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PubMed | Social and King's College London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Social cognitive and affective neuroscience | Year: 2016

Individual differences in cognitive ability and social behaviour are influenced by the variability in the structure and function of the limbic system. A strong heritability of the limbic cortex has been previously reported, but little is known about how genetic factors influence specific limbic networks. We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate heritability of different limbic tracts in 52 monozygotic and 34 dizygotic healthy adult twins. We explored the connections that contribute to the activity of three distinct functional limbic networks, namely the dorsal cingulum (medial default-mode network), the ventral cingulum and the fornix (hippocampal-diencephalic-retrosplenial network) and the uncinate fasciculus (temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network). Genetic and environmental variances were mapped for multiple tract-specific measures that reflect different aspects of the underlying anatomy. We report the highest heritability for the uncinate fasciculus, a tract that underpins emotion processing, semantic cognition, and social behaviour. High to moderate genetic and shared environmental effects were found for pathways important for social behaviour and memory, for example, fornix, dorsal and ventral cingulum. These findings indicate that within the limbic system inheritance of specific traits may rely on the anatomy of distinct networks and is higher for fronto-temporal pathways dedicated to complex social behaviour and emotional processing.


Fullerton D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Monti H.,Social
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2013

Pollution taxes are believed to burden low-income households that spend a greater than average share of income on pollution-intensive goods. Some proposals offset that effect by returning revenue to low-income workers via reduced labor tax. We build analytical general equilibrium models with both high-skilled and low-skilled labor, and we solve for the change in real net wage of each group. Decomposition shows the separate effects of the tax rebate, higher product prices, and the changes in relative wage rates. We also include numerical examples. Even though the pollution tax injures both types of labor, in most cases we find that returning all of the revenue to low-skilled workers is still not enough to offset higher product prices. Changes in relative wage rates may further hurt low-skilled labor. Protecting low-income workers is possible in this model only if they are defined as those below a relatively low wage threshold, but we discuss many possible elaborations of this model that could affect those results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Hoagland P.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Beaulieu S.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Tivey M.A.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Eggert R.G.,Colorado School of Mines | And 3 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

The potential emergence of an ocean mining industry to exploit seafloor massive sulfides could present opportunities for oceanographic science to facilitate seafloor mineral development in ways that lessen environmental harms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dalzell L.P.,Social | Tangka F.K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Powers D.S.,Social | O'Hara B.J.,Social | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2015

Objective: To provide information on the sources of data for estimating low-income, uninsured populations. To recommend uses of these data sources. To demonstrate the application of these data sources in the public health field, using the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program as an example. Methods: We describe U.S. Census Bureau data sources for identifying low-income, uninsured populations using two population surveys: the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC) and the American Community Survey (ACS), and using one model-based estimation program, the Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE). We provide recommendations for use of these data sources, and we use CPS ASEC and SAHIE to estimate the percent of U.S. women eligible for the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Results: CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE are produced by the U.S. Census Bureau, and they are reliable sources for estimates of the low-income, uninsured populations in the USA. Key characteristics of these three data sources were presented to highlight the strengths of each to meet the needs of various programs at national and local levels. Recommendations are made on the use of the data sources. Based on these three data sources, estimates of NBCCEDP eligibility showed substantial variation over time at the national and state levels, and across states and counties. Conclusions: Publicly funded programs that are directed toward low-income, uninsured individuals require information on their eligible populations to make decisions about program policy and resource allocation, and to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. The U.S. Census Bureau produces three data sources (CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE) for these estimates. The percent of U.S. women eligible for NBCCEDP varies over time and across states and counties. The data sources for these estimates are changing in order to measure key dimensions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and can provide helpful information for assessing the legislation’s impact. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA).


Tangka F.K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Howard D.H.,Emory University | Royalty J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dalzell L.P.,Social | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2015

Objective: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screens to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. We describe the number and proportion of women eligible for cervical cancer screening services and the proportion of eligible women screened over the period 1997–2012. Methods: Low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women aged 18–64 years who have not had a hysterectomy are eligible for cervical cancer screening through the NBCCEDP. We estimated the number of low-income, uninsured women using data from the US Census Bureau. We adjusted our estimates for hysterectomy status using the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used data from the NBCCEDP to describe the number of women receiving NBCCEDP-funded screening and calculated the proportion of eligible women who received screening through the NBCCEDP at the national level (by age group, race/ethnicity) and at the state level by age group. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the proportion of NBCCEDP-eligible women who were screened outside the NBCCEDP and the proportion that are not screened. Results: We estimate that in 2010–2012, 705,970 women aged 18–64 years, 6.5 % (705,970 of 9.8 million) of the eligible population, received NBCCEDP-funded Pap tests. We estimate that 60.2 % of eligible women aged 18–64 years were screened outside the NBCCEDP and 33.3 % were not screened. The NBCCEDP provided 623,603 screens to women aged 40–64 years, an estimated 16.5 % of the eligible population, and 83,660 screens to women aged 18–39 years, representing an estimated 1.2 % of the eligible population. The estimated proportions of eligible women screened in each state ranged from 1.5 to 32.7 % and 5 % to 73.2 % among the 18–64 and 40–64 years age groups, respectively. Changes in the proportion of eligible women screened over the study period were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Although the program provided cervical screening to over 700,000 women between 2010 and 2012, it served a small percent of those eligible. The proportion of women screened varied substantially across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and states. Many low-income, uninsured women are not being screened. © 2015, The Author(s).


Howard D.H.,Emory University | Tangka F.K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Royalty J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dalzell L.P.,Social | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe the number and proportion of eligible women receiving mammograms funded by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Methods: Low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women aged 40–64 are eligible for mammography screening through the NBCCEDP. We used data from the NBCCEDP, the Current Population Survey, and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to describe the number and proportion of women screened by the NBCCEDP and overall. Results: In 2011 and 2012, the NBCCEDP screened 549,043 women aged 40–64, an estimated 10.6 % (90 % confidence interval [CI] 10.4–10.9 %) of the eligible population. We estimate that 30.6 % (90 % CI 26.4–34.8 %) of eligible women aged 40–64 were screened outside the NBCCEDP, and 58.8 % (90 % CI 54.6–63.0 %) were not screened. The proportion of eligible women screened by the NBCCEDP varied across states, with an estimated range of 3.2 % (90 % CI 2.9–3.5 %) to 52.8 % (90 % CI 36.1–69.6 %) and a median of 13.7 % (90 % CI 11.0–16.4 %). The estimated proportion of eligible women aged 40–64 who received mammograms through the NBCCEDP was relatively constant over time, 11.1 % (90 % CI 10.2–11.9 %) in 1998–1999 and 10.6 % (90 % CI 10.4–11.9 %) in 2011–2012 (p = 0.23), even as the number of women screened increased from 343,692 to 549,043. Conclusions: Although the NBCCEDP provided screening services to over a half million low-income uninsured women for mammography, it served a small percentage of those eligible. The majority of low-income, uninsured women were not screened. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, University of Maryland University College and Social
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health services research | Year: 2016

Examine measurement error to public health insurance in the American Community Survey (ACS).The ACS and the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS).We tabulated the two data sources separately and then merged the data and examined health insurance reports among ACS cases known to be enrolled in Medicaid or expansion Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits.The two data sources were merged using protected identification keys. ACS respondents were considered enrolled if they had full benefit Medicaid or expansion CHIP coverage on the date of interview.On an aggregated basis, the ACS overcounts the MSIS. After merging the data, we estimate a false-negative rate in the 2009 ACS of 21.6 percent. The false-negative rate varies across states, demographic groups, and year. Of known Medicaid and expansion CHIP enrollees, 12.5 percent were coded to some other coverage and 9.1 percent were coded as uninsured.The false-negative rate in the ACS is on par with other federal surveys. However, unlike other surveys, the ACS overcounts the MSIS on an aggregated basis. Future work is needed to disentangle the causes of the ACS overcount.


Beckhusen J.,Social | Florax R.J.G.M.,Purdue University | De Graaff T.,Tinbergen Institute | Poot J.,VU University Amsterdam | Waldorf B.,University of Waikato
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2013

We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is generally inversely related to English language proficiency of immigrants, except for skilled Chinese immigrants. Allowing for occupational fixed effects, the minority population share at the place of work is relevant for proficiency in English among skilled Chinese, but not for Mexicans and unskilled Chinese. We also find that the presence of English-speaking adults in the household increases the probability of immigrants' proficiency in English. © 2013 The Author(s). Papers in Regional Science © 2013 RSAI.


Short K.S.,Social
Academic Pediatrics | Year: 2016

This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. © Published by Elsevier Inc.


To provide information on the sources of data for estimating low-income, uninsured populations. To recommend uses of these data sources. To demonstrate the application of these data sources in the public health field, using the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program as an example.We describe U.S. Census Bureau data sources for identifying low-income, uninsured populations using two population surveys: the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC) and the American Community Survey (ACS), and using one model-based estimation program, the Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE). We provide recommendations for use of these data sources, and we use CPS ASEC and SAHIE to estimate the percent of U.S. women eligible for the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP).CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE are produced by the U.S. Census Bureau, and they are reliable sources for estimates of the low-income, uninsured populations in the USA. Key characteristics of these three data sources were presented to highlight the strengths of each to meet the needs of various programs at national and local levels. Recommendations are made on the use of the data sources. Based on these three data sources, estimates of NBCCEDP eligibility showed substantial variation over time at the national and state levels, and across states and counties.Publicly funded programs that are directed toward low-income, uninsured individuals require information on their eligible populations to make decisions about program policy and resource allocation, and to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. The U.S. Census Bureau produces three data sources (CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE) for these estimates. The percent of U.S. women eligible for NBCCEDP varies over time and across states and counties. The data sources for these estimates are changing in order to measure key dimensions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and can provide helpful information for assessing the legislations impact.

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