Neukom J.,Population Services International |
Chilambwe J.,Society for Family Health |
Mkandawire J.,Society for Family Health |
Hubacher D.,Family Health International
Contraception | Year: 2011
Background: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is underused in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Many previous attempts to increase uptake of this important class of contraception have not been successful. Study Design: This program in Zambia employed 18 dedicated providers of LARC, placed them in high volume public sector facilities and collected routine, anonymous information over a 14-month period. We tallied uptake of LARC, analyzed user characteristics to see what populations were reached by the program and compared this to nationally representative data. We also estimated costs per couple-year of protection of the program. Results: In a 14-month period, 33,609 clients chose either a subdermal implant (66%) or an intrauterine device (34%). The program reached a younger and lower parity population compared to nationally representative surveys of Zambian women using contraception. The estimated program costs, including the value of donated commodities, averaged $13.0 per couple-year of protection. Conclusion: By having the necessary time, skills and materials - as well as a mandate to both generate informed demand and provide quality services - dedicated providers of LARC can expand contraceptive choice. This new approach shows what can be achieved in a short period and in a region of the world where uptake of LARC is limited. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larsen D.A.,Tulane University |
Keating J.,Tulane University |
Miller J.,Tulane University |
Bennett A.,Tulane University |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background and Methods:Roll Back Malaria set the goal of 100% of households in malaria endemic countries in Africa owning an insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) by 2010. Zambia has used mass free distribution campaigns and distribution through antenatal care (ANC) clinics to achieve high coverage. Methodology and Principal Findings: We conducted a probability survey of 801 households in 2008 to assess factors associated with households that lacked an ITN after mass distribution. Community perceptions of barriers to ITN access were also obtained from in-depth interviews with household heads that reported not owning an ITN. Nearly 74% of households in Luangwa district reported owning $1 ITN. Logistic regression showed households without a child,5 years old during the ITN distribution campaigns were twice as likely to not have an ITN as those with a child,5 during distribution (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67-3.55). Households without a woman who attended an ANC in the past 2 years were more likely to be without ITNs compared to households with a woman who attended an ANC in the past 2 years (AOR =1.52; 95% CI: 1.04-2.21). In-depth interviews with heads of households without an ITN revealed that old age was a perceived barrier to receiving an ITN during distribution, and that ITNs wore out before they could be replaced. Conclusions and Significance:Delivery of a large number of ITNs does not translate directly into 100% household coverage. Due to their design, current ITN distribution strategies may miss households occupied by the elderly and those without children or ANC access. ITN distribution strategies targeting the elderly, those with limited access to distribution points, and others most likely to be missed are necessary if 100% ITN coverage of households is to be achieved. © 2010 Larsen et al.
Liu J.,University of California at San Francisco |
Isiguzo C.,Society for Family Health |
Sieverding M.,University of California at San Francisco
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2015
Objectives: To characterise the differences in care seeking behaviour and dispensing outcomes between adults and children purchasing drugs for malaria at retail shops in Nigeria. Methods: In Nasarawa State, retail drug shops were enumerated and a subset of those stocking antimalarials were selected as study sites and surveyed. Customers exiting shops after purchasing antimalarial drugs were surveyed and tested with a malaria rapid diagnostic test. Sick adults and caregivers accompanying sick children were eligible, but individuals purchasing drugs for a sick person that was not present were excluded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the correlates of care seeking and the quality of interaction at the shop. Results: Of 737 participants, 80% were adults and 20% were children (under age 18). Caregivers of sick children were more likely to obtain a prescription prior to attending a drug retailer than adults seeking care for themselves and waited a shorter time before seeking care. Caregivers of sick children were also more likely than sick adults to have been asked about symptoms by the retailer, to have been given an examination, and to have purchased an ACT. Fewer than half of respondents had purchased an ACT. Only 14% of adults, but 27% of children were RDT-positive; RDT-positive children were more likely to have had an ACT purchased for them than RDT-positive adults. Conclusions: Children with suspected malaria tend to receive better care at drug retailers than adults. The degree of overtreatment and prevalence of dispensing non-recommended antimalarials emphasise the need for routine diagnosis before treatment to properly treat both malaria and non-malaria illnesses. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marum E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Taegtmeyer M.,Clinical Research Group |
Parekh B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Mugo N.,Kenyatta National Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012
HIV testing and counseling services in Africa began in the early 1990s, with limited availability and coverage. Fears of stigma and discrimination, complex laboratory systems, and lack of available care and treatment services hampered expansion. Use of rapid point-of-care tests, introduction of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and increasing provision of antiretroviral drugs were key events in the late 1990s and early 2000s that facilitated the expansion of HIV testing and counseling services. Innovations in service delivery included providing HIV testing in both clinical and community sites, including mobile and home testing. Promotional campaigns were conducted in many countries, and evolutions in policies and guidance facilitated expansion and uptake. Support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and national governments, other donors, and the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria contributed to significant increases in the numbers of persons tested in many countries. Quality of both testing and counseling, limited number of health care workers, uptake by couples, and effectiveness of linkages and referral systems remain challenges. Expansion of antiretroviral treatment, especially in light of the evidence that treatment contributes to prevention of transmission, will require greater yet strategic coverage of testing services, especially in clinical settings and in combination with other highimpact HIV prevention strategies. Continued support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, governments, and other donors is required for the expansion of testing needed to achieve international targets for the scale-up of treatment and universal access to knowledge of HIV status. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Eluwa G.I.,HIV AIDS Program. Population Council Nigeria |
Eluwa G.I.,Diadem Consults Ltd |
Badru T.,Diadem Consults Ltd |
Akpoigbe K.J.,Society for Family Health
BMC Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Background: Data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to antiretroviral (ARV) use in public health practice are few indicating the need for ART safety surveillance in clinical care.Objectives: To evaluate the incidence, type and risk factors associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among patients on antiretroviral drugs (ARV).Methods: Patients initiated on ARVs between May 2006 and May 2009 were evaluated in a retrospective cohort analysis in three health facilities in Nigeria. Regimens prescribed include nucleoside backbone of zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T)/3TC, or tenofovir (TDF)/3TC in combination with either nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to identify risk factors associated with occurrence of ADR.Results: 2650 patients were followed-up for 2456 person-years and reported 114 ADRs (incidence rate = 4.6/100 person-years).There were more females 1706(64%) and 73(64%) of the ADRs were reported by women. Overall, 61(54%) of ADRs were reported by patients on AZT with 54(47%) of these occurring in patients on AZT/NVP. The commonest ADRs reported were pain 25(30%) and skinrash 10(18%). Most ADRs were grade 1(39%) with only 1% being life threatening (grade 4). Adjusted GEE analysis showed that ADR was less likely to occur in patients on longer duration of ART compared to the first six months on treatment; 6-12 months AOR 0.38(95% CI:0.16-0.91) and 12-24 months AOR 0.34(95% CI:0.16-0.73) respectively. Compared to patients on TDF, ADR was less likely to occur in patients on d4T and AZT AOR 0.18(95% CI 0.05-0.64) and AOR 0.24(95% CI:0.7-0.9) respectively. Age, gender and CD4 count were not significantly associated with ADRs.Conclusion: ADRs are more likely to occur within the first six months on treatment. Close monitoring within this period is required to prevent occurrence of severe ADR and improve ART adherence. Further research on the tolerability of tenofovir in this environment is recommended. © 2012 Eluwa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Eluwa G.I.,Operations Research Division |
Strathdee S.A.,University of California at San Diego |
Adebajo S.B.,Operations Research Division |
Ahonsi B.,Operations Research Division |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) account for about 20% of new HIV infections in Nigeria. We estimated the change in HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors between 2 consecutive rounds of integrated biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (IBBSSs) and determined correlates of HIV transmission among FSWs. METHODS: In 2007 and 2010, HIV prevalence and risk behavior data on brothel-based (BB) and non-brothel-based (NBB) FSWs from the integrated biological and behavioral surveillance survey were evaluated in 6 Nigerian states. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of HIV infection. RESULTS: A total of 2897 and 2963 FSWs were surveyed in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Overall HIV prevalence decreased in 2010 compared to 2007 (20% vs. 33%; P < 0.001), with similar magnitude of declines among BB-FSW (23% vs. 37%; P < 0.0001) and NBB-FSW (16% vs. 28%; P < 0.0001). Consistent condom use with boyfriends in the last 12 months was lower in 2010 compared to 2007 overall (23% vs. 25%; P = 0.02) and among BB-FSWs (17% vs. 23%; P < 0.01] while NBB-FSWs showed a marginal increase (30% vs. 27%; P = 0.08). FSWs residing in the Federal Capital Territory [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.74 (1.34 - 2.27)] and Kano state [AOR: 2.07 (1.59 - 2.70)] were more likely to be HIV-positive while FSWs recruited in 2010 [AOR: 0.81 (0.77-0.85)] and those who had completed secondary education [AOR: 0.70 (0.60-0.80)] were less likely to be HIV-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest significant progress in reducing the burden of HIV among FSWs in Nigeria, although low condom use with boyfriends continued to be a potential bridge between FSWs and the general population. Venue-based prevention programs are needed to improve safer sex practices among BB-FSWs. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lissouba P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Taljaard D.,Progressus |
Rech D.,Progressus |
Doyle S.,Progressus |
And 10 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2010
Background: World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has recommended adult male circumcision (AMC) for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men from communities where HIV is hyperendemic and AMC prevalence is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the roll-out of medicalized AMC according to UNAIDS/WHO operational guidelines in a targeted African setting. Methods and Findings: The ANRS 12126 "Bophelo Pele" project was implemented in 2008 in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa). It became functional in 5 mo once local and ethical authorizations were obtained. Project activities involved community mobilization and outreach, as well as communication approaches aimed at both men and women incorporating broader HIV prevention strategies and promoting sexual health. Free medicalized AMC was offered to male residents aged 15 y and over at the project's main center, which had been designed for low-income settings. Through the establishment of an innovative surgical organization, up to 150 AMCs under local anesthesia, with sterilized circumcision disposable kits and electrocautery, could be performed per day by three task-sharing teams of one medical circumciser and five nurses. Community support for the project was high. As of November 2009, 14,011 men had been circumcised, averaging 740 per month in the past 12 mo, and 27.5% of project participants agreed to be tested for HIV. The rate of adverse events, none of which resulted in permanent damage or death, was 1.8%. Most of the men surveyed (92%) rated the services provided positively. An estimated 39.1% of adult uncircumcised male residents have undergone surgery and uptake is steadily increasing. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a quality AMC roll-out adapted to African low-income settings is feasible and can be implemented quickly and safely according to international guidelines. The project can be a model for the scale-up of comprehensive AMC services, which could be tailored for other rural and urban communities of high HIV prevalence and low AMC rates in Eastern and Southern Africa © 2010 Lissouba et al.
Adebayo S.B.,Society for Family Health |
Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control |
Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University |
Ujuju C.,Society for Family Health |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2013
Understanding the level, trend, geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning (FP) plays a major role in designing effective interventions leading to increased usage. This study assessed these characteristics of FP use in Nigeria using data from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, a national population-based household survey. A Bayesian geo-additive procedure was used, which provides flexible modelling of non-linear and spatial effects at a highly disaggregated level of states. The findings reveal considerable geographical variation in the use of modern FP in Nigeria, with a distinct north-south divide. Furthermore, a significant trend in the use of modern FP was evident, with an increase between 2003 and 2005 followed by a decline between 2005 and 2007. The effect of respondent's age was non-linear, and use of modern FP was found to differ significantly between never-married and currently/formerly married respondents. Awareness of FP methods and knowledge of where to get/buy FP services/methods were found to be significantly associated with usage. The findings provide policymakers with tools to prioritize the use of scarce resources for implementing FP and reproductive health interventions. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Fakolade R.,Society for Family Health |
Adebayo S.B.,Society for Family Health |
Anyanti J.,Society for Family Health |
Ankomah A.,Society for Family Health
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2010
People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001). © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
Makanjuola T.,Society for Family Health |
Taddese H.B.,University of Sheffield |
Booth A.,University of Sheffield
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Objective: To systematically identify from qualitative data in the published literature the main barriers to adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: We searched ten data sources, including MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published in peer-reviewed journals from inception through to December 2011 for evidence relevant to IPT for TB in relation to PLWHA. Studies were assessed for quality using the CASP critical appraisal tool for qualitative studies. Data extracted from studies were then analysed thematically using thematic synthesis. Results: Eight studies, two of which were conducted within the same clinical trial, met the inclusion criteria. In addition to the influence of personal characteristics, five overarching themes were identified: Individual personal beliefs; HIV treatment and related issues; Socio-economic factors; Family and other social support factors, and Relationships with health providers. The review confirms current understanding of adherence to treatment as influenced by patients' understanding of, and beliefs related to treatment regimens. This is in-turn influenced by broader factors, namely: socio-economic factors such as poverty and lack of health facilities; the level of support available to patients from family and other networks and the stigma that emanates from these relationships; and relationships with health providers, which in-turn become a delicate issue given the sensitivity of dealing with two chronic diseases of significant morbidity and mortality toll. HIV treatment related issues also influence adherence to IPT, whereby challenges related to the acceptance, organisation and administration of these two long-term treatment regimens and stigma related to HIV/AIDS, are seen to be major factors. Conclusion: Understanding this complex interplay of factors more clearly is essential for healthcare decision-makers to be able to achieve the level of adherence required to effectively mitigate the threat posed by co-infection with TB and HIV/AIDS in developing countries. © 2014 Makanjuola et al.