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News Article | November 9, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Findings of a new study have revealed that low levels of vitamin D may increase a person's risk of developing bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is the the fourth most prevalent form of cancer in men and accounts for about 5 percent of new cancer cases in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, the condition is likely to kill more than 16,000 individuals, most of whom are men, in the United States in 2016. Results of a new study presented at the annual conference of the Society for Endocrinology in Brighton, UK show how vitamin D deficiency may be a contributing factor to the development of the disease. To investigate the link between vitamin D and the risk for bladder cancer, researchers reviewed seven earlier studies and discovered that five of these studies found an association between low levels of the sunshine vitamin to an increased risk of developing bladder cancer. In experiments involving cells lining the bladder, researchers discovered that the cells activate and respond to vitamin D, which can stimulate an immune response. Study lead author Rosemary Bland, from the University of Warwick in England, said that the finding is important in that the immune system may help in the prevention of cancer by identifying and destroying abnormal cells before these develop into cancer. "Our work suggests that low levels of vitamin D in the blood may prevent the cells within the bladder from stimulating an adequate response to abnormal cells," Bland said. The researcher added that vitamin D is not only cheap but it is also safe, which makes it an accessible tool for preventing cancer that can impact many people's lives. Exposure to sunshine helps the body produce vitamin D, which helps control the body's calcium and phosphate levels. The vitamin can also be obtained from food sources such as egg yolks and fatty fish, albeit it is difficult to get vitamin D from food alone in countries having little sunlight. Earlier studies have found an association between vitamin D deficiency and a range of health problems, including cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune conditions. A number of research have also shown the benefits of vitamin D in both adults and young children. Babies who are breast-fed beyond their first birthday, for instance, are recommended to be given vitamin D since breast milk is not a very good source of the vitamin. Vitamin D supplements are also recommended for individuals who want to reduce their risk of having a serious asthma attack. Research also showed that vitamin D supplements may help improve heart function in heart failure patients. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer, according to a systematic review of seven studies presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. Though further clinical studies are needed to confirm the findings, the study adds to a growing body of evidence on the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D levels. Vitamin D, which is produced by the body through exposure to sunshine, helps the body control calcium and phosphate levels. Vitamin D can also be obtained from food sources such as fatty fish and egg yolks. Previous studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with a host of health problems including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, autoimmune conditions, and cancer. In countries with low levels of sunlight, it is difficult to obtain enough vitamin D from food alone. In the UK, 1 in 5 adults are vitamin D deficient and 3 in 5 have low levels. This is especially prevalent in people with darker skin: in winter, 75% of dark-skinned people in the UK are vitamin D deficient. In this work, researchers from the University of Warwick and University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry and the investigated the link between vitamin D and bladder cancer risk. They reviewed seven studies on the topic which ranged from having 112 to 1125 participants each. Five out of the seven studies linked low vitamin D levels to an increased risk of bladder cancer. In a separate experiment, the researchers then looked at the cells that line the bladder, known as transitional epithelial cells, and found that these cells are able to activate and respond to vitamin D, which in turn can stimulate an immune response. According to lead author of the study Dr Rosemary Bland, this is important because the immune system may have a role in cancer prevention by identifying abnormal cells before they develop into cancer. "More clinical studies are required to test this association, but our work suggests that low levels of vitamin D in the blood may prevent the cells within the bladder from stimulating an adequate response to abnormal cells," said Dr Bland. "As vitamin D is cheap and safe, its potential use in cancer prevention is exciting and could potentially impact on the lives of many people." Low vitamin D is associated with increased bladder cancer risk; a systematic review and evidence of a potential mechanism. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of some cancers and in vitro 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) reduces cell proliferation. We suggest that modification of tissue specific immune responses, as a consequence of local synthesis of 1,25D, may be key. To assess the impact of serum 25D on the risk of bladder cancer we conducted a systematic review. To test our hypothesis, expression of vitamin D signalling components and the synthesis of 1,25D were examined in human bladder epithelial cell lines (T24/83 and RT4). A search of Embase, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane library (April-May 2016) identified 287 citations. Following title and abstract review by 2 reviewers 7 full papers were appraised. Studies varied in the number of participants (112-1125) and point of vitamin D measurement (pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, or follow-up). Low vitamin D levels were associated with bladder cancer risk in 5 of the 7 studies. Higher vitamin D levels also correlated with better survival and outcomes. The vitamin D receptor and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1; 1α-OHase) mRNA and protein were expressed by both cell lines. 24-hydroxylase (24-OHase; metabolises 1,25D) mRNA was almost undetectable in unstimulated cells but was increased significantly by 1,25D (10nM, 3-24 hours; pSynthesis of 1,25D was confirmed by EIA. Cathelicidin mRNA was induced by 1,25D and 25D in RT4 cells (10nM/100nM, 6 hours; p 1. For further information about the study please contact: 2. The study Low vitamin D is associated with increased bladder cancer risk; a systematic review and evidence of a potential mechanism is a poster presented by Dr Rosemary Bland at the Society for Endocrinology's annual conference. Please note this is a conference abstract, and this study has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal. 3. For press enquiries, please contact the Society for Endocrinology press office: 4. The Society for Endocrinology's annual conference is held at the Brighton Conference Centre from 7-9 November 2016. The conference features some of the world's leading basic and clinical endocrinologists who present their work. Journalists wishing to attend should contact the Society for Endocrinology press office using the details above. The scientific programme is available on the conference webpage. 5. The Society for Endocrinology is a UK-based membership organisation representing a global community of scientists, clinicians and nurses who work with hormones. Together we aim to improve public health by advancing endocrine education and research, and engaging wider audiences with the science of hormones. http://www.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer, according to a systematic review of seven studies presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. Though further clinical studies are needed to confirm the findings, the study adds to a growing body of evidence on the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D levels. Vitamin D, which is produced by the body through exposure to sunshine, helps the body control calcium and phosphate levels. Vitamin D can also be obtained from food sources such as fatty fish and egg yolks. Previous studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with a host of health problems including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, autoimmune conditions, and cancer. In countries with low levels of sunlight, it is difficult to obtain enough vitamin D from food alone. In the UK, 1 in 5 adults are vitamin D deficient and 3 in 5 have low levels. This is especially prevalent in people with darker skin: in winter, 75% of dark-skinned people in the UK are vitamin D deficient. In this work, researchers from the University of Warwick investigated the link between vitamin D and bladder cancer risk. They reviewed seven studies on the topic which ranged from having 112 to 1125 participants each. Five out of the seven studies linked low vitamin D levels to an increased risk of bladder cancer. In a separate experiment, the researchers then looked at the cells that line the bladder, known as transitional epithelial cells, and found that these cells are able to activate and respond to vitamin D, which in turn can stimulate an immune response. According to lead author of the study Dr Rosemary Bland, this is important because the immune system may have a role in cancer prevention by identifying abnormal cells before they develop into cancer. "More clinical studies are required to test this association, but our work suggests that low levels of vitamin D in the blood may prevent the cells within the bladder from stimulating an adequate response to abnormal cells," said Dr Bland. "As vitamin D is cheap and safe, its potential use in cancer prevention is exciting and could potentially impact on the lives of many people."


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

B12 deficiency during pregnancy may predispose children to metabolic problems such as type-2 diabetes, according to research presented at the Society for Endocrinology's annual Conference in Brighton. These findings could lead to a review of current vitamin B12 requirements for pregnant women, whether through an improved diet or supplements. Vitamin B12 is naturally found in animal products, including fish, meat, poultry, eggs and milk, meaning deficiency is more likely in those following a vegan diet. Previous studies show that mothers with low B12 levels had a higher BMI and were more likely to give birth to babies with low birth weight as well as high cholesterol levels. These children also had higher insulin resistance in childhood -- a risk factor for type-2 diabetes. In this study, a team of researchers at the University of Warwick's Warwick Medical School hypothesised that the changes associated with B12 deficiency may be the result of abnormal levels of leptin -- the hormone that tells us we are full after eating. Leptin is produced by our body's fat cells and its levels rise in response to eating food. Whilst lean diets are associated with normal levels of leptin, obesity causes levels to rise and remain consistently higher than normal. This can eventually lead to leptin resistance, continued overeating, and an increased risk of insulin resistance, which leads to type-2 diabetes. Scientists and doctors therefore see leptin as providing an effective 'marker' for body fat. The researchers found that babies born to mothers with B12 deficiency had higher than normal leptin levels. This suggests that maternal B12 deficiency can adversely program the leptin gene, changing the levels at which the hormone is produced whilst the fetus grows. "The nutritional environment provided by the mother can permanently program the baby's health," said Dr Ponusammy Saravanan, senior author of the study. "We know that children born to under or over nourished mothers are at an increased risk of health problems such as type-2 diabetes, and we also see that maternal B12 deficiency may affect fat metabolism and contribute to this risk. This is why we decided to investigate leptin, the fat cell hormone." The next steps in the study will be to determine the details of how and why the leptin increase is seen in babies born to mothers with low B12. "The leptin can increase for two reasons," said Dr Adaikala Antonysunil, who also worked on the study. "Either low B12 drives fat accumulation in the fetus, and this leads to increased leptin, or the low B12 actually causes chemical changes in the placental genes that produce leptin, making more of the hormone. As B12 is involved in methylation reactions in the body which can affect whether genes are turned on and off, we suspect it may be the latter." The research was presented as a conference abstract showing only preliminary results, and has not been peer reviewed.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

People suffering medical conditions causing low levels of oxytocin perform worse on empathy tasks, according to new research presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. The research is the first to study humans with reduced oxytocin and suggests that hormone replacement could improve the psychological well-being of those living with low levels. Oxytocin is often referred to as the 'love hormone' due to its role in human behaviours including sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety and mother-infant bonding. It is produced by the hypothalamus - an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite - and stored in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ that sits in the base of the skull. Researchers from the University of Cardiff investigated empathic behaviour in people who they suspected of having reduced oxytocin levels due to one of two medical conditions caused in response to pituitary surgery. The study assessed 20 people with cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI). In CDI, the body has reduced levels of ADH - a chemical also produced in the hypothalamus and structurally very similar to oxytocin. They also assessed 15 people with hypopituitarism (HP), a condition in which the pituitary gland does not release enough hormones. These two patient groups were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls. The researchers gave all participants two tasks designed to test empathy, both relating to the recognition of emotional expression. They also measured each group's oxytocin levels and found that the 35 CDI and HP participants had slightly lower oxytocin compared to the healthy controls, though a larger sample is required to establish statistical significance. They also saw that the CDI and HP groups performed significantly worse on empathy tasks, compared to controls. In particular, CDI participants' ability to identify expressions was predicted by their oxytocin levels - those with the lowest levels of oxytocin produced the worst performances. "This is the first study which looks at low oxytocin as a result of medical, as opposed to psychological, disorders," said Katie Daughters, lead researcher. "If replicated, the results from our patient groups suggest it is also important to consider medical conditions carrying a risk of low oxytocin levels." "Patients who have undergone pituitary surgery, and in particular those who have acquired CDI as a consequence, may present with lower oxytocin levels. This could impact on their emotional behaviour, and in turn affect their psychological well-being. Perhaps we should be considering the introduction of oxytocin level checks in these cases." The researchers hope to expand their study in order to further replicate and confirm their findings. This study presents only preliminary results, and it has not been peer reviewed.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Extending the number of pregnant women given the common drug levothyroxine to boost thyroid hormone levels may lead to a reduced number of stillbirths, early caesarean sections and low-weight babies, according to a new study presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. The thyroid gland is an organ found in the base of the neck. It produces essential hormones that control the body's metabolism -- the way we use energy. Thyroid hormones are also critical for fetal brain development, but babies cannot make any of their own until the second trimester and have to source all of it from their mothers. 2-3% of pregnant women have mild hypothyroidism, meaning they have low levels of thyroid hormones. This can be treated with a hormone replacement drug called levothyroxine. In this study, researchers from the University of Cardiff investigated whether pregnant women with mild hypothyroidism and their babies would also benefit from levothyroxine treatment. They combined data from a thyroid screening study and linked it to routinely collected clinical data to study the effect of correcting borderline thyroid function on obstetric outcomes. The researchers analysed over 13,000 women who were 12-16 weeks pregnant, 518 of whom had mild hypothyroidism. Of these, 263 women received levothyroxine and the rest received no treatment. They assessed the women's pregnancy outcomes by measuring stillbirth rates, preterm delivery, length of stay at hospital, birth weight and the number of early caesarean sections. They found that women with mild hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine had a lower risk of giving birth to low weight babies and were also less likely to undergo an early caesarean. Untreated women with mild hypothyroidism were more likely to have a stillbirth than women with normal thyroid function and no stillbirths occurred in the treated group. However, there was no significant difference between the other obstetric outcomes or when all outcomes were combined. "Our work raises the possibility of providing real benefits from using a safe, cheap and well established treatment by simply extending it to the number of pregnant women we treat," said Dr Peter Taylor, lead author of the study. While further trials are needed to confirm these findings, Dr Taylor believes more substantial benefits might be found by treating the pregnant women at an earlier stage than used in this study. "We should consider universal thyroid screening in pregnancy as it compares favourably in terms of cost-effectiveness with other conditions that we currently screen for," he added.


ANN ARBOR, Mich.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Millendo announces the presentation of preclinical data supporting its MLE4901 and ATR-101 programs at the Society for Endocrinology British Endocrine Societies Conference.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

People suffering medical conditions causing low levels of oxytocin perform worse on empathy tasks, according to new research presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. The research is the first to study humans with reduced oxytocin and suggests that hormone replacement could improve the psychological well-being of those living with low levels. Oxytocin is often referred to as the 'love hormone' due to its role in human behaviours including sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety and mother-infant bonding. It is produced by the hypothalamus - an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite - and stored in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ that sits in the base of the skull. Researchers from the University of Cardiff investigated empathic behaviour in people who they suspected of having reduced oxytocin levels due to one of two medical conditions caused in response to pituitary surgery. The study assessed 20 people with cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI). In CDI, the body has reduced levels of ADH - a chemical also produced in the hypothalamus and structurally very similar to oxytocin. They also assessed 15 people with hypopituitarism (HP), a condition in which the pituitary gland does not release enough hormones. These two patient groups were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls. The researchers gave all participants two tasks designed to test empathy, both relating to the recognition of emotional expression. They also measured each group's oxytocin levels and found that the 35 CDI and HP participants had slightly lower oxytocin compared to the healthy controls, though a larger sample is required to establish statistical significance. They also saw that the CDI and HP groups performed significantly worse on empathy tasks, compared to controls. In particular, CDI participants' ability to identify expressions was predicted by their oxytocin levels - those with the lowest levels of oxytocin produced the worst performances. "This is the first study which looks at low oxytocin as a result of medical, as opposed to psychological, disorders," said Katie Daughters, lead researcher. "If replicated, the results from our patient groups suggest it is also important to consider medical conditions carrying a risk of low oxytocin levels." "Patients who have undergone pituitary surgery, and in particular those who have acquired CDI as a consequence, may present with lower oxytocin levels. This could impact on their emotional behaviour, and in turn affect their psychological well-being. Perhaps we should be considering the introduction of oxytocin level checks in these cases." The researchers hope to expand their study in order to further replicate and confirm their findings. This study presents only preliminary results, and it has not been peer reviewed.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

People suffering medical conditions causing low levels of oxytocin perform worse on empathy tasks, according to new research presented Sunday at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. The research is the first to study humans with reduced oxytocin and suggests that hormone replacement could improve the psychological wellbeing of those living with low levels. Oxytocin is often referred to as the 'love hormone' due to its role in human behaviours including sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety and mother-infant bonding. It is produced by the hypothalamus - an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite - and stored in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ that sits in the base of the skull. Researchers from the University of Cardiff investigated empathic behavior in people who they suspected of having reduced oxytocin levels due to one of two medical conditions caused in response to pituitary surgery. The study assessed 20 people with cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI). In CDI, the body has reduced levels of ADH - a chemical also produced in the hypothalamus and structurally very similar to oxytocin. They also assessed 15 people with hypopituitarism (HP), a condition in which the pituitary gland does not release enough hormones. These two patient groups were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls. The researchers gave all participants two tasks designed to test empathy, both relating to the recognition of emotional expression. They also measured each group's oxytocin levels and found that the 35 CDI and HP participants had slightly lower oxytocin compared to the healthy controls, though a larger sample is required to establish statistical significance. They also saw that the CDI and HP groups performed significantly worse on empathy tasks, compared to controls. In particular, CDI participants' ability to identify expressions was predicted by their oxytocin levels - those with the lowest levels of oxytocin produced the worst performances. "This is the first study which looks at low oxytocin as a result of medical, as opposed to psychological, disorders," said Katie Daughters, lead researcher. "If replicated, the results from our patient groups suggest it is also important to consider medical conditions carrying a risk of low oxytocin levels." "Patients who have undergone pituitary surgery, and in particular those who have acquired CDI as a consequence, may present with lower oxytocin levels. This could impact on their emotional behavior, and in turn affect their psychological wellbeing. Perhaps we should be considering the introduction of oxytocin level checks in these cases." The researchers hope to expand their study in order to further replicate and confirm their findings. This study presents only preliminary results, and it has not been peer reviewed.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A common end-product of digested protein -- phenylalanine -- triggers hormones that make rodents feel less hungry and leads to weight loss, according to a new study presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. A better understanding of the mechanism by which protein diets cause weight loss could lead to the development of drugs and diets that tackle the growing obesity epidemic. Hormones drive our appetite by telling us when we are hungry, and when we are full. Ghrelin is a hormone that tells us when we are hungry. In contrast, high levels of the hormone GLP-1 tell us when we have had enough food and tell our bodies to stop eating. Understanding the mechanisms by which hormones affect our feeding patterns may help identify new ways of treating or preventing obesity. Previous studies have shown that protein-rich diets encourage weight loss by making people feel fuller, though these diets are difficult to adhere to and the mechanisms by which this happens is unknown. In this study, researchers Mariana Norton and Amin Alamshah from Imperial College London ran a number of experiments on both mice and rats. In the first experiment, they gave 10 rats and mice a single dose of phenylalanine, a chemical produced in the gut when our body breaks down protein-rich foods, such as beef, fish, milk and eggs. In the second experiment, diet-induced obese mice, which are typically used as a model of human obesity, were given phenylalanine repeatedly over seven days. Both experiments compared their results to the same number of rodents that were not given phenylalanine. The researchers found that the single-dose of phenylalanine reduced food intake, increased levels of GLP-1 and decreased levels of ghrelin. Repeated administration also caused weight loss in the obese mice. The researchers also observed that the rats were moving around more, which might encourage them to lose weight. To understand the mechanisms by which phenylalanine might be stimulating these hormones, the researchers carried out a final experiment by studying gut cells in a petri dish. They found that phenylalanine interacted with a receptor called the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), and that it was CaSR in turn causing levels of GLP-1 to increase and appetite to decrease. "Our work is the first to demonstrate that activating CaSR can suppress appetite," said lead author of the study Mariana Norton. "It highlights the potential use of phenylalanine or other molecules which stimulate CaSR -- like drugs or food components -- to prevent or treat obesity." According to Miss Norton, the precise mechanisms by which phenylalanine suppresses appetite and body weight still need to be determined, and there are likely to be additional mechanisms which are also involved in the beneficial effects of a high protein diet. The researcher's next steps will be to establish whether phenylalanine can produce the same effects in humans as in mice, and to further confirm the importance of CaSR in our response to protein-rich foods.

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