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Iglesias Rosado C.,Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Basica y Aplicada SENBA | Villarino Marin A.L.,Sociedad Espanola de Dietetica y Ciencias de la Alimentacion SEDCA | Martinez J.A.,Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion SEN | Cabrerizo L.,Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion SEEN | And 7 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2011

For any healthy individual, thirst is an appropriate sign to drink water, except for babies, sportsmen, and most of ill and elderly people. In these instances, it is convenient to schedule appropriate times to drink water since great demands and the physiological mechanisms that determine thirst in these situations may condition water unbalances with important consequences for health and the physical and intellectual performance. The human body has a number of mechanisms that allow keeping constant the water content by adjusting intakes and wastes. Water balance is determined by intake (consumed water, beverages, and water contained in foods) and wastes (urine, stools, the skin, and expired air from the lungs). Failure of these mechanisms and subsequent impairments in water balance may produce severe disarrangements that may threaten somebody's life. In the present document, we analyze the evidences regarding the factors conditioning water needs in the different life stages and physiological situations, as well as the consequences of water unbalance under different situations. A proper hydration may be achieved by feeding and the use of water and other liquids. Although water is the beverage by excellence and represents the ideal way of restoring the losses and get hydrated, we should be aware that, from the very beginning, we have sought other liquid sources with hydration properties. In the last decades we have increased the consumption of different beverages, with a proliferation of sugar-containing beverages. Since excessive sugar consumption has been related to obesity and other chronic conditions, it is evident that the use of these caloric beverages should be rationalized, especially in children. In this document all the considera-líquidos con capacidad de hidratación. En las últimas décadas ha aumentado el consumo de diferentes bebidas, proliferando las bebidas con azúcar. Dado que el consumo excesivo de azúcar se ha relacionado con la obesidad y otras enfermedades crónicas, es evidente que debe racionalizarse el uso de estas bebidas calóricas especialmente en niños. En este documento se presentan todas estas consideraciones en cuanto a la hidratación, y se realizan diferentes recomendaciones al respecto. Source


Marrodan M.D.,Sociedad Espanola de Dietetica y Ciencias de la Alimentacion SEDCA | Marrodan M.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Montero P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Cherkaoui M.,Cadi Ayyad University
Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria | Year: 2012

Spain is a good example to illustrate the effect of the Nutrition Transition, because it is a country that has experimented very fast social and economic changes during the twentieth century. This paper discusses the evolution of eating behaviour and variations in energy intake and diet profile. Subsequently, we analyse the impact of this process, on the biology and health of the Spanish population, with special emphasis on the secu - Lar trend of height and the increase of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Guillen-Perez J.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Rubio-Herrera M.A.,Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion SEEN | And 21 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability. © 2014 Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Martinez-Garcia M.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Trasobares-Iglesias E.M.,Sociedad Espanola de Bioquimica Clinica y Patologia Molecular SEQC | And 22 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Guillen-Perez J.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Rubio-Herrera M.A.,Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion SEEN | And 22 more authors.
Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. the study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and ans wer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. the objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. the group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet. Source

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