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Jackson C.,Western General Hospital | Sweeting H.,CSO Social and Public Health science Unit | Haw S.,Western General Hospital | Haw S.,University of Stirling
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design: Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study ('earlier cohort', surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study ('later cohort', surveyed 1999 and 2003). Setting: Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City. Participants: Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18-19. Primary and secondary outcomes measures: The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18-19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class. Results: Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. Conclusions: Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a holistic approach, that addresses the broad shared determinants of various risk behaviours.

MacCalman L.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | Semple S.,University of Aberdeen | Galea K.S.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | Van Tongeren M.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | And 4 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Methods: Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. Results: There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. Conclusions: There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods. © 2012 MacCalman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bond L.,CSO Social and Public Health science Unit | Kearns A.,University of Glasgow | Mason P.,University of Glasgow | Tannahill C.,Glasgow Center for Population Health | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Housing-led regeneration has been shown to have limited effects on mental health. Considering housing and neighbourhoods as a psychosocial environment, regeneration may have greater impact on positive mental wellbeing than mental ill-health. This study examined the relationship between the positive mental wellbeing of residents living in deprived areas and their perceptions of their housing and neighbourhoods. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 3,911 residents in 15 deprived areas in Glasgow, Scotland. Positive mental wellbeing was measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Results: Using multivariate mulit-nomial logistic regressions and controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and physical health status, we found that several aspects of people's residential psychosocial environments were strongly associated with higher mental wellbeing. Mental wellbeing was higher when respondents considered the following: their neighbourhood had very good aesthetic qualities (RRR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9, 5.8); their home and neighbourhood represented personal progress (RRR 3.2 95% CI 2.2, 4.8; RRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8, 3.7, respectively); their home had a very good external appearance (RRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3, 5.1) and a very good front door (both an aesthetic and a security/control item) (RRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.8); and when satisfaction with their landlord was very high (RRR 2.3, 95% CI 2.2,4.8). Perception of poor neighbourhood aesthetic quality was associated with lower wellbeing (RRR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.5). Conclusions: This study has shown that for people living in deprived areas, the quality and aesthetics of housing and neighbourhoods are associated with mental wellbeing, but so too are feelings of respect, status and progress that may be derived from how places are created, serviced and talked about by those who live there. The implication for regeneration activities undertaken to improve housing and neighbourhoods is that it is not just the delivery of improved housing that is important for mental wellbeing, but also the quality and manner of delivery. © 2012 Bond et al; BioMed Central Ltd.

Lewis C.,Unit 4D | Clotworthy M.,Human Focused Testing | Hilton S.,CSO Social and Public Health science Unit | Magee C.,National Cancer Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: A mixed methods study exploring the UK general public's willingness to donate human biosamples (HBSs) for biomedical research. Setting: Cross-sectional focus groups followed by an online survey. Participants: Twelve focus groups (81 participants) selectively sampled to reflect a range of demographic groups; 1110 survey responders recruited through a stratified sampling method with quotas set on sex, age, geographical location, socioeconomic group and ethnicity. Main outcome measures: (1) Identify participants' willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research, (2) explore acceptability towards donating different types of HBSs in various settings and (3) explore preferences regarding use and access to HBSs. Results: 87% of survey participants thought donation of HBSs was important and 75% wanted to be asked to donate in general. Responders who self-reported having some or good knowledge of the medical research process were significantly more likely to want to donate (p<0.001). Reasons why focus group participants saw donation as important included: it was a good way of reciprocating for the medical treatment received; it was an important way of developing drugs and treatments; residual tissue would otherwise go to waste and they or their family members might benefit. The most controversial types of HBSs to donate included: brain post mortem (29% would donate), eyes post mortem (35%), embryos (44%), spare eggs (48%) and sperm (58%). Regarding the use of samples, there were concerns over animal research (34%), research conducted outside the UK (35%), and research conducted by pharmaceutical companies (56%), although education and discussion were found to alleviate such concerns. Conclusions: There is a high level of public support and willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research. Underlying concerns exist regarding the use of certain types of HBSs and conditions under which they are used. Improved education and more controlled forms of consent for sensitive samples may mitigate such concerns.

Hotchkiss J.W.,CSO Social and Public Health science Unit | Leyland A.H.,CSO Social and Public Health science Unit
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

Objective:To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause mortality or cause-specific mortality.Design:Cross-sectional surveys linked to hospital admissions and death records.Subjects:In total, 20 117 adults (aged 18-86 years) from a nationally representative sample of the Scottish population. Measurements:Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause, or cause-specific, mortality. The three anthropometric measurements BMI, WC and WHR were the main variables of interest. The following were adjustment variables: age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, survey year, social class and area of deprivation.Results:BMI-defined obesity (30 kg m-2) was not associated with increased risk of mortality (HR0.93; 95% confidence interval0.80-1.08), whereas the overweight category (25-30 kg m-2) was associated with a decreased risk (0.80; 0.70-0.91). In contrast, the HR for a high WC (men102 cm, women88 cm) was 1.17 (1.02-1.34) and a high WHR (men1, women0.85) was 1.34 (1.16-1.55). There was an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with BMI-defined obesity, a high WC and a high WHR categories; the HR estimates for these were 1.36 (1.05-1.77), 1.41 (1.11-1.79) and 1.44 (1.12-1.85), respectively. A low BMI (18.5 kg m 2) was associated with elevated HR for all-cause mortality (2.66; 1.97-3.60), for chronic respiratory disease mortality (3.17; 1.39-7.21) and for acute respiratory disease mortality (11.68; 5.01-27.21). This pattern was repeated for WC but not for WHR.Conclusions:It might be prudent not to use BMI as the sole measure to summarize body size. The alternatives WC and WHR may more clearly define the health risks associated with excess body fat accumulation. The lack of association between elevated BMI and mortality may reflect the secular decline in CVD mortality. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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