordon A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2010

Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) are a common cause of human illness worldwide and are associated with diverse clinical syndromes, including asymptomatic infection, respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and meningitis. In this study, we report the identification and complete genome sequence of a novel enterovirus isolated from a case of acute respiratory illness in a Nicaraguan child. Unbiased deep sequencing of nucleic acids from a nose and throat swab sample enabled rapid recovery of the full-genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that human enterovirus 109 (EV109) is most closely related to serotypes of human enterovirus species C (HEV-C) in all genomic regions except the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). Bootstrap analysis indicates that the 5′ UTR of EV109 is likely the product of an interspecies recombination event between ancestral members of the HEV-A and HEV-C groups. Overall, the EV109 coding region shares 67 to 72% nucleotide sequence identity with its nearest relatives. EV109 isolates were detected in 5/310 (1.6%) of nose and throat swab samples collected from children in a pediatric cohort study of influenza-like illness in Managua, Nicaragua, between June 2007 and June 2008. Further experimentation is required to more fully characterize the pathogenic role, disease associations, and global distribution of EV109. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Montoya M.,Sustainable science Institute | Gresh L.,Sustainable science Institute | Williams K.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Gutierrez G.,Sustainable science Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) circulate globally, causing more human illness than any other arthropod-borne virus. Dengue can present as a range of clinical manifestations from undifferentiated fever to Dengue Fever to severe, life-threatening syndromes. However, most DENV infections are inapparent. Yet, little is known about determinants of inapparent versus symptomatic DENV infection outcome. Here, we analyzed over 2,000 DENV infections from 2004 to 2011 in a prospective pediatric cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Symptomatic cases were captured at the study health center, and paired healthy annual samples were examined on a yearly basis using serological methods to identify inapparent DENV infections. Overall, inapparent and symptomatic DENV infections were equally distributed by sex. The mean age of infection was 1.2 years higher for symptomatic DENV infections as compared to inapparent infections. Although inapparent versus symptomatic outcome did not differ by infection number (first, second or third/post-second DENV infections), substantial variation in the proportion of symptomatic DENV infections among all DENV infections was observed across study years. In participants with repeat DENV infections, the time interval between a first inapparent DENV infection and a second inapparent infection was significantly shorter than the interval between a first inapparent and a second symptomatic infection. This difference was not observed in subsequent infections. This result was confirmed using two different serological techniques that measure total anti-DENV antibodies and serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Taken together, these findings show that, in this study, age, study year and time interval between consecutive DENV infections influence inapparent versus symptomatic infection outcome, while sex and infection number had no significant effect. Moreover, these results suggest that the window of cross-protection induced by a first infection with DENV against a second symptomatic infection is approximately 2 years. These findings are important for modeling dengue epidemics and development of vaccines. © 2013 Montoya et al.

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