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Islamabad, Pakistan

Rauf S.,University of Sargodha | Zaharieva M.,University of Lima | Warburton M.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang P.-Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

Most yield progress obtained through the so called "Green Revolution", particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are difficult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is consequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer's fields, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Zullig L.L.,Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care | Zullig L.L.,Duke University | Zullig L.L.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Whitson H.E.,Geriatrics Research | And 14 more authors.
Journal of General Internal Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Patient complexity is often operationalized by counting multiple chronic conditions (MCC) without considering contextual factors that can affect patient risk for adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop a conceptual model of complexity addressing gaps identified in a review of published conceptual models. DATA SOURCES: We searched for English-language MEDLINE papers published between 1 January 2004 and 16 January 2014. Two reviewers independently evaluated abstracts and all authors contributed to the development of the conceptual model in an iterative process. RESULTS: From 1606 identified abstracts, six conceptual models were selected. One additional model was identified through reference review. Each model had strengths, but several constructs were not fully considered: 1) contextual factors; 2) dynamics of complexity; 3) patients’ preferences; 4) acute health shocks; and 5) resilience. Our Cycle of Complexity model illustrates relationships between acute shocks and medical events, healthcare access and utilization, workload and capacity, and patient preferences in the context of interpersonal, organizational, and community factors. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This model may inform studies on the etiology of and changes in complexity, the relationship between complexity and patient outcomes, and intervention development to improve modifiable elements of complex patients. © 2015, Society of General Internal Medicine.

Ishaq M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ishaq M.,Social science Research Institute | Ping Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Haq Z.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) | Year: 2016

The main aim of the article is to show the response of the Maximum Residue Limits adopted by importing countries on exports of the selected food commodities from China. The study estimates the gravity model using the Ordinary Least Squares, Poisson and the Negative Binomial Regression estimators. According to the results, the Maximum Residue Limits has a trade enhancing effect on exports of the selected food commodities from China. This trade enhancing impact may be due to the current government policies to put a cut on the food safety issues, to ensure safe food for all and adopting a protectionist policy in terms of the Maximum Residues Limits for the selected commodities. © 2016, Agricultural Economics. All rights reserved.

Ali A.,Social science Research Institute | Abdulai A.,University of Kiel | Goetz R.,University of Girona
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

In this article, we use farm-level data from the Punjab Province in Pakistan to analyze the impact of three tenancy contracts on investment in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures and farm productivity. A multivariate tobit model that accounts for potential substitutability and complementarity of investment options, as well as endogeneity of tenure arrangements was employed in the empirical analysis. Our empirical results indicate that land tenure arrangements influence farmers' decisions to invest in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures. In particular, owner-cultivators with secured tenancy arrangements were found to be more likely to invest in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures, compared to those on leased contracts. We also find that output per hectare was highest on land cultivated by owners and lowest on land under sharecropping tenancy, lending support to the Marshallian inefficiency hypothesis. © 2012 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Alam A.,University of Peshawar | Amin N.U.,University of Peshawar | Ara N.,University of Peshawar | Ali M.,Social science Research Institute | Ali I.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of priming on spinach with various sources and soaking durations at the Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during 2008-09. The experiment was laid down in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Four priming sources (Distilled water, DAP, SSP, SSP+Na2CO3) and soaking durations of 4h interval (4h to 24h) along with control were studied. Number of days to emergence, germination percentage, survival percentage, leaf area (cm2), leaf yield (tons ha-1) and 100 number seeds weight (g) were significantly affected by priming sources and durations. Mean values showed that early emergence (5.952 days), maximum germination percentage (88.14), survival percentage (89.96), plant height (31.24 cm), leaf area (63.12 cm2), leaf yield (14.667 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (1.00 g) were observed in plots in which seeds were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution. In case of soaking durations, early emergence (5.917 days), maximum germination percentage (89.42), survival percentage (90.40), plant height (31.16 cm), leaf area (60.72 cm2), leaf yield (14.340 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (0.966 g) were recorded in the plots in which seeds were soaked for 24h. Mean values of interactions results showed that early emergence (5.0 days), maximum germination percentage (95.33), survival percentage (95.38), plant height (33.70 cm), leaf area (70.78 cm2), leaf yield (16.257 tons ha-1) were observed in plots where seed were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution for 24h. Overall SSP+Na2CO3 solution proved the best in most of the parameters while distilled water (control) showed comparatively poor performance.

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