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Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Bojar A.-V.,University of Salzburg | Bojar A.-V.,Universalmuseum Joanneum | Guja O.,Societatea Nationala de Speologie | Pelc A.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | And 2 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2015

In this study, we investigated morphologically and geochemically a skull from an open pit situated on the Călineasa-Şesu Gârzii Plateau, Bihor Mountains. The study presents the first 14C dating and stable isotope composition of bison skeletal remains from the Romanian Carpathians. The result of 14C determination yielded two relevant maxima: one is around AD 1550 and the second around AD 1645. The data indicate that the investigated bison died during the ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA), approximately 200 years before the last ones were hunted to extinction. Stable isotope composition of carbon from bison tooth enamel suggests that the bison diet consisted mainly of C3 grasses, compatible with a high-altitude habitat, vegetation distribution and low mobility. Oxygen isotope composition of both phosphate and carbonate groups of tooth enamel indicates that the bison drank from stagnant water sources, such as lakes or puddles formed from rain water. This further suggests low mobility of the bison as well, as the presence of such small stagnant water sources is characteristic even today for the plateau. Calculated oxygen isotope compositions of rain and drinking water at the time the bison lived indicate a lower relative humidity, around 60–70% at that period of LIA when the bison lived, which is lower than today’s humidity of 80%. © The Author(s) 2015 Source

Bojar A.-V.,University of Salzburg | Bojar A.-V.,Universalmuseum Joanneum | Guja O.,Societatea Nationala de Speologie | Stefanescu D.,Societatea Nationala de Speologie
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Materials from the vermiculations developed on passage walls of the Coiba Mare Cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania were analysed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The isotope composition of calcite, δ18O and δ13C was determined as well. The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. Mineralogical evidence indicates that the source of material is related to slow dissolution of wall rock. Subsequent crystallisation and concentration of the calcite particles in vermiculations patterns are the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

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