Bosmans R.,Terrestrial Ecology Unit |
Castro A.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi
Arachnology | Year: 2016
A new species of the genus Tenuiphantes is described from France and Spain: Tenuiphantes cantabropyrenaeus Bosmans, n. sp. The species looks like T. jacksoni, T. jacksonoides, and T. zimmermanni. However, the location of the tooth of the lamella characteristica and the shape of the scape distinguish T. cantabropyrenaus from these species. A diagnosis is provided for the new species, together with notes on distribution and habitat. © 2016, British Arachnological Society. All rights reserved.
Garcia-Roa R.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences |
Cabido C.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi |
Lopez P.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences |
Martin J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2016
Chemical signals play an important role in intraspecific communication and social organization of many animals, but they also may be useful in interspecific recognition. In lizards, chemical signals are often contained in femoral gland secretions, of which composition may vary between species and populations. This may be especially important in recognition and reproductive isolation between closely related species. We analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the lipophilic fraction of femoral gland secretions of two closely related wall lizard species, Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis carbonelli to test for possible interspecific differences in chemical composition. We found 56 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male P. bocagei and 60 in P. carbonelli. The main compounds were steroids and waxy esters, but we also found carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, amydes, aldehydes, squalene, ketones and furanones. There were significant differences between species with respect to the number and relative proportions of compounds. Differences in chemical composition might be a consequence of phylogenetic differences per se, but they could also be explained by ecological adaptation to different microclimatic conditions. These differences in chemical profiles may explain the known chemosensory interspecific recognition between these two lizards, contributing to their reproductive isolation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Zuberogoitia I.,Icarus |
Gonzalez-Oreja J.A.,Instituto Vasco Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario |
Rodriguez-Refojos C.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010
Biological invasions are an important cause of biodiversity loss, American mink being one of the worst invasive species in Europe. We performed a 13-week control program of the species in the Butron river system (Northern Spain), where a natural population of the European mink is found. Three population estimates were considered: an absolute minimum, an intermediate scenario and a pessimistic one (n = 35, 49 and 70 animals, respectively). After 2,242 cage trap-nights, trapping success varied from 44 to 89% of these estimates. In addition, we evaluated the costs of eradicating the estimated populations; costs ranged between 652.5 and 2,970 € per mink, and would rise up to 83,462 € for the intermediate estimate under an exponential function linking captures and costs, or ca. 172.500 € to capture the highest estimate under a log-function. The implications of these numbers for the design and implementation of future control projects are discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.
Iglesias-Carrasco M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences |
Head M.L.,Australian National University |
Cabido C.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2016
Abstract: Lizards often respond to predators by hiding in sunless refuges, but this eliminates opportunities for thermoregulatory basking. Hiding can therefore lower body condition. Furthermore, in ectotherms basking is important to induce fever and activate an immune response. A potential trade-off therefore exists between lowering predation risk and elevating body temperature to fight infection. Such a trade-off could be habitat dependent if habitats differ in the relative risk of predation versus that of acquiring or countering an infection. Here we take an experimental approach to test whether lizard basking behavior is affected by a trade-off between predator avoidance and fighting an infection. We quantified the anti-predator behavior of male lizards (Podarcis liolepis) both before and after they were immune challenged (injected with LPS) or not (injected with PBS control). To test the generality of any trade-off, we tested lizards from both an urban and a natural habitat. We found that males spent less time hiding following a simulated predator attack after they had been immune challenged than before, but this decline was only significant for males from the natural habitat. We also tested whether morphological traits, body condition, and immune response level explained variation in male hiding time. In the natural habitat, but not in the urban habitat, males with relatively small heads hid for significantly longer. In conclusion, we show that lizard anti-predator behavior is affected by an immune challenge. Habitat differences in the factors that predict hiding time offers potential insights into why this might be the case. Significance statement: There is a potential trade-off for ectotherms between remaining in a place protected from predators and countering an immune challenge. This is because hiding in sunless refuges eliminates opportunities for thermoregulatory basking that induce a fever. The optimal response to this trade-off might change depending on the habitat. Here, we compare the hiding behavior of males from natural and urban habitat following an experimental immune challenge. We found that the hiding time of immune-challenged males decreased but only for those from the natural habitat. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Mila B.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences |
Surget-Groba Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden |
Heulin B.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory |
Gosa A.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi |
And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013
Background: The geographic distribution of evolutionary lineages and the patterns of gene flow upon secondary contact provide insight into the process of divergence and speciation. We explore the evolutionary history of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara (= Lacerta vivipara) in the Iberian Peninsula and test the role of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains in restricting gene flow and driving lineage isolation and divergence. We also assess patterns of introgression among lineages upon secondary contact, and test for the role of high-elevation trans-mountain colonisations in explaining spatial patterns of genetic diversity. We use mtDNA sequence data and genome-wide AFLP loci to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among lineages, and measure genetic structure. Results: The main genetic split in mtDNA corresponds generally to the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees as previously reported, in contrast to genome-wide AFLP data, which show a major division between NW Spain and the rest. Both types of markers support the existence of four distinct and geographically congruent genetic groups, which are consistent with major topographic barriers. Both datasets reveal the presence of three independent contact zones between lineages in the Pyrenean region, one in the Basque lowlands, one in the low-elevation mountains of the western Pyrenees, and one in the French side of the central Pyrenees. The latter shows genetic evidence of a recent, high-altitude trans-Pyrenean incursion from Spain into France. Conclusions: The distribution and age of major lineages is consistent with a Pleistocene origin and a role for both the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains in driving isolation and differentiation of Z. vivipara lineages at large geographic scales. However, mountain ranges are not always effective barriers to dispersal, and have not prevented a recent high-elevation trans-Pyrenean incursion that has led to asymmetrical introgression among divergent lineages. Cytonuclear discordance in patterns of genetic structure and introgression at contact zones suggests selection may be involved at various scales. Suture zones are important areas for the study of lineage formation and speciation, and our results show that biogeographic barriers can yield markedly different phylogeographic patterns in different vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. © 2013 Milá et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bernaldo de Quiros F.,University of León |
Maillo-Fernandez J.-M.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) |
Castanos P.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi |
Neira A.,University of León
Quaternary International | Year: 2015
The long sequence of El Castillo cave contains Units 12 and 14, attributed to the Gravettian. This paper presents a revision of the lithic industry and the fauna recovered during H. Obermaier's 1910-1914 excavations of the site, as well as a number of new datings that enable us to chronologically place the above Gravettian occupations as one of the oldest in Europe. Unit 14 is dated between 34 and 33kacalBP and Unit 12 between 30 and 28kacalBP. The cave's oldest Gravettian level, Unit 14, presents techno-typological features typical of the first phases of the Gravettian in the Cantabro-Pyrenean region, such as Noailles burins, although it also shows some common elements with the Evolved Aurignacian. The youngest Gravettian unit, Unit 12, is characterised by laminar production from bipolar prismatic cores and a greater, albeit still discreet, presence of dorsal pieces. In terms of the fauna, Unit 14 is represented by red deer, chamois and horse, whereas Unit 12 is represented by red deer and horse, a hint as to what would later become the characteristic composition of Late Upper Palaeolithic faunal assemblages. The lithic and chronological characteristics of the Gravettian at El Castillo and the Cantabro-Pyrenean region lead us to believe in a mosaic formation of this techno-complex. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Castanos J.,University of the Basque Country |
Castanos P.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi |
Murelaga X.,University of the Basque Country |
Alonso-Olazabal A.,University of the Basque Country |
And 2 more authors.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2014
Fossil remains of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) occurring outside their present range are an important indicator of formerly cold climatic conditions, but are easily confused with those of the red deer (Cervus elaphus). The locality of Kiputz IX has yielded one of the best-preserved Late Pleistocene reindeer populations of the southern Pyrenees, occurring in association with Bison priscus and the much more abundant Cervus elaphus. Fossil remains from this site are mostly complete and not affected by human intervention, thus creating the perfect conditions for reliable osteometric analyses. Here, we quantify diagnostic morphological features of the scapula and the humerus of Cervus elaphus and Rangifer tarandus to establish the potential of these bones to aid in interspecific discrimination. In the case of the scapula, the best species discriminator is the ratio of the minimum anteroposterior diameter of the scapular neck and the development of the articular process, while the breadth of the trochlea is the best discriminator in the case of the humerus. © 2014 J. Castaños et al.
Do long lived seabirds reduce the negative effects of acute pollution on adult survival by skipping breeding? A study with European storm petrels (Hydrobates pelagicus) during the "Prestige" oil-spill
Zabala J.,Sebero Otxoa 45 |
Zuberogoitia I.,Icarus |
Martinez-Climent J.A.,CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology |
Etxezarreta J.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011
We estimated the survival probability of breeding European storm petrels before, during and after a severe oil-spill. We hypothesized that petrels might have deserted the breeding colony to maximize their own survival probability and we expected no major change on adult survival probabilities as a consequence of the spill. We used an information-theoretical approach and multi-model inference to assess the strength of the evidence in favour of different hypotheses. Evidence contained in the data clearly supported the non-effect of the spill on adult survival hypothesis while punctual impact of the spill on survival and expanded (3. years) impact alternatives received less support. The effect size of the spill on averaged survival estimates was negligible in every case. We suggest that petrels minimized the impact of acute pollution by not investing in reproduction. We suggest that short-medium term management actions after oil-spills and similar catastrophes should focus on ecosystem restoration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Cueto M.,University of Cantabria |
Camaros E.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Castanos P.,Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi |
Ontanon R.,University of Cantabria |
Arias P.,University of Cantabria
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans. Our archaeozoological study suggests that lion-specialized pelt exploitation and use might have been related to ritual activities during the Middle Magdalenian period (ca. 14800 cal BC). Moreover, the specimens also represent the southernmost European and the latest evidence of cave lion exploitation in Iberia. Therefore, the study seeks to provide alternative explanations for lion extinction in Eurasia and argues for a role of hunting as a factor to take into account. © 2016 Cueto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
PubMed | University of Cantabria, Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi and Rovira i Virgili University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans. Our archaeozoological study suggests that lion-specialized pelt exploitation and use might have been related to ritual activities during the Middle Magdalenian period (ca. 14800 cal BC). Moreover, the specimens also represent the southernmost European and the latest evidence of cave lion exploitation in Iberia. Therefore, the study seeks to provide alternative explanations for lion extinction in Eurasia and argues for a role of hunting as a factor to take into account.