Osaka, Japan
Osaka, Japan

Soai University is a private university in the city of Osaka, Japan. It was established in 1888, initially as a women's university. Famous people with ties to Soai include alumni Hideo Ishikawa, Haruko Okamoto, Mihoko Shuku, and Yasuhito Sugiyama. Wikipedia.

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PubMed | University of Electro - Communications and Soai University
Type: | Journal: Consciousness and cognition | Year: 2016

Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers gaze shifts.

Munetsuna E.,Boston University | Nakabayashi S.,Boston University | Kawanami R.,Boston University | Yasuda K.,Boston University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2011

According to the prevailing paradigm, 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3) and its analogs is a prerequisite step for their biological effects. We previously reported that 25-hydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D 3 (25(OH)-19-nor-D 3) had anti-proliferative activity in a cell line, PZ-HPV-7, which was derived from human non-cancerous prostate tissue, and suggested that 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 acted after 1α-hydroxylation by vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). However, metabolic studies of 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 using recombinant CYP27B1 revealed that 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 was rarely subjected to 1a-hydroxylation. Therefore, in this report, we attempted to clarify the mechanism of 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 action in intact cells using PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells. After incubating the cells with 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3, eight metabolites of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were detected, whereas no products of CYP27B1 including 1α,25-dihydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH) 2-19-nor-D 3) were found. Furthermore, the time-dependent nuclear translocation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the subsequent transactivation of cyp24A1 gene in the presence of 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 were almost identical as those induced by 1a,25(OH) 2-19-nor-D 3. These results strongly suggest that 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 directly binds to VDR as a ligand and transports VDR into the nucleus to induce transcription of cyp24A1 gene. In addition, knock down of cyp27B1 gene did not affect the anti-proliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3, whereas knock down of VDR attenuated the inhibitory effect. Thus, our results clearly demonstrate that the anti-proliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 is VDR dependent but 1α-hydroxylation independent, suggesting that 25(OH)D 3 analogs such as 25(OH)-19-nor-D 3 could be attractive candidates for anticancer therapy. © 2011 Society for Endocrinology.

Fujiwara N.,Osaka City University | Naka T.,Osaka City University | Naka T.,MBR Co. | Ogawa M.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | And 4 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2012

Mycobacterium smegmatis is a rapidly growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium, and M. smegmatis strain mc 2155 in particular has been used as a tool for molecular analysis of mycobacteria because of its high rate of transformation. We examined another strain, M. smegmatis J15cs, which has the advantage of surviving for six days in murine macrophages. The J15cs strain produces a rough dry colony, and we hypothesized that the long survival of the J15cs strain was correlated with its cell wall components. Therefore, the lipid compositions of these two strains were compared. The subclasses and carbon species of the mycolic acids were very similar, and the major glycolipids and phospholipids were expressed in both strains. However, apolar glycopeptidolipids were deleted only in the J15cs strain. The presence of apolar glycopeptidolipids gives the cell wall a different structure. Moreover, the apolar glycopeptidolipids were recognized by macrophages via toll-like receptor 2, but not 4. We concluded that the absence of apolar glycopeptidolipids is a definitive feature of the J15cs strain, and affects its morphology and survival in host cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Endo-Umeda K.,Nihon University | Yasuda K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Sugita K.,University of Tokyo | Honda A.,Tokyo Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is a common precursor of vitamin D3 and cholesterol. Although various oxysterols, oxygenated cholesterol derivatives, have been implicated in cellular signaling pathways, 7-DHC metabolism and potential functions of its metabolites remain poorly understood. We examined 7-DHC metabolism by various P450 enzymes and detected three metabolites produced by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Two were further identified as 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC. These 7-DHC metabolites were detected in serum of a patient with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 25-hydroxy-7-DHC activates liver X receptor (LXR) α, LXRβ and vitamin D receptor and that 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induces activation of LXRα and LXRβ, although the activities of both compounds on LXRs were weak. In a mammalian two-hybrid assay, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induced interaction between LXRα and a coactivator fragment less efficiently than a natural LXR agonist, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. These 7-DHC metabolites did not oppose agonist-induced LXR activation and interacted directly to LXRα in a manner distinct from a potent agonist. These findings indicate that the 7-DHC metabolites are partial LXR activators. Interestingly, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC suppressed mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, an LXR target gene, in HepG2 cells and HaCaT cells, while they weakly increased mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, another LXR target, in HaCaT cells. Thus, 7-DHC is catabolized by CYP27A1 to metabolites that act as selective LXR modulators. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yasuda K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Ikushiro S.,Toyama Prefectural University | Kamakura M.,Toyama Prefectural University | Takano M.,Teikyo University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Our previous studies revealed that C2α-substituted-1α,25(OH) 2D3 analogs had unique biological activities. For example, 19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), which has a high affinity for vitamin D receptor (VDR), is more bioavailable and more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting cancer cell growth and invasion because of its weaker binding to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and more resistance to CYP24A1-dependent metabolism. In this study, we examined the metabolism of MART-10 and two other 2α-substituted analogs, 2α-(3-hydroxypropoxy)-1α,25(OH) 2D3 (O2C3) and 2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH) 2D3 (O1C3) by using human liver microsomes and human P450s. We demonstrated that O2C3 was converted to 1α,2α,25(OH) 3D3 in human liver microsomes, whereas both O1C3 and MART-10 were hardly metabolized. The metabolism of O2C3 was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole, and the recombinant human CYP3A4 converted O2C3 to 1α,2α,25(OH)3D3, which suggests that CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of O2C3 in human liver. The k cat/Km values of CYP3A4 for O1C3 and MART-10 are much smaller than that for O2C3. The kcat/Km values of human CYP24A1 for the three analogs are 1% (MART-10), 3% (O2C3), and 4% (O1C3) of that for 1α,25(OH)2D3, indicating that MART-10 is the most resistant to CYP24A1 hydroxylation. On the other hand, 1α,2α, 25(OH)3D3, the metabolite of O2C3 by CYP3A4, was metabolized by CYP24A1 via multiple pathways similar to 1α,25(OH) 2D3, which suggests that O2C3 can be metabolized by two sequential hydroxylations, first by CYP3A4 and then by CYP24A1 in human body. These results suggest that modification at C-2α position and C-19 demethylenation markedly change metabolic profiles and biological activities of vitamin D analogs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yasuda K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Endo M.,Toyama Prefectural University | Ikushiro S.,Toyama Prefectural University | Kamakura M.,Toyama Prefectural University | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

CYP2R1 is known to be a physiologically important vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. We have successfully expressed human CYP2R1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reveal its enzymatic properties. In this study, we examined production of 25-hydroxylated vitamin D using whole recombinant yeast cells that expressed CYP2R1. When vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 was added to the cell suspension of CYP2R1-expressing yeast cells in a buffer containing glucose and β-cyclodextrin, the vitamins were converted into their 25-hydroxylated products. Next, we irradiated the cell suspension with UVB and incubated at 37°C. Surprisingly, the 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 was produced without additional vitamin D2. Endogenous ergosterol was likely converted into vitamin D2 by UV irradiation and thermal isomerization, and then the resulting vitamin D2 was converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 by CYP2R1. This novel method for producing 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 without a substrate could be useful for practical purposes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | Kansai University, Soai University, Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Senri Kinran University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2015

Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), members of the 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, are proposed to be important suppressors of gluconeogenic programs in the liver via the phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of the CREB-specific coactivator CRTC2. Although a dramatic phenotype for glucose metabolism has been found in SIK3-KO mice, additional complex phenotypes, dysregulation of bile acids, cholesterol, and fat homeostasis can render it difficult to discuss the hepatic functions of SIK3. The aim of this study was to examine the cell autonomous actions of SIK3 in hepatocytes. To eliminate systemic effects, we prepared primary hepatocytes and screened the small compounds suppressing SIK3 signaling cascades. SIK3-KO primary hepatocytes produced glucose more quickly after treatment with the cAMP agonist forskolin than the WT hepatocytes, which was accompanied by enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression and CRTC2 dephosphorylation. Reporter-based screening identified pterosin B as a SIK3 signaling-specific inhibitor. Pterosin B suppressed SIK3 downstream cascades by up-regulating the phosphorylation levels in the SIK3 C-terminal regulatory domain. When pterosin B promoted glucose production by up-regulating gluconeogenic gene expression in mouse hepatoma AML-12 cells, it decreased the glycogen content and stimulated an association between the glycogen phosphorylase kinase gamma subunit (PHKG2) and SIK3. PHKG2 phosphorylated the peptides with sequences of the C-terminal domain of SIK3. Here we found that the levels of active AMPK were higher both in the SIK3-KO hepatocytes and in pterosin B-treated AML-12 cells than in their controls. These results suggest that SIK3, rather than SIK1, SIK2, or AMPKs, acts as the predominant suppressor in gluconeogenic gene expression in the hepatocytes.

PubMed | Toyama Prefectural University and Soai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacology research & perspectives | Year: 2015

The metabolism of eldecalcitol (ED-71), a 2-hydroxypropoxylated analog of the active form of vitamin D3 was investigated by using in vitro systems. ED-71 was metabolized to 1,2,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,2,25(OH)3D3) in human small intestine and liver microsomes. To identify the enzymes involved in this metabolism, we examined NADPH-dependent metabolism by recombinant P450 isoforms belonging to the CYP1, 2, and 3 families, and revealed that CYP3A4 had the activity. However, the CYP3A4 -specific inhibitor, ketoconazole, decreased the activity in human liver microsomes by only 36%, suggesting that other enzymes could be involved in ED-71 metabolism. Because metabolism was dramatically inhibited by cyanide, we assumed that sterol C4-methyl oxidase like gene product (SC4MOL) might contribute to the metabolism of ED-71. It is noted that SC4MOL is physiologically essential for cholesterol synthesis. Recombinant human SC4MOL expressed in COS7, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Escherichia coli cells converted ED-71 to 1,2,25(OH)3D3. Furthermore, we evaluated the metabolism of ED-71 by recombinant CYP24A1, which plays an important role in the metabolism of the active form of vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and its analogs. The k cat/K m value for 24- or 23-hydroxylation of ED-71 was only 3% of that for 1,25(OH)2D3, indicating that ED-71 was resistant to CYP24A1-dependent catabolism. Among the three enzymes catalyzing ED-71, SC4MOL appears to be most important in the metabolism of ED-71. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that SC4MOL can function as a drug-metabolizing enzyme. The yeast and E. coli expression systems for SC4MOL could be useful for structure-function analyses of SC4MOL.

Kawase S.,Soai University
Ecological Psychology | Year: 2014

This study investigated modulation of gaze and synchronization in piano duos under manipulation of the leader-follower relationship. Three pairs of pianists played under 3 conditions: reversed leader/follower roles and one where neither was leader or follower. The primo and second players could see one another through a glass window but could hear only the sounds of the pianos. We analyzed each performer's gaze toward the coperformer frame by frame and measured asynchrony between performers. The main findings are that (a) gaze was altered in the presence of leadership assignments-followers' and leaders' gaze durations lengthened and shortened, respectively; (b) mutual gaze just before tempo changes enhanced synchronization regardless of leadership condition; and (c) the asynchronies of tone onset at the moment of a tempo change under the leader/follower conditions did not significantly differ from that under the control condition. Copyright Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Toyama Prefectural University, Kyoto University and Soai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2016

Our previous studies revealed that the double variants of CYP105A1- R73A/R84A and R73V/R84A-show high levels of activity with respect to conversion of vitamin D3 to its biologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). In this study, we found that both the double variants were also capable of converting vitamin D2 to its active form, that is, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2), via 25(OH)D2, whereas its 1-hydroxylation activity toward 25(OH)D2 was much lower than that toward 25(OH)D3. Comparison of the wild type and the double variants revealed that the amino acid substitutions remarkably enhanced both 25- and 26-hydroxylation activity toward vitamin D2. After 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, further hydroxylation at C26 may occur frequently without the release of 25(OH)D2 from the substrate-binding pocket. Thus, the double variants of CYP105A1 are quite useful to produce 25,26(OH)2D2 that is one of the metabolites of vitamin D2 detected in human serum.

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