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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Visioli F.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | de la Lastra C.A.,University of Seville | Andres-Lacueva C.,University of Barcelona | Aviram M.,Rambam Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The lay press often heralds polyphenols as panacea for all sorts of diseases. The rationale is that their antioxidant activity would prevent free radical damage to macromolecules. However, basic and clinical science is showing that the reality is much more complex than this and that several issues, notably content in foodstuff, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity are yet to be resolved. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human health, analyze the current limitations at pitfalls, and propose future directions for research. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Edeas M.,Societe Francaise des Antioxydants | Attaf D.,Societe Francaise des Antioxydants | Mailfert A.-S.,Societe Francaise des Antioxydants | Nasu M.,Japanese Society of Antioxidants | Joubet R.,International Society of Antioxidants in Nutrition and Health
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2010

Glycation and oxidative stress are two important processes known to play a key role in complications of many disease processes. Oxidative stress, either via increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), or by depleting the antioxidants may modulate the genesis of early glycated proteins in vivo. Maillard Reactions, occur in vivo as well as in vitro and are associated with the chronic complications of diabetes, aging and age-related diseases. Hyperglycaemia causes the autoxidation of glucose, glycation of proteins, and the activation of polyol metabolism. These changes facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species and decrease the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, resulting in a remarkable increase of oxidative stress. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria alteration is involved and plays a central role in various oxidative stress-related diseases. The damaged mitochondria produce more ROS (increase oxidative stress) and less ATP (cellular energy) than normal mitochondria. As they are damaged, they cannot burn or use glucose or lipid and cannot provide cell with ATP. Further, glucose, amino acids and lipid will not be correctly used and will accumulate outside the mitochondria; they will undergo more glycation (as observed in diabetes, obesity, HIV infection and lipodystrophia). The objective of this paper is to discuss how to stop the vicious circle established between oxidative stress, Maillard Reaction and mitochondria. The potential application of some antioxidants to reduce glycation phenomenon and to increase the antioxidant defence system by targeting mitochondria will be discussed. Food and pharmaceutical companies share the same challenge, they must act now, urgently and energetically. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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