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Palma, Spain

The coastline of Eastern Mallorca is subjected to a recurrent sea breeze system. Using high resolution wind data collected during trhee summer months at Cala Millor beach it was found that almost the 60% of the summer days experienced sea breeze events with a average wind speed of 2.09 m/s and average wind gusts of 6.86 m/s. Sea breezes duration attended around 12 hours and a significant feature is that they blow obliquely-onshore. Source


Furlani S.,University of Trieste | Pappalardo M.,University of Pisa | Gomez-Pujol L.,SOCIB | Chelli A.,University of Parma
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

Rock coasts and shore platforms are conspicuous landforms along the Mediterranean and Black Sea (MBS) coasts. These coasts have been fashioned by changes in sea level because of vertical movements of the land and variations in eustatic and isostatic sea-level. For this reason, the Quaternary evolution of MBS coasts has been extensively studied, even starting from geomorphological markers, while very few researches have addressed the processes related to their origin and evolution. Despite most of the Mediterranean coast being rocky, studies about rocky shore processes are almost completely lacking, except for limited areas. Data on sea cliff retreats have mainly been collected to study the susceptibility of cliff failures or to prevent landslides, in particular along shores used for tourism. Data on erosion rates and processes on shore platforms are generally scarce and restricted to limestone bedrocks. In this paper, we summarize the results of studies of rates and processes of rocky coasts of the countries overlooking the Mediterranean and Black Seas and review the current knowledge concerning rock coasts in the MBS area. © The Geological Society of London 2014. Source


Gomez-Pujol L.,SOCIB | Perez-Alberti A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Blanco-Chao R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Costa S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

Rocky coasts occur along more than one-third (37%) of the Atlantic continental European coastline, approximately 3666 km, often forming vertical cliffs and characteristically gently sloping shore platforms. The continental European Atlantic rocky coasts show a great variability of rock types and structural contexts, as well as different wave climates and tidal ranges. Through a review of previously published data on cliff retreat rates and shore platform erosion measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal timescales, this paper highlights the different processes and agents, their magnitude and frequency in shaping rocky coasts. In particular, the links between cliff retreat, shore platform evolution, present dynamics and inheritance (understood as whether platform and other rock coast features were shaped by a higher sea level than the present) comprise one of the major contributions from continental European Atlantic rocky coasts to a global understanding of rock coast coastal geomorphology. © The Geological Society of London 2014. Source


Rodriguez J.M.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Alvarez I.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Jurado J.L.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Garcia A.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2013

The Balearic region is a highly dynamic area located in the Western Mediterranean, straddling the transition between the Algerian and Provencal basins and constitutes one of the main spawning grounds for the large, migratory Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and other medium and small tuna species (Thunnus alalunga, Auxis rochei, Euthynnus alleteratus and Katsuwonus pelamis). In summer, despite been considered an oligotrophic region as the whole Mediterranean Sea, it harbors a relatively abundant and diverse larval fish community (LFC). In this study, we analyze the composition, abundance and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the horizontal structure of the LFC in the Balearic region, in early summer 2005, during the spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Hydrographically, 2005 was an unusual year with a summer situation of relatively lack of mesoscale features, weak surface currents and a general situation of high stability. A total of 128 taxa of fish larvae, belonging to 52 families, were identified. The average abundance was 1770 larvae 1000m-3. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed LFC to have a strong horizontal structure. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination identified two larval fish assemblages. These assemblages were mainly delineated by depth and, therefore, by the spawning location of adult fish. Our results also suggest that anticyclonic eddy boundaries constitute favourable habitats for fish larvae. Also, the scenario of higher than unusual hydrographic stability found during the cruise would be responsible for the relatively lack of mesoscale features and, consequently, for the lack of influence of these features on the horizontal distribution of fish larvae and on the horizontal structure of the LFC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Reglero P.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Tittensor D.P.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center | Tittensor D.P.,Microsoft | Tittensor D.P.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2014

Tuna are among the most ubiquitous oceanic predators, and range globally from the equator to temperate regions (0 to 55° latitude). While the distribution of adult fish has been mapped from fishing records, the extent of tuna spawning and larval habitats is less well understood. We compiled and analyzed data on the global distributions of larval occurrence for 7 major oceanic tuna species to investigate environmental predictors of larval habitat. Our results showed that tuna larvae occur within the adults' distributional range, but were restricted to lower latitudes and higher water temperatures than adults, largely consistent with Schaefer's 'temperature hypothesis'. Temperature requirements explained much of the variation in larval occurrence, though temperature by itself tended to over-predict the extent of larval habitats. We also demonstrate that tuna larvae have an elevated probability of occurrence at intermediate values of eddy kinetic energy, generally supporting Bakun's 'ocean triad hypothesis', which relates tuna larval habitats to mesoscale oceanographic activity. However, some deviations in this pattern were also observed, such as for albacore. Regions of suitable larval habitats were most commonly found in western boundary currents, where warm water masses coincide with intermediate eddy kinetic energy. Bluefin tuna species are exceptional though, in that their spawning habitats tended to be much more confined than predicted from oceanographic conditions. Our results provide support for a combination of the 2 hypotheses to explain global environmental requirements for tuna larvae. We have identified oceanographic parameters that can easily be measured by remote sensing and features that should be considered when determining areas of critical habitat for tuna larvae. © Inter-Research 2014. Source

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