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MacLachlan R.A.,Carnegie Mellon University | Becker B.C.,Carnegie Mellon University | Tabares J.C.,University of Valladolid | Tabares J.C.,Sociedad Europea de Analisis Diferencial de Movilidad SL | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2012

We describe the design and performance of a handheld actively stabilized tool to increase accuracy in microsurgery or other precision manipulation. It removes involuntary motion, such as tremor, by the actuation of the tip to counteract the effect of the undesired handle motion. The key components are a 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) piezoelectric manipulator that has a 400-m range of motion, 1-N force capability, and bandwidth over 100Hz, and an optical position-measurement subsystem that acquires the tool pose with 4-m resolution at 2000 samples/s. A control system using these components attenuates hand motion by at least 15 dB (a fivefold reduction). By the consideration of the effect of the frequency response of Micron on the human visual feedback loop, we have developed a filter that reduces unintentional motion, yet preserves the intuitive eye-hand coordination. We evaluated the effectiveness of Micron by measuring the accuracy of the human/machine system in three simple manipulation tasks. Handheld testing by three eye surgeons and three nonsurgeons showed a reduction in the position error of between 32 and 52, depending on the error metric. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Vidal-De-Miguel G.,Sociedad Europea de Analisis Diferencial de Movilidad SL | Vidal-De-Miguel G.,University of Valladolid | Macia M.,Sociedad Europea de Analisis Diferencial de Movilidad SL | Barrios C.,Sociedad Europea de Analisis Diferencial de Movilidad SL | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

A prototype is introduced based on the transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry (TMIMS) technique, which provides a continuous output of mobility-selected ions, greatly easing the synchronization between different analyzing stages. In the new architecture, two stages of filtration are used to drastically reduce the background produced by one stage alone. Two-stages TMIMS was coupled with two different atmospheric pressure interface mass spectrometers (MS). The new system enables IMS-IMS-MS analysis and other modes of operation: IMS prefiltration, IMS-IMS, and full transmission mode. It provides a resolving power R > 60 in IMS mode, and R > 40 in each stage of IMS-IMS mode. 2-Propanol vapors were introduced in one of the stages to enhance the mobility variations, and their effect was studied on a set of tetraalkylammonium ions. We found that concentrations as low as 1% (in partial pressure) produce mobility variations as high as 20%, which suggest that IMS-IMS separation using dried N2 (in one stage) and a dopant (in the other stage), could be a very powerful way to enhance the separation capacity of the IMS-IMS prefiltration approach. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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