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Sonvilla G.,Medical University of Vienna | Allerstorfer S.,Medical University of Vienna | Heinzle C.,Medical University of Vienna | Stattner S.,Social Medical Center South | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:Deregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is involved in several malignancies. Its role in colorectal cancer has not been assessed before.Methods:Expression of FGFR3 in human colorectal tumour specimens was analysed using splice variant-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays. To analyse the impact of FGFR3-IIIc expression on tumour cell biology, colon cancer cell models overexpressing wild-type (WT-3b and WT3c) or dominant-negative FGFR3 variants (KD3c and KD3b) were generated by either plasmid transfection or adenoviral transduction.Results:Although FGFR3 mRNA expression is downregulated in colorectal cancer, alterations mainly affected the FGFR3-IIIb splice variant, resulting in an increased IIIc/IIIb ratio predominantly in a subgroup of advanced tumours. Overexpression of WT3c increased proliferation, survival and colony formation in all colon cancer cell models tested, whereas WT3b had little activity. In addition, it conferred sensitivity to autocrine FGF18-mediated growth and migration signals in SW480 cells with low endogenous FGFR3-IIIc expression. Disruption of FGFR3-IIIc-dependent signalling by dominant-negative FGFR3-IIIc or small interfering RNA-mediated FGFR3-IIIc knockdown resulted in inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis, which could not be observed when FGFR3-IIIb was blocked. In addition, KD3c expression blocked colony formation and migration and distinctly attenuated tumour growth in SCID mouse xenograft models.Conclusion:Our data show that FGFR3-IIIc exerts oncogenic functions by mediating FGF18 effects in colorectal cancer and may constitute a promising new target for therapeutic interventions. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Gauglhofer C.,Medical University of Vienna | Sagmeister S.,Medical University of Vienna | Schrottmaier W.,Medical University of Vienna | Fischer C.,Medical University of Vienna | And 12 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2011

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their high-affinity receptors [fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs)] contribute to autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation in several nonliver cancer entities. Here we report that at least one member of the FGF8 subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) was up-regulated in 59% of 34 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples that we investigated. The levels of the corresponding receptors (FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) were also elevated in the great majority of the HCC cases. Overall, 82% of the HCC cases showed overexpression of at least one FGF and/or FGFR. The functional implications of the deregulated FGF/FGFR system were investigated by the simulation of an insufficient blood supply. When HCC-1.2, HepG2, or Hep3B cells were subjected to serum withdrawal or the hypoxia-mimetic drug deferoxamine mesylate, the expression of FGF8 subfamily members increased dramatically. In the serum-starved cells, the incidence of apoptosis was elevated, whereas the addition of FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 impaired apoptosis, which was associated with phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and ribosomal protein S6. In contrast, down-modulation of FGF18 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced the viability of the hepatocarcinoma cells. siRNA targeting FGF18 also impaired the cells' potential to form clones at a low cell density or in soft agar. With respect to the tumor microenvironment, FGF17 and FGF18 stimulated the growth of HCC-derived myofibroblasts, and FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 induced the proliferation and tube formation of hepatic endothelial cells. Conclusion: FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 are involved in autocrine and paracrine signaling in HCC and enhance the survival of tumor cells under stress conditions, malignant behavior, and neoangiogenesis. Thus, the FGF8 subfamily supports the development and progression of hepatocellular malignancy. © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Klampfl T.,Medical University of Vienna | Bogner E.,Medical University of Vienna | Bednar W.,Medical University of Vienna | Mager L.,Medical University of Vienna | And 10 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2012

12(S)-Lipoxygenase (LOX) and its product 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenic (HETE) acid have been implicated in angiogenesis and tumour invasion in several tumour types while their role in colorectal cancer progression has not yet been studied. We have analysed 12(S)-LOX expression in colorectal tumours and found gene expression up-regulated in colorectal cancer specimens for which the pathology report described involvement of inflammation.Using cell line models exposed to 12(S)-HETE or over-expressing 12(S)-LOX malignant cell growth as well as tumour cell migration was found to be stimulated. Specifically, Caco2 and SW480 cells over-expressing 12(S)-LOX formed fewer colonies from sparse cultures, but migrated better in filter-migration assays. SW480 LOX cells also had higher anchorage-independent growth capacity and a higher tendency to metastasise in vivo. Knock-down or inhibition of 12(S)-LOX inhibited cell migration and anchorage-independent growth in both 12(S)-LOX transfectants and SW620 cells that express high endogenous levels of 12(S)-LOX. On the cell surface E-cadherin and integrin-β1 expression were down-regulated in a 12(S)-LOX-dependent manner disturbing cell-cell interactions. The results demonstrate that 12(S)-LOX expression in inflammatory areas of colorectal tumours has the capacity to induce an invasive phenotype in colorectal cancer cells and could be targeted for therapy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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