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Kimmel P.L.,Urologic | Fwu C.-W.,George Washington University | Eggers P.W.,Social and Scientific Systems Inc.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Social and ecologic factors, such as residential segregation, are determinants of health in the general population, but how these factors associate with outcomes among patients with ESRD is not well understood. Here, we examined associations of income inequality and residence, as social determinants of health, with survival among black and white patients with ESRD.We merged U.S. Renal Data System data from 589,036 patients who started hemodialysis from 2000 through 2008 with race-specific median household income data from the Census Bureau. We used Gini Index coefficients to assess income distributional inequality and the Dissimilarity Index to determine residential segregation. Black patients lived in areas of lower median household income compared with white patients ($26,742 versus $41,922; P<0.001). Residence in areas with higher median household income was associated with improved survival. Among whites, income inequality was associated with mortality. Among blacks exclusively, residence in highly segregated areas was associated with increased mortality. In conclusion, black hemodialysis patients in the United States are particularly susceptible to gradients in income and residential segregation. Interventions directed at highly segregated black neighborhoods might favorably affect hemodialysis patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source


Ruhl C.E.,Social and Scientific Systems Inc. | Everhart J.E.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:Other than weight-related conditions, risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not well defined. We investigated the association of gallstones and cholecystectomy with NAFLD in a large, national, population-based study.METHODS:Among adult participants in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, ultrasonography for gallstone disease was performed, and videotapes were subsequently evaluated for NAFLD. Odds ratios (ORs) for the association of gallstone disease with NAFLD were calculated using logistic regression analysis to adjust for common associated factors.RESULTS:Among 12,232 participants without viral hepatitis or significant alcohol intake, the prevalence of gallstones was 7.4%, cholecystectomy 5.6%, and NAFLD 20.0%. Participants with cholecystectomy had higher age-sex-adjusted prevalence of NAFLD (48.4%) than those with gallstones (34.4%) or without gallstone disease (17.9%) (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Controlling for numerous factors associated with both NAFLD and gallstone disease, multivariate-adjusted analysis confirmed the association of NAFLD with cholecystectomy (OR=2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-3.3), but not with gallstones (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 0.84-1.4).CONCLUSIONS:The association of NAFLD with cholecystectomy, but not with gallstones, indicates that cholecystectomy may itself be a risk factor for NAFLD. ©2013 by the American College of Gastroenterology. Source


Casagrande S.S.,Social and Scientific Systems Inc. | Fradkin J.E.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Saydah S.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Rust K.F.,Westat | Cowie C.C.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-To determine the prevalence of people with diabetes who meet hemoglobin A1c (A1C), blood pressure (BP), and LDL cholesterol (ABC) recommendations and their current statin use, factors associated with goal achievement, and changes in the proportion achieving goals between 1988 and 2010. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Data were cross-sectional from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1994, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010. Participants were 4,926 adults aged ≥20 years who self-reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes and completed the household interview and physical examination (n = 1,558 for valid LDL levels). Main outcome measures were A1C, BP, and LDL cholesterol, in accordance with the American Diabetes Association recommendations, and current use of statins. RESULTS-In 2007-2010, 52.5% of people with diabetes achieved A1C <7.0% (,53 mmol/mol), 51.1% achieved BP <130/80 mmHg, 56.2% achieved LDL<100 mg/dL, and 18.8% achieved all three ABCs. These levels of control were significant improvements from 1988 to 1994 (all P < 0.05). Statin use significantly increased between 1988-1994 (4.2%) and 2007-2010 (51.4%, P < 0.01). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans were less likely to meet A1C and LDL goals (P < 0.03), and non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to meet BP and LDL goals (P < 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican Americans were less likely to meet A1C goals (P < 0.01). Younger individuals were less likely to meet A1C and LDL goals. CONCLUSIONS-Despite significant improvement during the past decade, achieving the ABC goals remains suboptimal among adults with diabetes, particularly in some minority groups. Substantial opportunity exists to further improve diabetes control and, thus, to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Merrell K.,Social and Scientific Systems Inc. | Berenson R.A.,Urban Institute Health Policy Center
Health Affairs | Year: 2010

Despite widespread interest in the medical home model, there has been a lack of careful assessment of alternative methods to pay practices that serve as medical homes. This paper examines four specific payment approaches: enhanced fee-for-service payments for evaluation and management; additional codes for medical home activities within fee-for-service payments; per patient per month medical home payments to augment fee-for-service visit payments; and risk-adjusted, comprehensive per patient per month payments. Payment policies selected will affect both the adoption of the model and its longer-term evaluation. Evaluations of ongoing demonstrations should focus on payment design as well as on care - and cost. ©2010 Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source


Ruhl C.E.,Social and Scientific Systems Inc. | Everhart J.E.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Background: Validated non-invasive measures of fatty liver are needed that can be applied across populations and over time. A fatty liver index (FLI) including body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity was developed in an Italian municipality, but has not been validated widely or examined in a multiethnic population. Aims: We evaluated this FLI in the multiethnic U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and also to explore whether an improved index for the U.S. population (US FLI) could be derived. The US FLI would then used to examine U.S. time trends in fatty liver prevalence. Methods: We studied 5869 fasted, viral hepatitis negative adult participants with abdominal ultrasound data on fatty liver in the 1988-1994 NHANES. Time trend analyses included 21 712 NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2012 participants. Results: The prevalence of fatty liver was 20%. For the FLI, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC; 95% confidence interval (CI)] was 0.78 (0.74-0.81). The US FLI included age, race-ethnicity, waist circumference, GGT activity, fasting insulin and fasting glucose and had an AUC (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.77-0.83). Defining fatty liver as a US FLI ≥ 30, the prevalence increased from 18% in 1988-1991 to 29% in 1999-2000 to 31% in 2011-2012. Conclusions: For predicting fatty liver, the US FLI was a modest improvement over the FLI in the multiethnic U.S. population. Using this measure, the fatty liver prevalence in the U.S. population increased substantially over two decades. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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