Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases

Snyder, Canada

Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases

Snyder, Canada

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Semple H.A.,Alberta Innovates Technology Futures | Sloley B.D.,Phytovox Inc. | Cabanillas J.,Sabell Corporation | Chiu A.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: The purpose of these studies was to determine the safety of a botanical treatment for supporting healthy liver function developed in Peru. The formulation, A4+, contains extracts of Curcuma longa L. rhizome (A4R), Cordia lutea Lam. flower (A4F) and Annona muricata L. leaf (A4L). The tests were used to support an application for a non-traditional Natural Health Product Licence from the Natural Health Product Directorate of Health Canada and future clinical trials. Methods: Besides reviewing the scientific and clinical information from Peru on the ingredients and conducting an initial Ames test for mutagenicity, we analysed A4+ for its chemical profile and tested genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and general toxicity (28-day repeated dose). Results: A4+ and extracts from the three plants provided distinctive chemical fingerprints. A4L contained acetogenins, requiring a second chromatographic method to produce a specific fingerprint. The Ames test proved positive at the highest concentration (5,000μg/mL) but A4+ showed no evidence of genotoxicity in the more specific mouse micronucleus test. The 28-day repeated dose (general toxicity) study in rats showed no toxicity at 2,000mg/kg. Conclusions: We conclude that under the conditions of these studies, A4+ shows no evidence of toxicity at the levels indicated. A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2,000mg/kg was assigned. © 2016 by De Gruyter.


Liao S.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | Liao S.,University of Calgary | Von Der Weid P.-Y.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | Von Der Weid P.-Y.,University of Calgary
Angiogenesis | Year: 2014

The lymphatic system is intimately linked to tissue fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking. These functions are paramount in the establishment and development of an inflammatory response. In the past decade, an increasing number of reports has revealed that marked changes, such as lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic contractile dysfunction occur in both vascular and nodal parts of the lymphatic system during inflammation, as well as other disease processes. This review provides a critical update on the role of the lymphatic system in disease process such as chronic inflammation and cancer and examines the changes in lymphatic functions the diseases cause and the influence these changes have on the progression of the diseases. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


De Heuvel E.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | De Heuvel E.,University of Calgary | Wallace L.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | Wallace L.,University of Calgary | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine hormone trophic for intestinal mucosa; it has been shown to increase enteric neuronal expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in vivo. We hypothesized that GLP-2 would regulate VIP expression in enteric neurons via a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-7 (PI3K7) pathway. The mechanism of action of GLP-2 was investigated using primary cultures derived from the submucosal plexus (SMP) of the rat and mouse colon. GLP-2 (10~8 M) stimulation for 24 h increased the proportion of enteric neurons expressing VIP (GLP-2: 40 ± 6% vs. control: 22 ± 5%). GLP-2 receptor expression was identified by immunohistochemistry on neurons (HuC/D +) and glial cells (GFAP +) but not on smooth muscle or fibroblasts in culture. Over 1-4 h, GLP-2 stimulation of SMP increased phosphorylated Akt/Akt ratios 6.1-fold, phosphory-lated ERK/ERK 2.5-fold, and p70S6K 2.2-fold but did not affect intracellular cAMP. PI3K7 gene deletion or pharmacological blockade of PI3K7, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and MEK/ ERK pathways blocked the increase in VIP expression by GLP-2. GLP-2 increased the expression of growth factors and their receptors in SMP cells in culture [IGF-1r (3.2-fold increase), EGFr (5-fold), and ErbB-2-4r (6- to 7-fold)] and ligands [IGF-I (1.5-fold), amphiregulin (2.5-fold), epiregulin (3.2-fold), EGF (7.5-fold), heparin-bound EGF (2.0-fold), (3-cellulin (50-fold increase), and neuregulins 2-4 (300-fold increase) (by qRT-PCR)]. We conclude that GLP-2 acts on enteric neurons and glial cells in culture via a PI3K7/Akt pathway, stimulating neuronal differentiation via mTOR and ERK pathways, and expression of receptors and ligands for the IGF-I and ErbB pathways. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Liao S.,University of Calgary | Liao S.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases | von der Weid P.Y.,University of Calgary | von der Weid P.Y.,Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which may include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Gauvreau G.M.,McMaster University | O'Byrne P.M.,McMaster University | Boulet L.-P.,Laval University | Wang Y.,Amgen Inc. | And 12 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial-cell- derived cytokine that may be important in initiating allergic inflammation. AMG 157 is a human anti-TSLP monoclonal immunoglobulin G2λ that binds human TSLP and prevents receptor interaction. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 31 patients with mild allergic asthma to receive three monthly doses of AMG 157 (700 mg) or placebo intravenously. We conducted allergen challenges on days 42 and 84 to evaluate the effect of AMG 157 in reducing the maximum percentage decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). We also measured the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air, blood and sputum eosinophils, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The primary end point was the late asthmatic response, as measured 3 to 7 hours after the allergen challenge. RESULTS: AMG 157 attenuated most measures of allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses. The maximum percentage decrease in the FEV1 during the late response was 34.0% smaller in the AMG-157 group than in the placebo group on day 42 (P = 0.09) and 45.9% smaller on day 84 (P = 0.02). In addition, patients receiving AMG 157 had significant decreases in levels of blood and sputum eosinophils before and after the allergen challenge and in the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. There were 15 adverse events in the AMG-157 group, as compared with 12 in the placebo group; there were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with AMG 157 reduced allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and indexes of airway inflammation before and after allergen challenge. These findings are consistent with a key role for TSLP in allergen-induced airway responses and persistent airway inflammation in patients with allergic asthma. Whether anti-TSLP therapeutics will have clinical value cannot be determined from these data. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.


PubMed | Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2012

Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine hormone trophic for intestinal mucosa; it has been shown to increase enteric neuronal expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in vivo. We hypothesized that GLP-2 would regulate VIP expression in enteric neurons via a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase- (PI3K) pathway. The mechanism of action of GLP-2 was investigated using primary cultures derived from the submucosal plexus (SMP) of the rat and mouse colon. GLP-2 (10(-8) M) stimulation for 24 h increased the proportion of enteric neurons expressing VIP (GLP-2: 40 6% vs. control: 22 5%). GLP-2 receptor expression was identified by immunohistochemistry on neurons (HuC/D+) and glial cells (GFAP+) but not on smooth muscle or fibroblasts in culture. Over 1-4 h, GLP-2 stimulation of SMP increased phosphorylated Akt/Akt ratios 6.1-fold, phosphorylated ERK/ERK 2.5-fold, and p70S6K 2.2-fold but did not affect intracellular cAMP. PI3K gene deletion or pharmacological blockade of PI3K, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and MEK/ERK pathways blocked the increase in VIP expression by GLP-2. GLP-2 increased the expression of growth factors and their receptors in SMP cells in culture [IGF-1r (3.2-fold increase), EGFr (5-fold), and ErbB-2-4r (6- to 7-fold)] and ligands [IGF-I (1.5-fold), amphiregulin (2.5-fold), epiregulin (3.2-fold), EGF (7.5-fold), heparin-bound EGF (2.0-fold), -cellulin (50-fold increase), and neuregulins 2-4 (300-fold increase) (by qRT-PCR)]. We conclude that GLP-2 acts on enteric neurons and glial cells in culture via a PI3K/Akt pathway, stimulating neuronal differentiation via mTOR and ERK pathways, and expression of receptors and ligands for the IGF-I and ErbB pathways.


PubMed | Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute and Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2016

The development of intravital microscopy has provided unprecedented capacity to study the tumor microenvironment in live mice. The dynamic behavior of cancer, stromal, vascular, and immune cells can be monitored in real time, in situ, in both primary tumors and metastatic lesions, allowing treatment responses to be observed at single cell resolution and therapies tracked in vivo. These features provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying the biology and treatment of cancer. We describe here a method for imaging the microenvironment of subcutaneous tumors grown in mice using intravital microscopy.

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