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Garau B.,SOCIB | Ruiz S.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Zhang W.G.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Pascual A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2011

In this work a new methodology is proposed to correct the thermal lag error in data from unpumped CTD sensors installed on Slocum gliders. The advantage of the new approach is twofold: first, it takes into account the variable speed of the glider; and second, it can be applied to CTD profiles from an autonomous platform either with or without a reference cast. The proposed methodology finds values for four correction parameters that minimize the area between two temperature-salinity curves given by two CTD profiles. A field experiment with a Slocum glider and a standard CTD was conducted to test the method. Thermal lag-induced salinity error of about 0.3 psu was found and successfully corrected. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Oguz T.,SOCIB | Oguz T.,Middle East Technical University | Macias D.,Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia Icman Csic | Macias D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 4 more authors.
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2013

•Implementation of a multispecies biochemical model to the Alboran and Balearic Seas.•Different food web structures in response to different combinations of fish predation and resource availability.•Importance of prey grazing function and prey switching on plankton structure. A one-dimensional coupled physical and intermediate-complexity biochemical model comprising large and small phytoplankton and zooplankton groups, particulate organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate was developed to study the physical-biogeochemical interactions and parameters that control plankton production in the Alboran and Balearic Sea ecosystems. The model findings suggest that pelagic fish predation and resource availability through lateral and vertical nutrient inputs jointly characterize the plankton community structures. In agreement with previous observations, a typical annual plankton structure of the mesotrophic systems involves a vertically homogeneous biomass of large groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton within the upper 50-to-100. m layer from mid-November to April and a subsurface biomass accumulation distributed roughly within 25-75. m depths in the following months. Their light and temperature limitations constrain the smaller groups into the thermocline zone (25-50. m) during late spring and summer. These obtained results were dependent on the zooplankton actively switching between preys (i.e., the food preference coefficients dependent on prey biomass). In the case of no switching, spurious dynamic equilibrium solutions may arise in the case of a constant and weak fish predation rate and using the quadratic predation formulation. The choice of a Holling Type II (i.e., hyperbolic) predation function may, however avoid ambiguous representation of the annual plankton structure in the case of a constant food preference choice under relatively weak predation pressures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gomez-Pujol L.,SOCIB | Perez-Alberti A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Blanco-Chao R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Costa S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

Rocky coasts occur along more than one-third (37%) of the Atlantic continental European coastline, approximately 3666 km, often forming vertical cliffs and characteristically gently sloping shore platforms. The continental European Atlantic rocky coasts show a great variability of rock types and structural contexts, as well as different wave climates and tidal ranges. Through a review of previously published data on cliff retreat rates and shore platform erosion measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal timescales, this paper highlights the different processes and agents, their magnitude and frequency in shaping rocky coasts. In particular, the links between cliff retreat, shore platform evolution, present dynamics and inheritance (understood as whether platform and other rock coast features were shaped by a higher sea level than the present) comprise one of the major contributions from continental European Atlantic rocky coasts to a global understanding of rock coast coastal geomorphology. © The Geological Society of London 2014.

Juza M.,SOCIB | Renault L.,SOCIB | Renault L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ruiz S.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013

The study of water masses worldwide (their formation, spreading, mixing, and impact on general circulation) is essential for a better understanding of the ocean circulation and variability. In this paper, the formation and main pathways of Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMED) are investigated during the winter-spring 2011 using observations and numerical simulation. The main results show that the WIW, formed along the continental shelves of the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea, circulates southward following five preferential pathways depending on the WIW formation site location and the oceanic conditions. WIW joins the northeastern part of the Balearic Sea, or flows along the continental shelves until joining the Balearic Current (maximum of 0.33 Sv in early-April) or further south until the Ibiza Channel entrance. Two additional trajectories, contributing to water mass exchanges with the southern part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, bring the WIW through the Ibiza and Mallorca Channels (maxima of 0.26 Sv in late-March and 0.1 Sv in early-April, respectively). The circulation of WIW over the NWMED at 50-200 m depth, its mixing and spreading over the Western Mediterranean Sea (reaching the south of the Balearic Islands, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ligurian and the Alboran Seas) suggest that the WIW may have an impact on the ocean circulation by eddy blocking effect, exchange of water masses between north and south subbasins of Western Mediterranean Sea through the Ibiza Channel or modification of the ocean stratification. Key Points Winter Intermediate Water formation sites and pathways in the Mediterranean Sea Winter Intermediate Water and mean circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea Combining gliders and numerical simulation for ocean processes study © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Renault L.,SOCIB | Oguz T.,SOCIB | Oguz T.,Institute of Marine science | Pascual A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2012

In this study, for the first time at regional scale, the combined use of remote sensing data (altimetry and sea surface temperature records) provides a description of the persistent, recurrent and transient circulation regimes of the Alborn Sea circulation. The analysis of 936 altimeter-derived weekly absolute dynamic topography (ADT) and surface geostrophic current maps for 1993-2010 reveals the presence of a dominant annual signal and of two interannual modes of variability. The winter-spring phase is characterized by two stable gyral scale features; the well-known Western Anticyclonic Gyre within the western area and the Central Cyclonic Gyre, a new structure not identified in former studies, occupying the central and eastern parts of the Alborn Sea. A double anticyclonic gyre regime constitutes the stable circulation system of the summer-autumn period when the Eastern Anticyclonic Gyre is formed within the eastern Alborn basin. In this case, the Central Cyclonic Gyre is narrower and located closer to the Western Anticyclonic Gyre. They represent two stable states of the system, robust at the decadal time scale, whereas transient changes reflect perturbations on these stable states and are mainly observed at an interannual scale. The circulation variability and the gyral features development may be dynamically linked to the corresponding changes of the Gibraltar transport rates. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Reglero P.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Tittensor D.P.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center | Tittensor D.P.,Microsoft | Tittensor D.P.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2014

Tuna are among the most ubiquitous oceanic predators, and range globally from the equator to temperate regions (0 to 55° latitude). While the distribution of adult fish has been mapped from fishing records, the extent of tuna spawning and larval habitats is less well understood. We compiled and analyzed data on the global distributions of larval occurrence for 7 major oceanic tuna species to investigate environmental predictors of larval habitat. Our results showed that tuna larvae occur within the adults' distributional range, but were restricted to lower latitudes and higher water temperatures than adults, largely consistent with Schaefer's 'temperature hypothesis'. Temperature requirements explained much of the variation in larval occurrence, though temperature by itself tended to over-predict the extent of larval habitats. We also demonstrate that tuna larvae have an elevated probability of occurrence at intermediate values of eddy kinetic energy, generally supporting Bakun's 'ocean triad hypothesis', which relates tuna larval habitats to mesoscale oceanographic activity. However, some deviations in this pattern were also observed, such as for albacore. Regions of suitable larval habitats were most commonly found in western boundary currents, where warm water masses coincide with intermediate eddy kinetic energy. Bluefin tuna species are exceptional though, in that their spawning habitats tended to be much more confined than predicted from oceanographic conditions. Our results provide support for a combination of the 2 hypotheses to explain global environmental requirements for tuna larvae. We have identified oceanographic parameters that can easily be measured by remote sensing and features that should be considered when determining areas of critical habitat for tuna larvae. © Inter-Research 2014.

Furlani S.,University of Trieste | Pappalardo M.,University of Pisa | Gomez-Pujol L.,SOCIB | Chelli A.,University of Parma
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

Rock coasts and shore platforms are conspicuous landforms along the Mediterranean and Black Sea (MBS) coasts. These coasts have been fashioned by changes in sea level because of vertical movements of the land and variations in eustatic and isostatic sea-level. For this reason, the Quaternary evolution of MBS coasts has been extensively studied, even starting from geomorphological markers, while very few researches have addressed the processes related to their origin and evolution. Despite most of the Mediterranean coast being rocky, studies about rocky shore processes are almost completely lacking, except for limited areas. Data on sea cliff retreats have mainly been collected to study the susceptibility of cliff failures or to prevent landslides, in particular along shores used for tourism. Data on erosion rates and processes on shore platforms are generally scarce and restricted to limestone bedrocks. In this paper, we summarize the results of studies of rates and processes of rocky coasts of the countries overlooking the Mediterranean and Black Seas and review the current knowledge concerning rock coasts in the MBS area. © The Geological Society of London 2014.

Rodriguez J.M.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Alvarez I.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Jurado J.L.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Garcia A.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2013

The Balearic region is a highly dynamic area located in the Western Mediterranean, straddling the transition between the Algerian and Provencal basins and constitutes one of the main spawning grounds for the large, migratory Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and other medium and small tuna species (Thunnus alalunga, Auxis rochei, Euthynnus alleteratus and Katsuwonus pelamis). In summer, despite been considered an oligotrophic region as the whole Mediterranean Sea, it harbors a relatively abundant and diverse larval fish community (LFC). In this study, we analyze the composition, abundance and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the horizontal structure of the LFC in the Balearic region, in early summer 2005, during the spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Hydrographically, 2005 was an unusual year with a summer situation of relatively lack of mesoscale features, weak surface currents and a general situation of high stability. A total of 128 taxa of fish larvae, belonging to 52 families, were identified. The average abundance was 1770 larvae 1000m-3. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed LFC to have a strong horizontal structure. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination identified two larval fish assemblages. These assemblages were mainly delineated by depth and, therefore, by the spawning location of adult fish. Our results also suggest that anticyclonic eddy boundaries constitute favourable habitats for fish larvae. Also, the scenario of higher than unusual hydrographic stability found during the cruise would be responsible for the relatively lack of mesoscale features and, consequently, for the lack of influence of these features on the horizontal distribution of fish larvae and on the horizontal structure of the LFC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Diedrich A.,SOCIB | Balaguer Huguet P.,SOCIB | Tintore Subirana J.,SOCIB | Tintore Subirana J.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2011

The objective of this study is to propose a simple methodological approach, based on the Limits of Acceptable Change process, to support the formulation of management measures for recreational boating in bays. Management measures have been determined using statistical and geospatial analyses of data of biophysical characteristics, use, and user perceptions in a bay on the island of Mallorca. The results suggest that the optimal use level of the study site is being surpassed and a range of potential management options is provided. This methodology is applicable to additional management scenarios where balancing social and environmental needs is necessary and should be implemented as part of a broader Integrated Coastal Zone Management framework. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

The coastline of Eastern Mallorca is subjected to a recurrent sea breeze system. Using high resolution wind data collected during trhee summer months at Cala Millor beach it was found that almost the 60% of the summer days experienced sea breeze events with a average wind speed of 2.09 m/s and average wind gusts of 6.86 m/s. Sea breezes duration attended around 12 hours and a significant feature is that they blow obliquely-onshore.

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