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Han T.S.,St Peters National Health Service Foundation Trust | Conway G.S.,University College London | Willis D.S.,Society for Endocrinology | Krone N.,University of Birmingham | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in childhood focuses on growth and development and adult final height (FH) is a measure of effective treatment.Wehypothesized that shorter adults will have more severe underlying disease and worse health outcomes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 199 adults with CAH. FH and quality of life were expressed as z-scores adjusted for midparental target height or UK population height. Results:FHcorrelated inverselywithage(men,r=-0.38;women,r=-0.26,P<. 01).Menandwomen had z-scores adjusted for midparental target height of-2 and-1, respectively, and both groups had UK population height z-scores of-1 below the UK population (P<.01). In women, FH was shorter in non-salt-wasting than salt-wasting classic CAH (P < .05) and in moderately affected genotype group B women than either more severely affected groups null and A (P < .01) or the mildest group C (P < .001). Short stature and a higher prevalence of hypertension were observed in classic CAH patients diagnosed late (after 1 y) compared with those diagnosed early and in women treated with glucocorticoid only compared with those treated with both glucocorticoidsandmineralocorticoids (P<.05). FH did not associate with insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, adiposity, or quality of life. Conclusions: Adult CAH patients remain short, although height prognosis has improved over time. The shortest adults are those diagnosed late with moderate severity CAH and are at increased risk of adult hypertension; we hypothesize that these patients are exposed in childhood to high androgens and/or excessive glucocorticoids with potential programming of hypertension. Another possibility is inadequate mineralocorticoid treatment early in life in the late-diagnosed patient group. Prospective studies arenowrequired to examine these hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

Ahmed S.F.,University of Glasgow | Achermann J.C.,University College London | Arlt W.,University of Birmingham | Balen A.H.,Leeds Center for Reproductive Medicine | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2011

It is paramount that any child or adolescent with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD) is assessed by an experienced clinician with adequate knowledge about the range of conditions associated with DSD. If there is any doubt, the case should be discussed with the regional team. In most cases, particularly in the case of the newborn, the paediatric endocrinologist within the regional DSD team acts as the first point of contact. The underlying pathophysiology of DSD and the strengths and weaknesses of the tests that can be performed should be discussed with the parents and affected young person and tests undertaken in a timely fashion. This clinician should be part of a multidisciplinary team experienced in management of DSD and should ensure that the affected person and parents are as fully informed as possible and have access to specialist psychological support. Finally, in the field of rare conditions, it is imperative that the clinician shares the experience with others through national and international clinical and research collaboration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Han T.S.,University College London | Krone N.,University of Birmingham | Willis D.S.,Society for Endocrinology | Conway G.S.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Context: Quality of life (QoL) has been variously reported as normal or impaired in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To explore the reasons for this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between QoL, glucocorticoid treatment and other health outcomes in CAH adults. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 151 adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency aged 18-69 years in whom QoL (assessed using the Short Form Health Survey), glucocorticoid regimen, anthropometric and metabolic measures were recorded. Relationships were examined between QoL, type of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone) and dose of glucocorticoid expressed as prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq). QoL was expressed as z-scores calculated from matched controls (14 430 subjects from UK population). Principal components analysis (PCA) was undertaken to identify clusters of associated clinical and biochemical features and the principal component (PC) scores used in regression analysis as predictor of QoL. Results: QoL scores were associated with type of glucocorticoid treatment for vitality (P=0.002) and mental health (P=0.011), with higher z-scores indicating better QoL in patients on hydrocortisone monotherapy (P<0.05). QoL did not relate to PreDEq or mutation severity. PCA identified three PCs (PC1, disease control; PC2, adiposity and insulin resistance and PC3, blood pressure and mutations) that explained 61% of the variance in observed variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that PC2, reflecting adiposity and insulin resistance (waist circumference, serum triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol), related to QoL scores, specifically impaired physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, Physical Component Summary Score (P<0.001) and vitality (P=0.002). Conclusions: Increased adiposity, insulin resistance and use of prednisolone or dexamethasone are associated with impaired QoL in adults with CAH. Intervention trials are required to establish whether choice of glucocorticoid treatment and/or weight loss can improve QoL in CAH adults. © 2013 European Society of Endocrinology.

Han T.S.,University College London | Stimson R.H.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Rees D.A.,University of Cardiff | Krone N.,University of Birmingham | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Background Adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are treated with a wide variety of glucocorticoid treatment regimens. Objective, design and methods To test whether drug dose and timing of glucocorticoid treatment regimen impacts on health outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 196 adult CAH patients in whom treatment and health outcomes were measured. Glucocorticoid dose was converted to prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq) using three published formulae. Associations between the type of glucocorticoid regimen and PreDEq with specific health outcome variables were tested using partial correlation and principal components analysis (PCA). Results Patients on dexamethasone had lower androgens and ACTH but greater insulin resistance compared with those receiving hydrocortisone or prednisolone. Dexamethasone dose and once daily administration were associated with insulin resistance. Partial correlation analysis adjusted for age and sex showed PreDEq weakly correlated (r < 0·2) with blood pressure and androstenedione. Mutation severity was associated with increased PreDEq (F3,141 = 4·4, P < 0·01). In PCA, 3 PCs were identified that explained 62% of the total variance (r2) in observed variables. Regression analysis (age and sex adjusted) confirmed that PC2, reflecting disease control (androstenedione, 17-hydroxypregesterone and testosterone), and PC3, reflecting blood pressure and mutations (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mutation severity), related directly to PreDEq (r2 = 23%, P < 0·001). Conclusions In adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, dexamethasone use was associated with lower androgens but greater insulin resistance, and increasing glucocorticoid dose associated with increased blood pressure, poor disease control and mutation severity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Krone N.,University of Birmingham | Rose I.T.,University of Birmingham | Willis D.S.,University of Edinburgh | Hodson J.,National United University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a strong genotype-phenotype correlation exists in childhood. However, similar data in adults are lacking. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether the severity of disease-causing CYP21A2 mutations influences the treatment and health status in adults with CAH. Research Design and Methods: We analyzed the genotype in correlation with treatment and health status in 153 adults with CAH from the United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive cohort. Results: CYP21A2 mutations were distributed similarly to previously reported case series. In 7 patients a mutation was identified on only 1 allele. Novel mutations were detected on 1.7% of alleles (5 of 306). Rare mutations were found on 2.3% of alleles (7 of 306). For further analysis, patients were categorized into CYP21A2 mutation groups according to predicted residual enzyme function: null (n = 34), A (n = 42), B (n = 36), C (n = 34), and D (n = 7). Daily glucocorticoid dose was highest in group null and lowest in group C. Fludrocortisone was used more frequently in patients with more severe genotypes. Except for lower female height in group B, no statistically significant associations between genotype and clinical parameters were found. Androgens, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not different between groups. Subjective health status was similarly impaired across groups. Conclusions: In adults with classic CAH and women with nonclassic CAH, there was a weak association between genotype and treatment, but health outcomes were not associated with genotype. The underrepresentation of males with nonclassic CAH may reflect that milder genotypes result in a milder condition that is neither diagnosed nor followed up in adulthood. Overall, our results suggest that the impaired health status of adults with CAH coming to medical attention is acquired rather than genetically determined and therefore could potentially be improved through modification of treatment. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

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