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Baumgartner J.N.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Burns J.K.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background: Social inclusion is increasingly recognized as a key outcome for evaluating global mental health programmes and interventions. Whereas social inclusion as an outcome is not a new concept in the field of mental health, its measurement has been hampered by varying definitions, concepts and instruments. To move the field forward, this paper reviews the currently available instrumentswhich measure social inclusion and are reported in the literature, realizing that no single measure will be appropriate for all studies or contexts.Methods: A systematic literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles published through February 2013 was undertaken to identify scales specifically developed to measure social inclusion or social/community integration among populations with mental disorders.Results: Five instruments were identified through the search criteria. The scales are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinnings, domains and/or key items and their potential for use in global settings. Whereas numerous reviewed abstracts discussed mental health and social inclusion or social integration, very few were concerned with direct measurement of the construct. All identified scales were developed in high-income countries with limited attention paid to how the scale could be adapted for cross-cultural use.Conclusions: Social inclusion is increasingly highlighted as a key outcome for global mental health policies and programmes, yet its measurement is underdeveloped. There is need for a global cross-cultural measure that has been developed and tested in diverse settings. However, until that need is met, some of the scales presented here may be amenable to adaptation. © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

L'Engle K.L.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Mwarogo P.,FHI 360 | Kingola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Sinkele W.,Support for Addiction Prevention and Treatment in Africa SAPTA | Weiner D.H.,Biostatistics
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objective: We assessed whether a brief alcohol intervention would lead to reduced alcohol use and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence and related sexual risk behaviors among moderate drinking female sex workers. Methods: A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted with 818 female sex workers affiliated with the AIDS, Population, Health, and Integrated Assistance II project in Mombasa, Kenya. Eligible women were hazardous or harmful drinkers who scored between 7 and 19 (full range, 1-40) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Intervention participants received 6 counseling sessions approximately monthly. The equal-attention control group received 6 nutrition sessions. Participants were followed for 6 and 12 months after the intervention, with at least 86% retention at both time points. We used general linear models in intention-to-treat analyses, adjusting for recruitment setting and HIV status at enrollment. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in alcohol use and binge drinking at 6 and 12 months, with intervention participants reporting less than one third of the odds of higher levels of drinking than the control group. The intervention did not impact laboratory-confirmed STI/HIV incidence, self-reported condom use, or sexual violence from nonpaying partners. However, the odds of reporting sexual violence from clients was significantly lower among intervention than control participants at both 6 and 12 months. Conclusions: We found that a brief alcohol intervention can reduce self-reported alcohol consumption among a nondependent and non-treatment-seeking population most at risk for HIV. More attention is needed to understand the pathway from drinking to sexual behavior and STI/HIV acquisition. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Corneli A.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Wang M.,Quantitative science | Agot K.,Impact Research and Development Organization | Ahmed K.,Setshaba Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Background: FEM-PrEP was unable to demonstrate the effectiveness of oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention because of low adherence. We hypothesized that one reason for the poor adherence was low perceived HIV risk. Methods: At enrollment and at quarterly follow-up visits, we assessed participants' perceived HIV risk for the subsequent 4 weeks. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with some (small, moderate, or high) perceived HIV risk. We also used logistic regression with robust variance estimation to assess the association between risk perceptions (none versus some) reported at enrollment and at weeks 12, 24, and 36 and good adherence based on drug concentrations of plasma tenofovir and intracellular tenofovir diphosphate in specimens collected 4 weeks later (at weeks 4, 16, 28, and 40) among 150 randomly selected participants assigned FTC/TDF. Results: Multiple factors were statistically associated with having some perceived risk, including having sex without a condom, having multiple partners, and not knowing if a partner has HIV. We observed a significant association between having some risk perception and good adherence (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 3.5; P = 0.016). Conclusions: Data suggest that participants are likely knowledgeable about factors that increase their HIV risk. Perceived risk seemed to have influenced some participants' decisions to adhere to the study pill within the context of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Future research can explore the role of risk perception in the uptake of and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis, now that FTC/TDF has been shown efficacious. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Denison J.A.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Dennis A.C.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Packer C.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Stalter R.M.,Social and Behavioral Health science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015

Introduction: Worldwide, HIV-related mortality among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012 and is attributed in part to a lack of support for adolescent retention to care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This vulnerability reinforces the need to better understand incomplete ART adherence among ALHIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's 2.1 million ALHIV reside. Methods: From December 2011 to February 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 32 ALHIV (aged 15 to 18) and 23 of their adult caregivers in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. Interviews were transcribed and translated. An iterative qualitative process was used to code and analyze the data and main themes were summarized regarding the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence. Results: More than a quarter of ALHIV reported missing a day or more of ART (ranging from one day to six months). Barriers to ART adherence included fear of disclosure and anticipated stigma. Few youth were willing to take their drugs outside of the home, which led to missed doses of ART. Similarly, families tended to manage HIV within the home only. As a result, although caregivers and families were often the greatest source of emotional and instrumental support, they coped with HIV in isolation of other potential support from their communities, schools or churches. Factors that supported ART adherence included attending clinicsponsored youth groups, wanting to maintain one's health and using phone and clock alarms. Involvement of adult caregivers in HIV management varied greatly and was often based on the age and health status of the youth. Some caregivers struggled with letting the adolescents assume responsibility for their medication, and ALHIV had few self-management skills and tools to help them regularly take ART. Conclusions: These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to ART among ALHIV. Skill-building and family-based interventions to prepare ALHIV and their adult caregivers for HIV self-management and HIV status disclosure by youth are of paramount importance. Future research and programmes also need to address the fears adolescents and families have regarding HIV-related stigma that shape young peoples' adherence behaviours. Copyright: © 2015 Denison JA et al.

Lanham M.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Wilcher R.,Research Utilization | Montgomery E.T.,Rti International | Pool R.,University of Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

Introduction: Constructively engaging male partners in women-centred health programs such as family planning and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission has resulted in both improved health outcomes and stronger relationships. Concerted efforts to engage men in microbicide use could make it easier for women to access and use microbicides in the future.This paper synthesizes findings from studies that investigated men's role in their partners' microbicide use during clinical trials to inform recommendations for male engagement in women's microbicide use.Methods: We conducted primary and secondary analyses of data from six qualitative studies implemented in conjunction with microbicide clinical trials in South Africa, Kenya, and Tanzania. The analyses included data from 535 interviews and 107 focus groups with trial participants, male partners, and community members to answer research questions on partner communication about microbicides, men's role in women's microbicide use, and potential strategies for engaging men in future microbicide introduction. We synthesized the findings across the studies and developed recommendations.Results: The majority of women in steady partnerships wanted agreement from their partners to use microbicides. Women used various strategies to obtain their agreement, including using the product for a while before telling their partners, giving men information gradually, and continuing to bring up microbicides until resistant partners acquiesced. Among men who were aware their partners were participating in a trial and using microbicides, involvement ranged from opposition to agreement/noninterference to active support. Both men and women expressed a desire for men to have access to information about microbicides and to be able to talk with a healthcare provider about microbicides.Conclusions: We recommend counselling women on whether and how to involve their partners including strategies for gaining partner approval; providing couples' counselling on microbicides so men have the opportunity to talk with providers; and targeting men with community education and mass media to increase their awareness and acceptance of microbicides. These strategies should be tested in microbicide trials, open-label studies, and demonstration projects to identify effective male engagement approaches to include in eventual microbicide introduction. Efforts to engage men must take care not to diminish women's agency to decide whether to use the product and inform their partners. Copyright: © 2014 Lanham M et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

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