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Goldner E.M.,Simon Fraser University | Jenkins E.K.,University of British Columbia | Fischer B.,Simon Fraser University | Fischer B.,Social and Epidemiological Research | Fischer B.,University of Toronto
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective: Attention to knowledge translation (KT) has increased in the health care field in an effort to improve uptake and implementation of potentially beneficial knowledge. We provide an overview of the current state of KT literature and discuss the relevance of KT for health care professionals working in mental health. Method: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify review articles published in journals from 2007 to 2012. We selected articles on the basis of eligibility criteria and then added further articles deemed pertinent to the focus of our paper. Results: After removing duplicates, we scanned 214 review articles for relevance and, subsequently, we added 46 articles identified through hand searches of reference lists or from other sources. A total of 61 papers were retained for full review. Qualitative synthesis identified 5 main themes: defining KT and development of KT science; effective KT strategies; factors influencing the effectiveness of KT; KT frameworks and guides; and relevance of KT to health care providers. Conclusions: Despite limitations in existing evidence, the concept and practice of KT holds potential value for mental health care providers. Understanding of, and familiarity with, effective approaches to KT holds the potential to enhance providers' treatment approaches and to promote the use of new knowledge in practice to enhance outcomes.


Kim I.-H.,Social and Epidemiological Research | Noh S.,Social and Epidemiological Research | Noh S.,University of Toronto
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2014

This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8 % men, 49.2 % women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Urbanoski K.A.,Social and Epidemiological Research | Urbanoski K.A.,University of Toronto | Henderson C.,NHS Lothian | Castel S.,Sunnybrook Health science Center | Castel S.,University of Toronto
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is a widely used measure of psychiatric symptoms and functioning, yet numerous concerns persist about its reliability and validity. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which GAF scores reflect physician-related differences in addition to information about patients.Methods: This is a secondary analysis of clinical data collected between 2005 and 2010 from inpatients at a psychiatric hospital (N = 1,852). Multilevel modeling was used to estimate the influence of physicians on GAF scores at admission and on the change between admission and discharge, controlling for patient clinical presentation.Results: Controlling for patient-level predictors, 7% of the residual variance in admission GAF scores and 8% of the residual variance in change scores was at the physician level. The physician-level variance was significantly larger than zero in both models.Conclusions: Although statistically significant, estimates of physician-level variance were not overwhelming, suggesting that the GAF was rated in a consistent manner across physicians in this hospital. While results lend support to the utility of the GAF for drawing comparisons between patients seen by different physicians across a large institution, further study is necessary to determine generalizability and to assess differences across multiple institutions. © 2014 Urbanoski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cunningham J.A.,Social and Epidemiological Research
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2012

Background: Alcohol problems are a serious public health concern, and few problem drinkers ever seek treatment. The Internet is one means of promoting access to care, but more research is needed to test the best types of interventions to employ. Evaluation of Internet-based interventions that contain a variety of research-validated cognitive-behavioral tools, which have been shown to be helpful to those with more severe alcohol concerns, should be a priority. Objective: To evaluate whether providing access to an extended Internet intervention for alcohol problems offers additional benefits in promoting reductions in alcohol consumption compared with a brief Internet intervention. The hypothesis for the current trial was that respondents who were provided with access to an extended Internet intervention (the Alcohol Help Center [AHC]) would display significantly improved drinking outcomes at 6-month follow-up, compared with respondents who were provided with access to a brief Internet intervention (the Check Your Drinking [CYD] screener). Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. A general population sample of problem drinkers was recruited through newspaper advertisements in a large metropolitan city. Baseline and follow-up data were collected by postal mail. Results: A volunteer sample of problem drinkers of legal drinking age with home access to the Internet were recruited for the trial. Of 239 potential respondents recruited in 2010, 170 met inclusion criteria (average age 45 years; 101/170, 59.4% male; average Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] score of 22). Follow-up rates were 90.0% (153/170) with no adverse effects of the interventions reported. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance of the outcome measures using an intent-to-treat approach found a significantly greater reduction in amount of drinking among participants provided access to the AHC than among participants provided access to the CYD (P = .046). Conclusions: The provision of the AHC gave additional benefit in the short term to problem drinkers over that seen from the research-validated CYD, indicating the benefits of promoting access to these interventions as one means of helping people with problem drinking concerns.


Tanaka M.,McMaster University | Wekerle C.,McMaster University | Schmuck M.L.,McMaster University | Paglia-Boak A.,Social and Epidemiological Research
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2011

Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion - a concept of positive acceptance of self. While not applied previously to a child welfare sample, self-compassion may be of value in understanding impairment among maltreatment victims. This may be most pertinent in adolescence and young adulthood, when self-identity is a focal developmental process. Methods: The present sample was drawn from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study, which followed randomly selected adolescents receiving child protection services across two years within an urban catchment area. Child maltreatment was assessed at baseline using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein et al., 1994, 2003). Mental health, substance and alcohol use problems, suicide attempt, and self-compassion were assessed at the two-year follow-up point. There were 117 youths, aged 16-20 years (45.3% males) who completed the self-compassion scale (Neff, 2003). Bivariate correlations were computed between adolescent self-compassion and each form of self-reported maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). Finally, hierarchical, stepwise regression was used to examine unique contributions of child maltreatment subtypes in predicting adolescent self-compassion, as well as maltreatment-related impairment. Results: Higher childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical abuse were associated with lower self-compassion. Controlling for age and gender, emotional abuse was significantly associated with reduced self-compassion, even when the effects of emotional neglect and physical abuse were taken into account. Youths with low self-compassion were more likely to have psychological distress, problem alcohol use, and report a serious suicide attempt, as compared with those with high self-compassion. A number of maltreatment-related areas of impairment, identified by screening instruments, were significantly associated with lower self-compassion. Conclusion: Self-compassion may be a fruitful aspect of research to pursue in an effort to better understand the impact of childhood emotional abuse on adolescent functioning, particularly considering the under-researched group of those receiving child protective services. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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