Social science Research Institute

Islamabad, Pakistan

Social science Research Institute

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Rauf S.,University of Sargodha | Zaharieva M.,University of Lima | Warburton M.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang P.-Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

Most yield progress obtained through the so called "Green Revolution", particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are difficult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is consequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer's fields, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Bakhsh K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Kamran M.A.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Hassan S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abbas Q.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: Farm workers and female cotton pickers are exposed to residual impacts of pesticide use in cotton production, in addition to dust, ultraviolet radiation, etc. Cotton picking causes various health hazards among cotton pickers with varied health cost. A soil bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is incorporated in cotton seed through genetic modification and it has resistance against certain bollworms of cotton. So it is considered that Bt cotton fields have less pesticide exposure compared to non-Bt cotton fields. This study was designed to examine and compare the impacts and health cost of cotton picking among female cotton pickers working in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields. Methods: The study used the data collected from Vehari district of Pakistani Punjab. Health hazards and associated health cost of the respondents involved in Bt cotton picking were compared with those who harvested non-Bt cotton. Comparative use of the personal protective measures among those respondents was also examined. Health cost function and its determinants were analyzed using ordinary least square method. Results: Findings of the study showed that 61 % cotton pickers from Bt cotton households reported one or more health effects of pesticide during picking season whereas this percentage for non-Bt cotton households was 66 %. Health impacts included skin problems, headache, cough, flu/fever, eye irritation and sleeplessness, however, percentage of these health impacts was comparatively higher among non-Bt cotton households. Health cost from exposure to pesticide use in cotton was US$ 5.74 and 2.91 per season for non-Bt cotton and Bt cotton households, respectively. Education, picking in Bt cotton fields and preventive measures were significantly related with health cost. Conclusion: Cotton pickers working in Bt cotton fields are found to have less occupational health hazards compared to those working in non-Bt cotton fields. Thus generating awareness among cotton pickers for adopting precautionary measures during harvesting and the use of Bt cotton seed can result in a decline in the ill-effects of cotton picking. © 2016 The Author(s).

Olafsdottir L.B.,University of Iceland | Gudjonsson H.,University of Iceland | Jonsdottir H.H.,Social Science Research Institute | Thjodleifsson B.,University of Iceland
Digestion | Year: 2010

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder, but information on its natural history is limited. Aim: To study the natural history of FD as assessed by 2 criteria over a 10-year period. Method: A population-based study conducted by mailing a questionnaire to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population aged 18-75 in 1996 and again in 2006. FD was estimated by the Functional Dyspepsia Score List and by dyspepsia subgroups categorized into 4 groups: (1) frequent upper pain, (2) meal-related, (3) nausea or vomiting, and (4) combinations of these groups. Results: FD was diagnosed in 13.9% of the subjects in the 1996 sample (11.3% male, 15.8% female) and 16.7% in 2006 (12.3% male, 20.2% female) with a significant difference between males and females in 2006. Dyspepsia subgroup criteria showed a higher prevalence than conventional FD criteria. The proportion of FD subjects in one of the dyspepsia subgroups was low. There was a significant relationship between FD and heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome. A high proportion of subjects who seek medical care have FD. Conclusion: FD was stable over the 10-year period, but there was turnover in symptoms and increased intensity and frequency of gastrointestinal pain. Dyspepsia subgroup criteria showed a higher prevalence than FD, which was more common in young subjects and females. FD poses a heavy burden on the health care system. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Usman M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashfaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Taj S.,Social science Research Institute | Abid M.,IWMI
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Flowers are used for expressing or exhibiting the innermost feelings to the beloved ones or complementing any one or versifying any conceivable emotions. The export of cut flower from Pakistan is very negligible as compared to other countries like Holland, USA, Columbia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Japan and Israel. This paper examined the cost and return of rose cut flower along with Cobb Douglass production function to determine factors affecting rose cut flower productivity. A farm level survey was conducted in 2011 and 100 respondents were selected for primary data collection in District Kasur using random sampling technique. Yield per acre per year was highest for medium farmer's i.e 812683 pieces followed by large and small farmer's i.e 769562 pieces and 736426 pieces, respectively. Gross margin per year was highest for small farmers (Rs.785473) followed by large, which were Rs.699200 and medium farmers; Rs.546088. Net income of small, medium and large farmers were Rs.759065, Rs.519680 and Rs.672792, respectively. Benefit cost ratio was greatest for the small farmers 2.84:1 followed by large and medium farmers' i.e 2.57:1 and 2.23:1, respectively. The results of the findings revealed that education (year), land preparation cost, fertilization cost, FYM and chemical cost had positive and significant effect on the yield of rose cut flower. While the, flower growing experience and irrigation had positive but non-significant impact on yield. Plant population has negative and insignificant while labor man-days has negative and significant impact on yield. The R2 and F-value was 0.66 and 19.65 which indicate the overall significance of the model.

Raza I.,Social Science Research Institute | Bibi N.,Food Science and Product Development Institute FSPDI | Khan M.A.,Food Science and Product Development Institute FSPDI | Anwar M.Z.,Social Science Research Institute | Bukhari S.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The present study was intended to use mixture design for the quality evaluation of mixed fruit juice. Juice was prepared with carrot and orange. The sensory evaluation for taste, texture, aroma, color and overall acceptability of carrot and orange mixed juice was subjected to a panel of six judges from FSPDI and SSRI. The results based on sensory evaluation showed that the overall acceptance level for treatment four specifically the blend with 75% carrot and 25% orange was highest (7). Mixture regression technique was used to select the best or the highly acceptable blend of carrot and orange juice. The results of mixture regression analysis showed no variation in the opinions of judges as regards to taste, texture, color, aroma and overall acceptability of the blends of juices because the p-values for all of the interaction components were greater than 0.05. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2014.

Ali A.,Social science Research Institute | Abdulai A.,University of Kiel | Goetz R.,University of Girona
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

In this article, we use farm-level data from the Punjab Province in Pakistan to analyze the impact of three tenancy contracts on investment in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures and farm productivity. A multivariate tobit model that accounts for potential substitutability and complementarity of investment options, as well as endogeneity of tenure arrangements was employed in the empirical analysis. Our empirical results indicate that land tenure arrangements influence farmers' decisions to invest in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures. In particular, owner-cultivators with secured tenancy arrangements were found to be more likely to invest in soil-improving and productivity-enhancing measures, compared to those on leased contracts. We also find that output per hectare was highest on land cultivated by owners and lowest on land under sharecropping tenancy, lending support to the Marshallian inefficiency hypothesis. © 2012 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Ishaq M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ishaq M.,Social science Research institute | Ping Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Haq Z.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) | Year: 2016

The main aim of the article is to show the response of the Maximum Residue Limits adopted by importing countries on exports of the selected food commodities from China. The study estimates the gravity model using the Ordinary Least Squares, Poisson and the Negative Binomial Regression estimators. According to the results, the Maximum Residue Limits has a trade enhancing effect on exports of the selected food commodities from China. This trade enhancing impact may be due to the current government policies to put a cut on the food safety issues, to ensure safe food for all and adopting a protectionist policy in terms of the Maximum Residues Limits for the selected commodities. © 2016, Agricultural Economics. All rights reserved.

Noor-Ul-Amin,University of Peshawar | Khattak A.M.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad I.,University of Peshawar | Ara N.,University of Peshawar | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

A study was initiated to evaluate the effect of different cormel sizes on the growth and development of gladiolus corms in the city of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The current study was undertaken at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, the Agriculture University, Peshawar during 2009. Three different cormel sizes (C1 = >1.5 cm and < 2 cm, C2 = >1.0 cm and < 1.5 cm and C3 = >0.5 cm and < 1 cm of gladiolus cultivar "white Friendship". were planted and the effect of cormel size on growth was assessed. Cultivar white Friendship; has white colour, 30-45cm spikes length, bearing 18-20 florets around 9.5-10.5cm size and at average each corm produces 15-20 cormels (AgrihortiCo: Dissemination of Horticultural information). Number of studies indicated that cormel sizes significantly influence consequent growth and development of corms. In the present study, it was observed that corm and cormel size positively effects on various parameters and the highest values were obtained from large size cormels for sprouting percentage (70.40), number of leaves per plant (6.77), survival percentage (77.46), leaf area (61.14 cm2), plant height (61.25 cm), diameter of corms (3.18 cm), corms weight (9.616 g) and maximum numbers of cormels per plant (4.74). Earliest sprouting was observed in large size cormels (21.5 days), whereas maximum percent increase in cormel size (186.16) was obtained from small size cormels.

Din A.U.,National Insect Museum | Zia A.,National Insect Museum | Bhatti A.R.,National Insect Museum | Khan M.N.,Social science Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

A series of collection surveys conducted during two consecutive years (2011-12) to explore Odonata naiads of Potohar plateau revealed 34 species under 6 families and 21 genera. Specimens were collected from different aquatic habitats that include almost all sort of waters including static, flowing, acidic, alkaline, brackish or saline. Details showing valid names, collection localities, ecological observations, number of individual male/female collected are provided for each species. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Alam A.,University of Peshawar | Amin N.U.,University of Peshawar | Ara N.,University of Peshawar | Ali M.,Social Science Research Institute | Ali I.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of priming on spinach with various sources and soaking durations at the Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during 2008-09. The experiment was laid down in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Four priming sources (Distilled water, DAP, SSP, SSP+Na2CO3) and soaking durations of 4h interval (4h to 24h) along with control were studied. Number of days to emergence, germination percentage, survival percentage, leaf area (cm2), leaf yield (tons ha-1) and 100 number seeds weight (g) were significantly affected by priming sources and durations. Mean values showed that early emergence (5.952 days), maximum germination percentage (88.14), survival percentage (89.96), plant height (31.24 cm), leaf area (63.12 cm2), leaf yield (14.667 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (1.00 g) were observed in plots in which seeds were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution. In case of soaking durations, early emergence (5.917 days), maximum germination percentage (89.42), survival percentage (90.40), plant height (31.16 cm), leaf area (60.72 cm2), leaf yield (14.340 tons ha-1) and 100 seed weight (0.966 g) were recorded in the plots in which seeds were soaked for 24h. Mean values of interactions results showed that early emergence (5.0 days), maximum germination percentage (95.33), survival percentage (95.38), plant height (33.70 cm), leaf area (70.78 cm2), leaf yield (16.257 tons ha-1) were observed in plots where seed were soaked in SSP+Na2CO3 solution for 24h. Overall SSP+Na2CO3 solution proved the best in most of the parameters while distilled water (control) showed comparatively poor performance.

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