Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-05 | Award Amount: 4.80M | Year: 2012
The overall goal of EURoot is to help farmers to face both climate change, which is expected to result in increasingly uneven rainfall, and meet the societal demand for sustainable agriculture with reduced use of water and fertilizers. EURoot objective is to enhance the cereal plant capability to acquire water and nutrients through their roots and maintain growth and performance under stress conditions. Making use of join phenotyping and modelling platforms, EURoot will conduct a suite of experiments designed to better understand and model: i. The genetic and functional bases of root traits involved in soil exploration and resource uptake, ii. The bio-geochemical properties of the soil, including beneficial association with mycorhizal fungi, influencing extraction of nutrient and water by the root system and iii. The plant signalling processes involved in soil environment sensing and responsible for adaptive root system response enhancing soil exploration and resource acquisition. The EURoot project is based on a tripod of interactive WPs addressing specific complementary questions i.e. WP1, genetics of root traits, WP2, root:soil interactions, WP3, root : shoot signalling-, and on two platforms WPs allowing to share innovative phenotyping methods relevant to field conditions and linked to crop performance (WP4) and multi scale modelling (WP5) aiming at integrating root architecture, resource dynamics in the soil and root uptake, and inner plant signalling processes, to design root ideotypes allowing enhanced resource acquisition under stress. Results will be readily translated into screening methods, models and tools (markers, biochemical signatures) to guide the challenging breeding for improved root traits allowing enhanced water and nutrient capture. It will allow the further development of novel cereal cultivars with higher resilience, tolerating erratic rainfalls and reduced fertilizer application, while achieving their yield potential.
Dall'Asta C.,Viale Usberti |
Dall'Erta A.,Viale Usberti |
Mantovani P.,Societa Produttori Sementi Spa |
Massi A.,Societa Produttori Sementi Spa |
Galaverna G.,Viale Usberti
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2013
The occurrence of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in durum wheat samples (n=150; 25 lines × 2 reps × 3 environments) collected in 2010 from 3 areas located in north-central Italy was evaluated. In addition, the co-occurrence of other trichothecenes was considered. An optimised extraction method based on the use of salts followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used for the quantification of the mycotoxins. All samples were found positive for deoxynivalenol at concentrations ranging between 47 and 3,715 μg/kg. A ubiquitous occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside was found; 85% of the analysed samples contained this masked mycotoxin at concentrations varying between 46 and 842 μg/kg. In addition to glycosylated deoxynivalenol, acetylated forms of deoxynivalenol (3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) were also found in most of the durum wheat samples. The deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside/deoxynivalenol ratio, reaching up to 30% in many samples, was similar to that already found in other cereals such as soft wheat and barley. These data open the way for further investigations on the role of glycosylating activity as a possible Fusarium head blight-resistance mechanism in durum wheat, as already proved in the case of soft wheat. © 2013 Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Cirlini M.,University of Parma |
Generotti S.,Barilla G. R. F.lli SpA |
Dall'Erta A.,University of Parma |
Lancioni P.,Societa Produttori Sementi Spa |
And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2013
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Sestili F.,University of Tuscia |
Palombieri S.,University of Tuscia |
Botticella E.,University of Tuscia |
Mantovani P.,Societa Produttori Sementi Spa |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2015
The amylose/amylopectin ratio has a major influence over the properties of starch and determines its optimal end use. Here, high amylose durum wheat has been bred by combining knock down alleles at the two homoelogous genes encoding starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B). The complete silencing of these genes had a number of pleiotropic effects on starch synthesis: it affected the transcriptional activity of SBEIIb, ISA1 (starch debranching enzyme) and all of the genes encoding starch synthases (SSI, SSIIa, SSIII and GBSSI). The starch produced by grain of the double SBEIIa mutants was high in amylose (up to ~1.95 fold that of the wild type) and contained up to about eight fold more resistant starch. A single nucleotide polymorphism adjacent to the splice site at the end of exon 10 of the G364E mutant copies of both SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B resulted in the loss of a conserved exonic splicing silencer element. Its starch was similar to that of the SBEIIa double mutant. G364E SBEIIa pre-mRNA was incorrectly processed, resulting in the formation of alternative, but non-functional splicing products. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bovina R.,Societa Produttori Sementi S.p.A. |
Brunazzi A.,Societa Produttori Sementi S.p.A. |
Gasparini G.,Societa Produttori Sementi S.p.A. |
Sestili F.,University of Tuscia |
And 5 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2014
A durum wheat TILLING (targeting induced local lesions in genomes) population of 2601M3 families was developed from cv. Svevo using ethyl methanesulfonate as a chemical mutagen. The entire M3 population was field-grown for phenotypic evaluations. Despite the polyploid nature of the wheat genome, a preliminarily phenotypic screening showed a high frequency of morphological alterations (∼22%); specific phenotyping for seed morphology was undertaken. Furthermore, a reverse-genetics experiment was performed on DNA collected from M2 leaves for the homoeologous genes SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B involved in starch metabolism. One non-sense mutation for both genes was identified; specific crosses are planned in order to pyramid the two mutations. © CSIRO 2014.
Prandi B.,University of Parma |
Mantovani P.,Societa Produttori Sementi S.p.A. |
Galaverna G.,University of Parma |
Sforza S.,University of Parma
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2014
Gluten proteins are the basis of the rheological properties of wheat derived products, such as bread and pasta. Their particular amino acidic composition (high proline and glutamine content) is responsible for the poor gluten digestibility. Some of the high molecular weight peptides that are generated in the gastrointestinal tract are involved in an autoimmune entheropathy called celiac disease. In this work we compared the amount of peptides containing sequences involved in adaptive and immune responses, which were produced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of prolamins extracted from different durum wheat varieties and in-bred lines. Peptides containing sequences involved in celiac disease were quantified using an isotopically labeled peptide as internal standard. The results demonstrated a very high variability in the amount of pathogenic peptides produced by different lines, showing a strong contribution of the genetic component. At the same time, the variability in total protein and gluten content was lower; the weak correlation between pathogenic peptides and the amount of gluten proteins gives rise to the possibility of a varietal selection aimed to maintain good rheological properties, but simultaneously reducing the exposure to peptides eliciting an immunological response in celiac predisposed subjects. These varieties might be useful for celiac disease prevention. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | University of Tuscia, Societa Produttori Sementi Spa and University of Bologna
Type: | Journal: Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology | Year: 2015
The amylose/amylopectin ratio has a major influence over the properties of starch and determines its optimal end use. Here, high amylose durum wheat has been bred by combining knock down alleles at the two homoelogous genes encoding starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B). The complete silencing of these genes had a number of pleiotropic effects on starch synthesis: it affected the transcriptional activity of SBEIIb, ISA1 (starch debranching enzyme) and all of the genes encoding starch synthases (SSI, SSIIa, SSIII and GBSSI). The starch produced by grain of the double SBEIIa mutants was high in amylose (up to 1.95 fold that of the wild type) and contained up to about eight fold more resistant starch. A single nucleotide polymorphism adjacent to the splice site at the end of exon 10 of the G364E mutant copies of both SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B resulted in the loss of a conserved exonic splicing silencer element. Its starch was similar to that of the SBEIIa double mutant. G364E SBEIIa pre-mRNA was incorrectly processed, resulting in the formation of alternative, but non-functional splicing products.