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Boudreaux M.H.,University of Maryland College Park | Call K.T.,University of Minnesota | Turner J.,University of Minnesota | Fried B.,University of Minnesota | O'Hara B.,Social
Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Objective Examine measurement error to public health insurance in the American Community Survey (ACS). Data Sources/Study Setting The ACS and the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS). Study Design We tabulated the two data sources separately and then merged the data and examined health insurance reports among ACS cases known to be enrolled in Medicaid or expansion Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The two data sources were merged using protected identification keys. ACS respondents were considered enrolled if they had full benefit Medicaid or expansion CHIP coverage on the date of interview. Principal Findings On an aggregated basis, the ACS overcounts the MSIS. After merging the data, we estimate a false-negative rate in the 2009 ACS of 21.6 percent. The false-negative rate varies across states, demographic groups, and year. Of known Medicaid and expansion CHIP enrollees, 12.5 percent were coded to some other coverage and 9.1 percent were coded as uninsured. Conclusions The false-negative rate in the ACS is on par with other federal surveys. However, unlike other surveys, the ACS overcounts the MSIS on an aggregated basis. Future work is needed to disentangle the causes of the ACS overcount. © Health Research and Educational Trust. Source


Short K.S.,Social
Academic Pediatrics | Year: 2016

This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. © Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Background: This article reports quantitative results from a pilot study in primary care (PC) undertaken from 2004-2007. The intervention programme, derived from movement psychotherapy, was termed 'Learning groups: the BodyMind approach (BMA),' and emphasised a verbal and non-verbal integrated model, awareness of the inter-relationship between body and mind and a self-managing framework. Aim: To evaluate systematically the outcomes of a 12-week group BMA intervention programme with patients suffering from anxiety/depression with at least one chronic (over two years) medically unexplained symptom (MUS), another term for a psychosomatic condition or somatoform disorder. Method: A mixed method was applied to a single-case design. Outcome measures completed at baseline, mid-, post-intervention and threemonth follow-up were the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) and the Counselling Outcome Routine Evaluation (CORE). Results: Increased activity levels and well-being; more effective coping/functioning strategies; reduction in anxiety/depression, GP-consultation and medication usage, and symptom distress. All changes were maintained at threemonth follow-up. © 2010 British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. Source


Fullerton D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Monti H.,Social
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2013

Pollution taxes are believed to burden low-income households that spend a greater than average share of income on pollution-intensive goods. Some proposals offset that effect by returning revenue to low-income workers via reduced labor tax. We build analytical general equilibrium models with both high-skilled and low-skilled labor, and we solve for the change in real net wage of each group. Decomposition shows the separate effects of the tax rebate, higher product prices, and the changes in relative wage rates. We also include numerical examples. Even though the pollution tax injures both types of labor, in most cases we find that returning all of the revenue to low-skilled workers is still not enough to offset higher product prices. Changes in relative wage rates may further hurt low-skilled labor. Protecting low-income workers is possible in this model only if they are defined as those below a relatively low wage threshold, but we discuss many possible elaborations of this model that could affect those results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Beckhusen J.,Social | Florax R.J.G.M.,Purdue University | De Graaff T.,Tinbergen Institute | Poot J.,VU University Amsterdam | Waldorf B.,University of Waikato
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2013

We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is generally inversely related to English language proficiency of immigrants, except for skilled Chinese immigrants. Allowing for occupational fixed effects, the minority population share at the place of work is relevant for proficiency in English among skilled Chinese, but not for Mexicans and unskilled Chinese. We also find that the presence of English-speaking adults in the household increases the probability of immigrants' proficiency in English. © 2013 The Author(s). Papers in Regional Science © 2013 RSAI. Source

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